Grounded theory Making discoveries throughout the analysis of dataTaken from «Constructing Grounded Theory» Kathy Charmaz (2007)
What is true about GT?• It requires us to ask analytic questions• You start this process as soon as you finish collecting data• GT is a systematic methodology that involves the generation of theory from data• In GT you, first, code the data; then, you group the information into concepts and finally, theory emerge.
Research Methodology A systematic & To build theory rigorous processEthonography & case Give credibility and studies reliability Simoultaneous data collection and analysis
It is synthesizing hundreds of pages of int, Fn, doc to develop grounded theory. Grounded Theory Is the constant Analysis of the Data.Consist of 4 stages• Compare incidents (tentive catg)• Comparing Changes (integrating)• DelImitation of the theory (reducing similar)• Forming Systematic substative theory (reasonable accurate statement
PHASES Concepts Theory• Initial • Formed• Focused • Grouping out of • Findings codes concepts Coding Categories
Coding• Naming segments of data to categorize, summarize and account for data• Generates the bones of your analysis• Basis to build the analysis• Make your codes fit your data rather than forcing your data to fit them
TIPS FOR CODING• Remain open• Stay close to the data• Keep your codes simple and precise• Construct short codes• Preserve actions• Compare data with data• Move quickly through the data
Cycles in coding • Naming words, lines, segments, incidents Initial • Provisional • Identify gaps in data collection • In Vivo codes • Use of frequent codes to sort, synthesize, integrate and organizeFocused data • Comparing data from different methods
Coding for what is happening Identifying aSo part of it has been good because positiveI can see that Im not the only one Recognizing otherthat has good days and bad days, people’s goodeverybody does. and bad days Qualifying their goodThey might not be physical, as and bad daysmuch as psychological, but Viewing good andeverybody has kind of good days bad days asand bad days, as moods and things universaltoo.
Initial coding practicesWord by word Line by line Incident by incident
Which questions do grounded theorists use when coding data?• What is happening? (Glaser, 1978)• What theoretical category does this datum indicate? (Glaser, 1978)• What does the data suggest? Pronounce?• From whose point of view?
CODING AND CATEGORIES in the diagnostic stage CODING CATEGORIESLack of listening SKILLSOral production reading & writing SKILLSSs attendance ATTITUDERelationship ATTITUDEImprove my teaching STRATEGIESLearning strategies & writing STRATEGIESMistakes GRAMMARLack of grammar GRAMMARverb agreement GRAMMARUse of the language COMPETENCESUse of the language COMPETENCES
Categories and codes for the implementation stage sub categoriesTeachers’ perceptions about how students view of English classss feelings with each other and the teacher Rapport Negative Reaction about thelack of motivation languagess negative reactions to the languagelack of commitment led to bad performance commitmentss commitment caused good resultsTeachers desire for improvementteachers desire for self-improvement improvementteachers desire to improve their classesreflect on becoming updated ReflectTeachers reflecting about ss needsreflect on ss profileteachers development of autonomy in ss developmentTeachers strategies to improve ss weaknesses strategiesTeachers perspectives about course orientationsteachers focused on specific skill (s) Skillsteacher had communicative focus communicationteachers perspectives about the courseTeachers´ objectives do not match course objectives
INTERPRETATIONGRAMMARIt refers to the order of the words within a sentence.Teachers mentioned that students needed to improve in accuracySAMPLEK EQ2Students had some mistakes during the activities in written exercisesC EQ3Ss present problems when working with Passive/clauses/P. perfectC EQ2They had terrible bases. No grammar, nothingINTERTREPATIONThe data suggest that teachers are still focusing on grammar and theimportance of accuracy when teaching or using a skill.Teachers never mentioned that due to the fact that learners showed problemswith grammar that they were not able to convey feeling or thoughts. However,this comes to show us that teachers are still not aware that the Institutionimplements the communicative approach.
Problems while coding• Coding at too general a level• Identifying topics instead of actions and processes• Overlooking how people construct actions• Attending to disciplinary or personal rather than participants’ concerns• Coding out of context• Using codes to summarize not to analyze