First Lesson


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First Lesson

  1. 2. How much do you know? <ul><li>How are sounds produced? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are some of the organs involved to produce speech? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important to know how sounds are articulated? </li></ul><ul><li>How are sounds classified? </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Speech results from a complex interaction between several systems in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain, the sense of hearing, the lungs, larynx, vocal tract, and tongue all work together to produce the sounds of the English language. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Why is important to know how sounds are articulated? <ul><li>Understanding the process and anatomy of speech can assist teachers in teaching ELL learners. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Sounds can be voiced or voiceless. </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced sounds require vibration of the muscles in the larynx that form the vocal bands. </li></ul><ul><li>The space between these bands is called the “glottis.” </li></ul>
  5. 6. Vowels and Voicing <ul><li>Vibratory cycles are necessary for the vowels and voiced consonants. </li></ul><ul><li>When the glottis is partially closed, it will produce sounds such as /h/. </li></ul><ul><li>All the vowels are voiced except for voiceless vowels in whispered speech. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Place of Articulation <ul><li>A place of articulation is a point of contact for producing a speech sound. It is the vocal configuration necessary for the production of sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many places of articulation as indicated on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>(Voice Foundation, 2006) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Description of Places of Articulation <ul><li>1,2: Labial Sounds are produced here. </li></ul><ul><li>3: Inderdental </li></ul><ul><li>4: Dental sounds </li></ul><ul><li>5,6: Alveolar sounds </li></ul><ul><li>7, 8: Palatal sounds, Velar sounds </li></ul><ul><li>9: Uvular sounds </li></ul><ul><li>10: Pharyngeal sounds </li></ul><ul><li>11-14: Glottal sounds </li></ul><ul><li>15: Interdental sounds </li></ul><ul><li>16-18: Labiodental sounds </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic: Voice Foundation, 2006) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Articulation and Sound Production <ul><li>With articulation, vowels typically have nine basic positions determined by the placement of the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants are organized much the same way, using the lips more than the vowels do. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>LABIAL sounds: Produced by one or both lips. They break down into bilabial (both lips) sounds and labiodentals (lower lip touches upper teeth). </li></ul><ul><li>Labial sounds can be produced by one or both lips. </li></ul><ul><li>Labial sounds are /p/, /b/, /f/, /v/, /m/, and /w/. </li></ul><ul><li>When both lips are used it is called a bilabial sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of bilabial sounds are the /p/ and /b/ sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of bilabial words are ‘mama’ and ‘papa’ </li></ul><ul><li>When the lower lip hits the upper teeth, the sound is a labiodental sound. For example, the sound /v/. (Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>Place of Articulation Place of Articulation Place of Articulation
  10. 11. Place of Articulation <ul><li>DENTAL sounds: When the tongue contacts the teeth, for example: /ð/ and /θ/ </li></ul><ul><li>ALVEOLARS: These sounds occur when the tongue contacts the upper area behind the teeth. Examples include: /r/,/t/,and /l/. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Place of Articulation <ul><li>PALATALS: For these sounds, the tongue must touch some part of the roof of the mouth. These sounds are also broken down into various groups depending upon the placement of the tongue on the palate. Some examples of this sound are: /ʧ/, /ʃ/, /ʤ/. </li></ul><ul><li>VELLARS: These sounds are produced when the tongue touches the soft palate (/k/,/g/). </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Place of Articulation <ul><li>And, last, but not least… </li></ul><ul><li>GLOTTALS: The only sound of this kind in American English is the /h/ sound made by narrowing the glottis by partially opening the vocal folds to produce some friction. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Manner of Articulation and the Tongue <ul><li>The tongue plays an important role in the manner of articulation and production of speech sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>The type of sound and articulation is determined by the placement and contact of the tongue in the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>(Voice Foundation, 2006) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Nasals, Stridents, and Stops <ul><li>Nasal sounds are produced when sonorant sounds are made as the passageway into the nasal cavity is opened by the lowering of the soft palate. Examples would be /m/ and /n/. </li></ul><ul><li>Stops are obstruent sounds made by the complete stoppage of airflow through the vocal tract. Examples would be /b/, /t/, and /g/. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Fricatives and Affricatives <ul><li>Fricatives are obstruent sounds produced from a partial blockage of the breath stream. This partial blockage results in friction or turbulence during the sound production. Examples of fricative sounds are: /h/, /s/, and /z/. </li></ul><ul><li>Affricatives are sounds that begin as a stop, then are released as a fricative. When this happens, the sound released is termed an affricative. (Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Laterals and Liquids <ul><li>LATERALS: In American English, there exists a sole lateral consonant produced with lateral airflow around one or both sides of the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>The /l/ is also characterized as a lateral approximant. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Glides <ul><li>When a consonant is rapidly transitioned to a following vowel, the sound is a glide. When the sound is produced from a transition between a consonant and a preceding vowel, it is termed an ‘off glide.’ </li></ul><ul><li>The common glides for American English are: /l/ and /r/. </li></ul><ul><li>(Edwards, 2003) </li></ul>
  18. 19. The English Consonants Sound Word Sound Word Sound Word p p et b b et m m et t t en d d en n n o k c at g g et ŋ si ng f f or v v ery l l ate s s orry z z oo r r oll θ th igh ð th at j y es ʃ sh oe ʒ rou g e w w it ʧ ch irp ʤ j udge h h e
  19. 20. Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Alveopalatal Velar Across Top = Points of Articulation Down Side = Manners of Articulation vl = Voiceless vd = Voiced Glottal Stops vl vd p b t d k g ʔ Fricatives vl vd f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h Affricates vl vd ʧ ʤ Nasals m n ŋ Laterals l Glides r y w
  20. 21. CONSONANTS pen, copy, happen back , baby, job Voiceless Voiced tea, tight, button day, ladder, add key, clock, school thing, author, path fat, coffee, rough, photo soon, cease, sister get, giggle, ghost ship, sure, national view, heavy, move this, other, smooth church, match, nature zero, music, buzz pleasure, vision judge, age, soldier
  21. 22. CONSONANTS more, hammer, sum Nasals Lateral light, valley, feel right, wrong, sorry Glottal Glides wet, one, when, queen yet, use, beauty, few nice, know, funny, sun ring, anger, thanks, sung hot, whole, ahead Retroflex
  22. 23. LATE Seven knights are ready for the Joust! ABLE UCK ASH TAR EAT IP EAR ARK AIL
  23. 24. ICK Get ready for the Joust! UG AP OP ACK IG OCK EST
  24. 25. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Where is the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
  25. 26. A pickled pepper picked a peck Of Peter Pipers. A peck of Peter Pipers A pickled pepper picked. If a pickled pepper picked a peck of Peter Pipers, Where is the peck of Peter Pipers A pickled pepper picked?