Selecting
Appropriate Data
Collection Methods
‘It is a capital mistake to theorize before one
has data.’
-Sir Arthur Conan Doyle as Sherlock Holmes

O'Leary, Z. (2005) ...
Data Collection Options
Data collection possibilities are wide and
varied with any one method of collection
not inherently...
The Data Collection Process


All methods of collection require rigorous and
systematic design and execution that include...
Surveys



Surveying involves gathering information from
individuals using a questionnaire
Surveys can
 reach

a large ...
Survey Types


Surveys can be
 descriptive

or explanatory
 involve entire populations or samples of
populations
 capt...
Survey Construction


Survey construction involves
 formulating

questions and response

categories
 writing up backgro...
Interviewing





Interviewing involves asking respondents a
series of open-ended questions
Interviews can generate bot...
Interview Types


Interviews can range from
 formal

to informal
 structured to unstructured
 can be one on one or inv...
Conducting Interviews


When conducting your interviews you will
need to
 question,

prompt, and probe in ways that help...
Observation
Observation relies on the researchers’
ability to gather data though their senses and allows researchers to do...
Observation Types


Observation can range from
 non-participant

to participant
 candid to covert
 from structured to ...
The Observation Process
The observation process is sometimes
treated casually, but is a method that
needs to be treated as...
Unobtrusive Methods
Unobtrusive methods involve researchers
and research processes that are removed
from the researched
 ...
Unobtrusive Methods


Unobtrusive methods include
 the

exploration of official data and records
 corporate data
 pers...
The ‘Unobtrusive’ Process


In order to gather data by unobtrusive
means you need to
 know

what you are looking for
 w...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Data collection methods (2)

678 views
463 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
678
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
53
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Data collection methods (2)

  1. 1. Selecting Appropriate Data Collection Methods
  2. 2. ‘It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.’ -Sir Arthur Conan Doyle as Sherlock Holmes O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 2
  3. 3. Data Collection Options Data collection possibilities are wide and varied with any one method of collection not inherently better than any other  Each has pros and cons that must be weighed up in view of a rich and complex context  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 3
  4. 4. The Data Collection Process  All methods of collection require rigorous and systematic design and execution that includes  thorough planning  well considered development  effective piloting  weighed modification  deliberate implementation and execution  appropriate management and analysis O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 4
  5. 5. Surveys   Surveying involves gathering information from individuals using a questionnaire Surveys can  reach a large number of respondents  generate standardized, quantifiable, empirical data as well as some qualitative data  and offer confidentiality / anonymity  Designing survey instruments capable of generating credible data, however, can be difficult O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 5
  6. 6. Survey Types  Surveys can be  descriptive or explanatory  involve entire populations or samples of populations  capture a moment or map trends  can be administered in a number of ways O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 6
  7. 7. Survey Construction  Survey construction involves  formulating questions and response categories  writing up background information and instruction  working through organization and length  determining layout and design O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 7
  8. 8. Interviewing    Interviewing involves asking respondents a series of open-ended questions Interviews can generate both standardized quantifiable data, and more in-depth qualitative data However, the complexities of people and the complexities of communication can create many opportunities for miscommunication and misinterpretation O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 8
  9. 9. Interview Types  Interviews can range from  formal to informal  structured to unstructured  can be one on one or involve groups O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 9
  10. 10. Conducting Interviews  When conducting your interviews you will need to  question, prompt, and probe in ways that help you gather rich data  actively listen and make sense of what is being said  manage the overall process O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 10
  11. 11. Observation Observation relies on the researchers’ ability to gather data though their senses and allows researchers to document actual behaviour rather than responses related to behaviour  However, the observed can act differently when surveilled, and observations can be tainted by a researcher’s worldview  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 11
  12. 12. Observation Types  Observation can range from  non-participant to participant  candid to covert  from structured to unstructured O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 12
  13. 13. The Observation Process The observation process is sometimes treated casually, but is a method that needs to be treated as rigorously as any other  The process should include planning, observing, recording, reflecting, and authenticating  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 13
  14. 14. Unobtrusive Methods Unobtrusive methods involve researchers and research processes that are removed from the researched  Unobtrusive methods are ‘non-reactive’ and capitalize on existing data  But researchers need to work through data not expressly generated for their proposes that may contain biases  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 14
  15. 15. Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods include  the exploration of official data and records  corporate data  personal records  the media  the arts  social artefacts O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 15
  16. 16. The ‘Unobtrusive’ Process  In order to gather data by unobtrusive means you need to  know what you are looking for  where you can find it  whether it can be trusted  what you can do with it O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 16

×