Data Collection & Analysis - Grounded Theory
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Data Collection & Analysis - Grounded Theory

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Data Collection & Analysis - Grounded Theory Data Collection & Analysis - Grounded Theory Presentation Transcript

  • Data Collection & analysisData Collection & analysis Grounded TheoryGrounded Theory Dolly Ramos Gallego Claudia Cárdenas
  • Find the following information in the assigned thesis Samples of data Interpretation of data Codes Triangulation Process Description of data Data analysis
  • What is qualitative research? “Development of concepts which help us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences and views of the participants.” Pope & Mays BMJ 1995;311:42-45 5
  • What is qualitative data? - Data that are not easily reduced to numbers - Data that are related to concepts, opinions, values and behaviours of people in social context Transcripts of individual interviews and focus groups, field notes from observation of certain activities, copies of documents, audio/video recordings... www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualdata.php 16
  • Tools for helping the Analytical Process Summaries: Should contain the key points that emerge from undertaking the specific activity Self Memos: Allow you to make a record of the ideas which occur to you about any aspect of your research, as you think of them Researcher Diary Analytical notes
  • SAMPLING
  • Data analysis &Data analysis & gatheringgathering Methods – instruments ◦ Interviews-Questionnaires-surveys ◦ Observations - Audio/video tapes ◦ Journals-diaries-logs When to begin ◦ D A- systematic and begins as soon as data is available.
  • Data Collection&Data Collection& AnalysisAnalysis Definition It is the process of systematically arranging your methods to increase your understanding of them and allows you to present what you have learn or discovered. Disassembling & Reassembling - to separate something into its different parts - to make something again by joining its separate parts together
  • Features of Qualitative data analysis •Analysis is circular and non-linear •Iterative and progressive •Close interaction with the data •Data collection and analysis is simultaneous •Level of analysis varies •Can be sorted in many ways •Qualitative data by itself has meaning, i.e. “apple” 31
  • STAGES FOR DATA ANALYSIS
  • FOURFOUR ELEMENTSELEMENTS That are the phenomena found in the data Each line, sentence, or paragraph is read in search of the answer
  • Grounded Theory
  • Grounded Theory Is the constant Analysis of the Data. Consist of 4 stages • Compare incidents (tentive catg) • Comparing Changes (integrating) • DelImitation of the theory (reducing similar) • Forming Systematic substative theory (reasonable accurate statement
  • Triangulation The basic idea of the grounded theory approach is to read (and re-read) the data and "discover" or label codes and their interrelationships Meaning : To include multiple sources of information. The act of bringing more than one source to a bear point
  • TYPES OF TRIANGULATION (DENZIN 1978) •Data •Investigator •Methodology • In time and location •Theoretical Support Existent
  • TriangulatingTriangulating your Datayour Data The Data Disassembling and Reassembling Or Desintegrating and reintegrating ““making familiarmaking familiar appear strange”appear strange”
  • WHITE= LOGSWHITE= LOGS YELLOW =YELLOW = INTERVIEWSINTERVIEWS BLUE = VIDEOBLUE = VIDEO TEACHERS’ LOGSTEACHERS’ LOGS  CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS AND FAMILIARIZATION WITH THE METALANGUAGE  Enrike Q5=Did the sessions provide you with tools to solve challenges in the classroom?  A=Uhm yes, I might say yes, because when I was in the calss I tried to apply some of that knowledge acquiered at the workshops and yeah I saw the changes in my teaching abilities. they are very much applicable to my practice and I think they are very rewarding for me as apersonal I have got a lot of knowledge in those workshops.  Diego=The assessment and evaluation and according to the type of group, the group profile we can custimaze it , according to the type of students so you really made me like think about it and improve some little problems I had and know the difference between assessment and evaluation.  Migule A= it offeres the possibility to learn about theory but also to exchange with other teacher experience and anectode and everything that help us about teaching butalso about have to a good professional in different ways. Awaren ess/ growth Collaborative learning Applica bility Academic/ familiarizing
  • CODING AND CATEGORIES in the diagnostic stageCODING AND CATEGORIES in the diagnostic stage CODING CATEGORIES Lack of listening SKILLS Oral production reading & writing SKILLS Ss attendance ATTITUDE Relationship ATTITUDE Improve my teaching STRATEGIES Learning strategies & writing STRATEGIES Mistakes GRAMMAR Lack of grammar GRAMMAR verb agreement GRAMMAR Use of the language COMPETENCES Use of the language COMPETENCES
  • Categories and codes for the implementation stage sub categories     Teachers’ perceptions about how students view of English class   ss feelings with each other and the teacher Rapport lack of motivation Negative Reaction about the language ss negative reactions to the language   lack of commitment led to bad performance commitment ss' commitment caused good results       Teachers' desire for improvement   teachers' desire for self-improvement improvement teachers' desire to improve their classes   reflect on becoming updated Reflect     Teachers reflecting about ss' needs   reflect on ss' profile   teachers' development of autonomy in ss development Teachers 'strategies to improve ss weaknesses strategies     Teachers' perspectives about course orientations   teachers focused on specific skill (s) Skills teacher had communicative focus communication teachers' perspectives about the course   Teachers´ objectives do not match course objectives  
  • Categories and codes Sub-categories Teachers’ perceptions about how students view of English class ss feelings with each other and the teacher Rapport lack of motivation Negative Reaction about the language ss negative reactions to the language lack of commitment led to bad performance Commitment ss' commitment caused good results Teachers' desire for improvement teachers' desire for self-improvement Improvement teachers' desire to improve their classes reflect on becoming updated Reflect Teachers reflecting about ss' needs reflect on ss' profile teachers' development of autonomy in ss Development Teachers 'strategies to improve ss weaknesses Strategies Teachers' perspectives about course orientations teachers focused on specific skill (s) Skills teacher had communicative focus communication teachers' perspectives about the course Teachers´ objectives do not match course objectives
  • INTERPRETATION GRAMMAR It refers to the order of the words within a sentence. Teachers mentioned that students needed to improve in accuracy   SAMPLE K EQ2 Students had some mistakes during the activities in written exercises C EQ3 Ss present problems when working with Passive/clauses/P. perfect C EQ2 They had terrible bases. No grammar, nothing   INTERTREPATION The data suggest that teachers are still focusing on grammar and the importance of accuracy when teaching or using a skill. Teachers never mentioned that due to the fact that learners showed problems with grammar that they were not able to convey feeling or thoughts. However, this comes to show us that teachers are still not aware that the Institution implements the communicative approach.
  • INTERPRETATION SKILL This term refers to the four element used in a language such as listening, speaking , Reading and writing. (Subcategory of competence).   SAMPLE J EQ2 The listening skill is difficult to obtain   M EQ2 We didn't have time to practice listening because it is time consuming and it demands a lot of effort for ss and teacher   INTERPRETATION These teachers mentioned that listening was one of the most difficult skills to help learners improve. Besides, teachers seem to find it challenging to integrate the skills. In this case we can detect that teachers have lack of creativity or do not know or have the appropriate tools to design these type of activities. On the other hand, teachers tend to separate the skills according to the aim of the class instead of designing an activity in which they can integrate the four language skills for one lesson.  
  • InterpretationInterpretation  Attitude: Ss motivation to attend and participate in English class is very low  SAMPLE  J EQ2: Ss usually arrive late to class they really do not care about it  CB IQ1: Sss have expressed that they are there because they need to graduate  CO IQ1: Ss are only interested in the grade they don’t want to learn  INTERPRETATION The sample above show the lac of interest and commitment from learners to talk part of the class, perhaps this can be due to teachers lack of control of the class or their lack of sufficient knowledge to develop class that activate or engage or foster learners interest
  • Some ReferencesSome References www.groundedtheory.com http://gtm.vlsm.org/ Aguide to research for Educators and Trainers of Adults. Merriam & Simpson (1995) Forming an Inquiry from questions to Planning the Project. Potillo (2000) 25
  • Data analysis •Identify recurrent themes •Notice patterns in the data •Identify respondent clusters - Search for causality - Identify related themes •Build sequence of events •Search data to answer research questions •Develop hypothesis 38
  • Interpretation •Interpretation is the act of identifying and explaining the core meaning of the data •Organizing and connecting emerging themes, sub-themes and contradictions to get the bigger picture-what it all means. Think how best to integrate data from multiple sources and methods •Make generalization-providing answers to questions of social and theoretical significance. •Ensuring credible or trustworthy interpretations. 62