Communication Strategies


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Communication Strategies

  2. 2. COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES <ul><li>“ potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal” (Faerch and Kasper, 1983). </li></ul><ul><li>(1) a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulty; (Corder, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) a mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situations where requisite meaning structures are not shared; (Tarone, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal; (Faerch & Kasper, 1983a) </li></ul><ul><li>(4) techniques of coping with difficulties in communicating in an imperfectly known second language. (Stern, 1983) </li></ul>
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATIONS <ul><li>Tarone (1981) paraphrase, borrowing, appeal for assistance, mime and avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Chesterfield and Chesterfield (1985) identifies repetition, memorization, formulaic expression, verbal attention getter, answer in unison, talk to self, elaboration, anticipatory answer, monitoring, appeal for assistance and request for clarification as second language communication strategies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TARONE’S TYPOLOGY OF CONSCIOUS COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES <ul><li>(Tarone, 1977 cited in Bialystok, 1990: 39) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>a Topic avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>b Message abandonment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>a Approximation </li></ul><ul><li>b Word coinage </li></ul><ul><li>c Circumlocution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conscious transfer </li></ul><ul><li>a Literal translation </li></ul><ul><li>b Language switch </li></ul><ul><li>4. Appeal for assistance </li></ul><ul><li>5. Mime </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Avoidance Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>1. Message abandonment: Leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Topic avoidance: Avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose language difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>3. Circumlocution: Describing or exemplifying the target object of action (e.g. the thing you open bottles with for corkscrew). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Approximation: Using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible (e.g. ship for sailboat). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Use of all-purpose words: Extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking (e.g., the overuse of thing, stuff, what-do-you call–it, thingie). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>6. Word coinage: Creating a nonexisting L2 word based on a supposed rule (e.g., vegetarianist for vegetarian). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Prefabricated patterns: Using memorized stock phrases, usually for “survival” purposes (e.g., Where is the ___ or Comment allez–vous?, where the morphological components are not known to the learner). </li></ul><ul><li>8. Nonlinguistic signals: Mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Literal translation: Translating literally a lexical item, idiom, compound word, or structure from L1 to L2. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>10. Foreignizing: Using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology (i.e., with a L2 pronunciation) and/or morphology (e.g., adding to it a L2 suffix). </li></ul><ul><li>11. Code-switching: Using a L1 word with L1 pronunciation or a L3 word with L3 pronunciation while speaking in L2. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Appeal for help: Asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly (e.g., What do you call…?) or indirectly (e.g.rising intonation, pause, eye contact, puzzled expression). </li></ul><ul><li>13. Stalling or time-gaining strategies: Using fillers or hesitation devices to fill pauses and to gain time to think (e.g., well, now, let’s see, uh, as a matter of fact). </li></ul>
  8. 8. IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Oxford holds that language learning strategies “are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential for developing communicative competence” (Oxford, 1990: 1). In accordance with this statement, I highly recommend that EFL teachers instruct learners communication strategies so as to value English language learning more meaningful and influential. Apart from that, teachers should also motivate learners to apply communication strategies as greater motivation relates to higher frequencies of strategy use. As supported by Oxford (1990: 13), highly motivated learners will adopt “a significantly greater range of appropriate strategies than do less motivated learners”. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. Interviewee’s background and kind of received training. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Interview topic: Introduction to interview presentation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Interview presentation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Communication strategies analysis and discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>5 . Placement of the interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>6. Recommendations to improve oral skills </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusions </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>English studies </li></ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Course characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Job interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Level: A2 (Waystage) </li></ul><ul><li>As far as listening skills are concerned, she can understand phrases related to areas of immediate personal reference (journalism) (very basic personal information, family information, shopping, local area and employment) </li></ul><ul><li>In spoken interaction, she can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. She can handle very short social exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>In spoken production, she can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms her family and other people, living conditions and educational background and her present or most recent job. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 15. We can also stand out the qualitative aspects of spoken language use, which describe specifically what the interviewee’s speaking abilities are and why she is placed in A2; RANGE: uses basic sentenced patterns with memorized phrases, groups of a few words and formulae in order to communicate limited information in simple everyday situations. ACCURACY: uses some simple structures correctly, but stills systematically makes basic mistakes. FLUENCY: can make herself understood in very short utterances, even though pauses, false starts and reformulation are very evident. INTERACTION: Can answer question and respond to simple statements. Can indicate when she is following but is rarely able to understand enough to keep conversation going of her own accord. COHERENCE: Can link groups of words with simple connectors like “and” “but” and “because”.
  15. 16. The communication strategies adopted and found by the authors during the interview are presented below; PARAPHRASE: Approximation (Tarone, 1981) BORROWING: Literal translation (Tarone, 1981) Language Switch APPEAL FOR ASSISTANCE: Appeal to authority (Tarone, 1981) Ask for correction/ verification MIME: (Tarone, 1981) PREFABRICATED PATTERNS: (Tarone, 1981) METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY: Delayed production (O’Malley et al 1985) REQUEST FOR CLARIFICATION: (Chesterfield and Chesterfield, 1985) MONITORING: (Chesterfield and Chesterfield, 1985) AVOIDANCE: (Tarone, 1981)
  16. 17. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewee uses different kind of communicative strategies in her answers in order to maintain a smooth flow of interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The placement of the interviewee must not only be subjected to the analysis of her communication strategies but must also be based on her reading and writing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewee makes use of control strategies which allow her to maintain the course of the interaction and to feel confident about not misunderstanding the message. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner made overuse of words and expressions, which evidence her lack of proficiency and competence in the foreign language. </li></ul>