Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens
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Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens

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Review talk presented by Karen Kwiter at the IAU Symposium 283 Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future, Tenerife, Spain, 25-29 July 2011.

Review talk presented by Karen Kwiter at the IAU Symposium 283 Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future, Tenerife, Spain, 25-29 July 2011.

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Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens Presentation Transcript

  • Karen Kwitter Williams College IAU 283July 26, 2011 NGC 2818 NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team
  • PN postage stamp images from HST
  • 1936 T. Page letter in Nature NGC 7027 & NGC 7662: Ar, Ne >> Earth 1939 Bowen & Wyse, Lick Obs. Bulletin NGC 6572, NGC 7027, NGC 7662: ~solar composition2006-2011 >300 refereed papers in ADS on PN abundances: familiar elements, heavier elements, s-process, molecules, dust View slide
  • bpc.eduPéquignot & Baluteau (1994); Baluteau et al. (1995); Zhang, Dinerstein, Sterling et al.(2001, 2008); Liu et al. (2005, 2007); Sharpee et al. (2007) View slide
  • bpc.edu * * reflect progenitor’s ISM*There is some evidence that nuclear processes can affectthese (Pequignot et al. 2000, Dinerstein et al. 2003; Herwig2005, Wang & Liu 2008, Milingo et al. 2010 – more later)
  • bpc.edu s-processaffected by star’snucleosynthesis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/en:Creative_Commons
  • WIYN,NOAO,NSF • get 1-D information @ medium resolution; typically ≲150 lines down to ~1% x Hb  for brighter objects can get deep spectra w/high S/N; at right, in NGC 7009 Fang & Liu (2011; poster here) have identified 1170 features down to ~0.01% x Hb  but, LSS fails to fully utilize the potential of 2D detectors…
  • Milky Way: Kingsburgh & Barlow Liu & colleagues Maciel, Costa & colleagues Milanova & Koltygin Perinotto & colleaguesJuan Carlos Casado (TWAN) Stasińska & colleagues Henry, Kwitter & colleagues Magellanic Clouds: Boroson & Liebert Leisy & Dennefeld Maciel, Costa & colleagues Dopita & colleagues Stanghellini, Shaw et al. Fred Espenak Vasiliadis & colleagues.
  • exploits 2D detectors with serious multiplexing Tsamis & collaborators; Sandin & collaborators Te NGC 5882 Hb Tsamis et al. 2008 IC 3568 He II Sandin et al. 2008 [O III] 4686 4959 NGC 7662, center cFLAMES/Giraffe Argus, VLT PMAS, Calar Alto
  • Spitzer/JPL M1-42 (Pottasch et al. 2007) • Spitzer IRS provided high- quality spectra covering important ions of e.g., Ne, O, S, Ar (& Fe, Si, Mg) • Need for ICFs is reduced • Fine-structure lines have small T-dependence Pottasch, Bernard-Salas & collaborators Stanghellini, Shaw & collaborators Guzman-Ramirez & collaborators
  • HST/STIS TS-01• prominent ions of He, C, N, O [C IV] He II Stasińska et al. 2010• avoids usually large ICF(N) [N V] STIS• at right, TS01, the most O-poor PN [N IV] known (O/H~1/70 x solar)• IUE quality superseded by HST COS & STIS; as yet, small database HST/STIS Cy19 : Dufour et al. – 10 MW PNe Guerrero et al. – NGC 6543
  • • correct reduced slit fluxes for reddening• calculate Te, Ne, X+i/H+  N-level atom codes• calculate ICF’s per some recipe or model* to derive X/H: total X abundance ICF(X) = sum of observable X ions*unless you have all relevant ionization stages
  • • correct reduced slit fluxes for reddening- Whitford 1958- Miller & Mathews 1972- Savage & Mathis 1979- Seaton 1979 fl- Howarth 1983- Fitzpatrick 1999- Clayton, Cardelli & Mathis 1989 An example: For c=1, the corrected ratio of [O II] I3727/I7323 obtained using CCM vs. SM differs by ~15%, leading to ~1000K difference in the derived T[O II]…
  • • calculate: Te , Ne , X+i/H+Il(X+i)/I(Hb) Te , Ne , Abundance Software N(X+i)/N(H+) Il (X i ) N(X i )  f (Te ,N e )  C  I(Hb) N(H  )
  • on the ground… poster by Wesson; talk by Luridiana N/H…in NGC 6543, thesystematic uncertaintyintroduced by the choiceof atomic data iscomparable to or largerthan the statistical T[S II]uncertainties for sometemperatures, densitiesand abundances.R. Wesson (private communication) …not a stationary target
  • talk by Gonçalves •calculate ionization correction factors (ICFs) per a recipe or model* to derive X/H *unless you have observed all relevant ionization stages ICFs best determined using photoionization models; otherwise, exploit IP coincidences• Kingsburgh & Barlow (1994): developed a good set still used by many• Henry & Ferland are currently running sets of CLOUDY models to evaluate ICFs under a wide range of stellar T*, Ne, and Z.… so at each step we have an opportunity fordivergence, independent of measured fluxes!
  • posters by Peimberts; Fierro et al.; McNabb et al.; ADF=(X/H)ORL/(X/H)CEL R.-Garcia & Peña recent summary by Peña (2011); Bob Rubin’s talk yesterday (Liu & colleagues) (Peimbert, Torres-Peimbert & colleagues)• Yuan et al. (2011): NGC 6153 - 3D bi- • Georgiev et al. (2008): NGC 6543 abundance model with 800K NLTE star and wind model agrees inclusions best reproduces observed with ORL values for He, C, O (but spectrum not N)• Zhang (2008): NGC 7009 - high • García-Rojas et al. (2009): observed resolution line profiles suggest ORLs, several PNe with WC central stars; CELs may originate in kinematically t2 ~0.04; no evidence of cool, C-rich different regions inclusions, even when the central stars are H-deficient• Williams et al. (2008): UV absorption abundances in 3 PNe agree better with CEL than ORL abundances This is becoming testable, and will eventually be sorted out…
  • : 1D photoionization code (Stasińska 2005) : 1D photoionization code (Ferland et al. 1998) : 1D photoionization/shock code (Kewley 2001) : 1D photoionization code (Rubin et al. 1994) : Pseudo-3D photoionization code (Morriset 2005) : fully 3D Monte Carlo photoionization code (Ercolano et al. 2003): 1-D RHD code (Perinotto et al. 1998) – poster by Jacob
  • different He+ recomb coeffall abundances aremedians; error barsshow characteristicuncertainties X X
  • DISK BULGE & HALO • good agreement within uncertainties • O, Ne, Ar ≈ solar N,C > solar S < solar
  • MW Disk Magellanic Clouds
  • log(N/H) vs. log(He/H) log(N/O) vs. He/H Maciel et al. 2010 +: SMC •: LMC •: MW models: Karakas & Lattanzio 2007, 1-6 M similar behavior in all 3galaxies implies similarorigin of N, He HKB04 all recalculated, Karakas (2009): 1-6 M good T & N determinations Marigo (2001): 0.8-5 M
  • • LMC PNe show negative trend,  HBB• Type I MWPNe may also• SMC PNe do not  no HBB
  • Ne vs. O Maciel et al. 2010 + SMC LMC MW Maciel et al.: no correlation between Ne/O and O over >2 dex in O/H• Wang & Liu (2008): Ne, O production only at 12+log(O/H) < 8 (<ZSMC)• Milingo et al. (2010): some evidence for Ne production, based on on comparison with H II regions; no difference between Type I and Type II PNe• Peimbert et al. (1992); Peña et al. (this meeting): argue that the ICF for Ne (Ne/O=Ne++/O++) is inadequate at low ionization typically found in H II regions  lower limits, offering an explanation for Milingo et al.’s finding
  • posters by Henry et al. Jacob et al.Ar follows H II region Sulfur stinks!trend, but with larger Karakas: 1-6 Mscatter than Ne…
  • MW disk PNe – Maciel & Costa (2011) LMC/SMC – Stanghellini et al. (2009) Aasymm,symm - Aall filled: SMC open: LMC • Average He and N are higher for asymmetric PNe than for symmetric PNe • The opposite is true for C. • Higher O, Ne, S, Ar in asymmetric PNe  younger progenitors • SMC PNe tend to be C-rich, implying no HBB
  • talk by Karakas; poster by Sterling et al.• Sharpee et al. (2007) detected lines of Br, Kr, Se Xe, Rb, Ba, and Pb; Te & I (?); Kr, Xe enhanced• Sterling & Dinerstein (2008), detected Kr &/or Se in 81 of 120 PNe: - Non-Type I: [Se/(O)]ave= +0.36 [Kr/(O)]ave = +1.02  Kr significantly enhanced Kr - Type I PNe show little s-process enrichment - Positive correlation between s-process enrichments and C/O, as expected in TDU - No significant difference with central star type• Future progress relies heavily on knowing transition rates and collision strengths
  • poster by Delgado Inglada et al.• Delgado Inglada et al. (2009): 33 low-ionization PNe• median 12+log(Fe/H) = 5.85 (4.27 – 6.49)• depletion range [Fe/H]: -1.01 to -3.2 (=7.50; Asplund et al. 2009) - Fe > 90% depleted - Mdust/Mgas ≥ 1.3 x 10-3 - depletion scales with C/O ratio (poster) See also: Rodriguez & Rubin (2005); Stasińska & Szczerba (1999)
  • • He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, s-process abundances have been determined in 10’s -100’s of PNe in the MW and MC’s.• IR & UV observations have provided some improved results.• Significant disparities result from different analysis choices.• O, Ne, and Ar are positively correlated with each other, as expected. S is problematic. In general, scatterPNe > scatterH2BCG.• C, N generally exceed solar, consistent with current LIMS model predictions including TDU; low-C PNe in the Milky Way & LMC show evidence of HBB.• Models cover the parameter space of observed abundances• s-process elements can be significantly enhanced above solar in non-Type I PNe.• Fe is significantly depleted in PNe
  • (aside from big ground & space telescopes & good spectrographs)• atomic data for more atoms, wider regimes - “normal data” for heavy atoms (Sterling poster) - low-T parameters for light atoms (Fang poster)• improved ICFs (metallicity; ionization; geometry)• more 2D abundance studies/3D modeling• abundance discrepancy resolution• coordination/testing among 5-LA programs• understanding the effect of binarity on observed abundances in CE scenario• development of a “strong-line method” when direct Te measurement not possible
  • Collaborators: Dick Henry Bruce Balick Reggie Dufour Gary Ferland Jacquelynne Milingo Dick ShawStudents: Funding Sources:Jesse Levitt ’08 NSFMatt Johnson ’07 NASAPeter O’Malley ’07 U. OklahomaJulie Skinner ’07 Williams CollegeAnne Jaskot ’08Emma Lehman ’10Tim Miller (‘G OU)
  • THE END EL FINAL