IAU Symposium No 283, Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain            Atomic proces...
Layout• Atomic processes, plasma diagnostics and  abundance determinations• New calculations of atomic data since 2006    ...
PNe: Low density plasmas ionized and heated by diluted UV radiation fields (NLTE)    Ionization and thermal structures det...
[O III] Collisionally excited lines                                                                                   H I ...
O IV                                             Keenan, F. P., et al., “Ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet line         ...
O IIϒ(4S3/2 – 2D5/2)/ϒ(4S3/2 – 2D3/2) = 1.5Relativistic effects insignificant amongst the 2p3 ground configuration Tayal, ...
S II                                                          Tayal, S. S. and Zatsarinny, O.,                            ...
O III                                               ∼ 4% for 3P −1D                                               ∼ 10% fo...
N IITayal, S. S., “Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Singly Ionized Nitrogen”, 2011, ApJS, 195, 11          3   ...
Fe XIDel Zanna, G., Storey, P. J., Mason, H. E., “Atomic data from theIRON project. LXVIII. Electron impact excitation of ...
Mesa-Delgado A., et al., 2009, MN, 395, 855                              [Fe III]                                         ...
PI cross-sections and recombination rates for n-capture elements   Sterling, N. C., “Atomic data for neutron-capture eleme...
Cross-section measures at energies 44 – 2500 eV/u                                Si3+ + H0(1s) → Si2+ + H+Bruhns, H., et a...
Liu, J. R., Mao, S. D., Wang Q. D., “Charge-exchange X-ray emission of M82: Kα tripletsof O VII, Ne IX and Mg XI”, 2011, M...
Zhang et al., 2005, MNRAS, 358, 457Good agreement betweenTes deduced from the twoline ratios, except thatTe(λ7281/λ5876) m...
Zhang et al., 2009, ApJ, 695, 488                          He I λ3421            He I                                   H ...
Liu et al. 2000, MNRAS, 312, 585                                                Liu et al. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 141 NGC 6153 ...
Liu 2006, Proc. IAUS 234, p.219Plasma diagnostics and heavy elemental abundance determinations       Collisionally excited...
Yuan et al. 2011, MN, 411, 1035                      Photoionization models of NGC 6153                                   ...
Reference line          O+ 3d 4F                               O+ 4f G[5]o                                O+ 3d 4F        ...
Ruiz et al. 2003, ApJ, 595, 247                         Peimbert & Peimbert 2005, RMxAC, 23, 9                            ...
Ab initio calculations of the O II and N II effective recombination coefficients     Calculations extend to very low elec...
Effective recombination                                                            coefficients of selected               ...
Fractional intensities of O II 3p 4Do – 3s 4P (V1) as a function of densityThe ratio of λ4649 (J = 7/2 – 5/2) to λ4662 (J ...
The ratio of the O II 3p 4D7/2o – 3s 4P5/2 λ4649 (V1) to 4fG[5]11/2o – 3d 4F9/2 λ4089                      is a sensitive ...
Fractional intensities of N II 3p 3D – 3s 3Po (V3) as a function of densityThe ratio of λ5679 (J = 3 – 2) to λ5666 (J = 2 ...
The ratio of the N II 3p 3D3 – 3s 3P2o λ5679 (V3) to 4f G[9/2]5 – 3d 3F4o λ4041                    is a sensitive temperat...
Te and Ne, and associated          NGC 7009        Te and Ne, and associated      errors from O II lines            adf = ...
Te and Ne, and associated           Hf 2-2       Te and Ne, and associated      errors from O II lines           adf = 84 ...
Te and Ne, and associated          M 1-42        Te and Ne, and associated      errors from O II lines           adf = 22 ...
Te and Ne, and associated          NGC 6153       Te and Ne, and associated      errors from O II lines           Adf = 9....
Te and Ne, and associated            M 42          Te and Ne, and associated      errors from O II lines           Adf = 1...
北京大学物理学院天文学系                                 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm   http://kiaa.pku...
Simulated distributions of N II and O II line intensities in NGC 7009    McNabb et al., 2011, in preparation.    Poster # ...
Conclusions• New ab initio effective recombination coefficients of N II and  O II recombination spectra have been calculat...
Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code (DARC)                                                                                         ...
Collision strengths                                                      C-like ionsN : Tayal, S. S., “Electron Excitation...
Collision strengths                                                    Na-like ionsMg to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Whiteford, A. ...
Collision strengths                                                   Iron-peak ionsCr : Wasson, I. R., Ramsbottom, C. A.,...
Radiative and di-electronic recombination rates                                         He-like (recombined) ionsNe IX: Na...
Di-electronic recombination rates                                           Ne-like (recombined) ionsFrom Ne I to Zn XXI, ...
Radiative rates                                                       H-like ionsN to Na : Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P.,...
Radiative rates                                                       B-like ionsC : Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Criti...
Radiative rates                                                     Ne-like ionsNa to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Badnell, N. R., “...
Radiative rates                                                 Iron-peak ionsSc : Bautista, M. A., et al., “Scandium and ...
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Atomic processes in photoionized gaseous nebulae

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Paper given by Xiaowei Liu (Kavli Institute for Astronomy &Astrophysics, Beijing, China) at the IAU Symposium 283, Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future, 25-29 July 2011, Tenerife, Spain.

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Atomic processes in photoionized gaseous nebulae

  1. 1. IAU Symposium No 283, Planetary Nebulae: an Eye to the Future, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain Atomic processes in photoionized gaseous nebulae Xiaowei Liu DoA and KIAA-PKU (x.liu@pku.edu.cn) Thanks: PKU: Xuan Fang, Haibo Yuan, and Ian McNabb HKU: Yong Zhang UCL: Pete J. Storey and M. J. Barlow 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  2. 2. Layout• Atomic processes, plasma diagnostics and abundance determinations• New calculations of atomic data since 2006 – Collision strengths – Photoionization cross-sections and recombination rates – Radiative data• New plasma diagnostics based on recombination spectra 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  3. 3. PNe: Low density plasmas ionized and heated by diluted UV radiation fields (NLTE) Ionization and thermal structures determined by micro-physical processes: Photoionization(aν), Radiative and di-electronic recombination (αR, αD), CXT, ion-electron collisions (ϒ) Photoionization Collisional excitation Heating H + hν ⇔ 0 H +e + − O2+ + e− → O2+* + e− Cooling → O2+ + hν + e− Cooling Recombination [O III] 2p2,2s2p3 e− recombination e− Strömgren spheres 86797 S 2 3.4 1010 5 o ionization cont. em. 1661 1666 hνcn 1 62137 S0 2.5 107 H + He+ 2331 4363 2321 He++ line em. O+ O ++ 29170 1 D2 6.9 105 * O 3+ hνnn 4931 4959 5007Ionizing photons Ne = 102 – 106 cm−3 440 2 3500 Te = 5,000 – 20,000 K 163 1 3 P 500hν > 13.6 eV (for cosmic composition) 0 Tex 88µm 52µm 0 Nc 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  4. 4. [O III] Collisionally excited lines H I Recombination lines/continua O2+ + e− → O2+* + e− → O2+ + hν + e− H+ + e− → H0* → H0 + hν [O III] 2p2,2s2p3 CELs Photoionization Recombination 86797 5 o S 2 3.4 1010 jν ∝ Te-1/2exp(-Tex/Te) Heating Cooling jν ∝ N(X+i)Ne for Ne << Nc 1661 1666 Balmer Paschen ∝ N(X+i) for Ne >> Nc cont. cont. 1 jν increases as Te increases 62137 S0 2.5 107 3 Paschen 4363 2321 2331 2 Balmer 10.2eV = 112,816 K 1 29170 D2 6.9 105 4931 4959 5007 ORLs/Cont. 440 2 3 3500 jν ∝ Te where α ∼ 1 −α 163 1 P 500 0 jν ∝ N(X+i+1)Ne Tex 88µm 52µm 0 Nc jν decreases as Te increases 1 Lyman Weak dependence on Ne Recombination O + e− → O+ + hν 2+ 4 S S 4 o 4 P 4 Po 4 D 4 Do 4 F F 4 o 4 G 4 Go 265 5d 5d 5f 5f 5f Plasma diagnostics: 5s 4d 4d 5p 4f 4d 4f 4f • Te and Ne 245 4p • and stratifications/inhomogeneitiesEnergy (103 cm−1) 4s M48 3d 3d 3d M11 3p 4Do 225 M28 M19 M12 M10 J = 7/2 Abundance determinations: 3p 205 3p M20 3p J = 5/2 • Ionic abundance ratios Xi+/H+ M2 M1 J = 3/2 • ICFs J = 1/2 • Inhomogeneities 46 49 185 3s 46 46 42 125 39 2s2p4 115 0 2p3 O II 2p2nl ORLs M1 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  5. 5. O IV Keenan, F. P., et al., “Ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet line ratio diagnostics for O IV”, 2009, A&A, 495, 359 max. O3+北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  6. 6. O IIϒ(4S3/2 – 2D5/2)/ϒ(4S3/2 – 2D3/2) = 1.5Relativistic effects insignificant amongst the 2p3 ground configuration Tayal, S. S., “Oscillator Strengths and Electron Collision Rates for Fine-Structure Transitions in O II”, 2007, ApJS, 171, 331 Tayal, S. S., “Electron impact excitation of forbidden and allowed transitions in O II”, 2006, JPhB, 39, 4393 Montenegro, et al., "Relativistic and Correlation Effects in Electron Impact Excitation of Forbidden Transitions of O II", 2006, JPhB, 39, 1863 Pradhan, et al., "[O II] Line Ratios", 2006, MNRAS, 366, L6 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  7. 7. S II Tayal, S. S. and Zatsarinny, O., "Breit-Pauli Transition Probabilities and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Singly Ionized Sulfur", 2010, ApJS, 188, 32 70 bound levels of S II covering all possible terms of the ground 3s23p3 and singly excited 3s3p4, 3s23p23d, 3s23p24s, and 3s23p24p configurations, involving a total 2415 transitions between fine-structure levels. ϒ(4S3/2 – 2D5/2)/ϒ(4S3/2 – 2D3/2) = 1.5北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  8. 8. O III ∼ 4% for 3P −1D ∼ 10% for 1D− 1S (6% in I Zw18 conditions) Péquignot, D., “Heating of blue compact dwarf galaxies: gas distribution and photoionization by stars in IZw 18”, 2008, A&A, 478, 371北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  9. 9. N IITayal, S. S., “Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Singly Ionized Nitrogen”, 2011, ApJS, 195, 11 3 P0 – 3P1 3 P1 – 3P2 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  10. 10. Fe XIDel Zanna, G., Storey, P. J., Mason, H. E., “Atomic data from theIRON project. LXVIII. Electron impact excitation of Fe XI”, A&A,514, 40 Fe XIII Storey, P. J., Zeippen, C. J., “Atomic data from the IRON project. LXVII. Electron impact excitation of Fe XIII”, A&A, 511, 78 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  11. 11. Mesa-Delgado A., et al., 2009, MN, 395, 855 [Fe III] (Blue-shifted) shock component: Ne = 2890 cm−3 (Red-shifted) nebular component: Ne = 17,430 cm−3 Te = 9000 K Bautista, M. A., Ballance, C. P., Quinet, P., “Atomic Data and Spectral Model For Fe III”, 2010, ApJL, 718, L189 See also Poster by Zhang et al. 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  12. 12. PI cross-sections and recombination rates for n-capture elements Sterling, N. C., “Atomic data for neutron-capture elements II. Photoionization and recombination properties of low-charge krypton ions”, arXiv:1107.3843 Sterling, N. C., Witthoeft, M. C., “Atomic data for neutron-capture elements. I. Photoionization and recombination properties of low charge selenium ions”, 2011, A&A, 529A, 147 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  13. 13. Cross-section measures at energies 44 – 2500 eV/u Si3+ + H0(1s) → Si2+ + H+Bruhns, H., et al., “Low-energy charge transfer for collisions of Si3+ with atomic hydrogen”, 2008, PhRvA, 77, 4702 Classical trajectory Monte Carlo Molecular orbital Close coupling Multicharged Ion Research Facility 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  14. 14. Liu, J. R., Mao, S. D., Wang Q. D., “Charge-exchange X-ray emission of M82: Kα tripletsof O VII, Ne IX and Mg XI”, 2011, MN, 415, 64 Lisse et al., “Discovery of X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from Comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2”, 1996, Sci., 274, 205 Dennerl, K., “Charge transfer reactions”, 2010, Space Sci. Rev., 157, 57 Important in PNe? See Posters by Guerrero et al. O VI abs/em detectedThe flux contribution of the CXE is 90, 50 and 30 per cent tothe O VII, Ne IX and Mg XI triplets, respectively.北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  15. 15. Zhang et al., 2005, MNRAS, 358, 457Good agreement betweenTes deduced from the twoline ratios, except thatTe(λ7281/λ5876) may havebeen underestimated due toself-absorption effects fromthe 2s 3S metastable level. But see Poster by A. Peimbert & M. Peimbert Te(He I) < Te (H I) He I temperatures in planetary nebulae Consistent with the expectations of the two-abundance model 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  16. 16. Zhang et al., 2009, ApJ, 695, 488 He I λ3421 He I H I λ3646 Balmer discontinuity discontinuity line ratios Single abundance H I F(J3646)/F(H11) model 2-abundance model He I F(J3421)/F(λ3634)北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  17. 17. Liu et al. 2000, MNRAS, 312, 585 Liu et al. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 141 NGC 6153 2s 1So – np 1Po series Weakened by factors 2 – 3 Departure from pure case B to 2p 1Po – ns 1S series Case A? Weakened by 40% 2p 1Po – nd 1D series OK 2s 3So – np 3Po series Weakened Self absorption from the 2s 3S 2p 3Po – ns 3S series metastable level Strengthened 2p 3Po – nd 3D series OK Destruction of He I Lyman line photons by photoionization of H0 and/or by dust grains?北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  18. 18. Liu 2006, Proc. IAUS 234, p.219Plasma diagnostics and heavy elemental abundance determinations Collisionally excited lines versus recombination lines/continua 86 PNe  solar X i+ X i+ 1) T e ORLs/Cont.T e CELs 2) + ORLs + CELs H HConclusions: The nebulae contain another component of plasma of vastly different physicalconditions (Te ∼ 1000 K) and chemical composition (CNONe enhanced by a factor of ∼100)in the form of H-deficient inclusions. Origins?Need of new atomic data valid at such low Tes and (ORL-based) diagnostic tools to probethe physical conditions (Ne – mass, Te), chemical composition, sizes and spatial distribution. 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  19. 19. Yuan et al. 2011, MN, 411, 1035 Photoionization models of NGC 6153 The model predicts: Te([O III]) = 8800 K >> Te(H I BJ) = 6080 K >> Te(He I J3421) = 3300 K >> Te(O II ORLs) = 800 K HST images Chemically homogeneous modelHα [O III] λ5007 Model with H-deficient inclusions (0.125˝×0.167˝) [Ne II]12.8μm [Ne III]15.5μm Te= 9007 K NH= 1840 cm−3 ff = 0.998 M = 0.243 Msun Te= 815 K Normal component H-deficient component H: 10000 He: 1000 C: 3.20 H: 10000 He: 5000 C: 177 NH= 4000 cm−3 N: 3.80 O: 5.53 Ne: 1.76 N: 150 O: 440 Ne: 177 ff = 0.002 M = 0.0031 Msun H-deficient knots are cooled by infrared fine-structure lines: [O III] 52μm, [Ne II] 12.8μm and [Ne III] 16μm 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  20. 20. Reference line O+ 3d 4F O+ 4f G[5]o O+ 3d 4F J = 9/2 J = 11/2 J = 9/2 76 J = 7/2 89 J = 7/2 40 40 J = 9/2 72 J = 5/2 J = 5/2  J = 3/2 J = 7/2  40 J = 3/2 J = 5/2 λ4072/λ4089 and λ4515/λ4089 yield apparently higher Tes than λ4076/λ4089 and λ4649/λ4089. O++ 2p2 3P2 is underpopulated compared to the thermal value. O+ 3p 4Do O+ 3p 2Do J = 7/2 O 2p P ++ 2 3 J = 5/2 9 5 64 J = 5/2 J=2 51 J = 3/24 J = 3/2 4 J=1 J = 1/2 J=0 O++ level population at Te = 1000 K, Ne = 3000 cm−3 J Actual Thermal 2 0.30 0.56 1 0.43 0.33 0 0.40 0.11 For direct recombinations, the upper levels of the λ4089, λ4076 and λ4649 lines can only be populated by recombinations originated from the O++ 2p2 3P2 level, but not by those from the 3 P1 level, whereas the λ4072 and λ4515 lines can be populated by recombinations from both the 3P2 and 3P1 levels. (Liu X-W., IAU Symp. #209, Canberra, 2001 November) 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  21. 21. Ruiz et al. 2003, ApJ, 595, 247 Peimbert & Peimbert 2005, RMxAC, 23, 9 (Forbidden line densities) Bastin & Storey 2005, AIP Conf. Proc., 804, p.63; Bastin & Storey 2006, Proc. IAU Symp. 234, p.369北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  22. 22. Ab initio calculations of the O II and N II effective recombination coefficients  Calculations extend to very low electron temperatures (Te ~ 100 K)  Full dependence on the level populations of the ground states of the recombining ion  DR via high-n resonances lying between the ground states of the recombining ion Close coupling R-matrix method Close coupling R-matrix method in the pair coupling scheme in the intermediate coupling scheme Storey 2010, private communication Fang, Storey & Liu, 2011, A&A, 530, 18 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  23. 23. Effective recombination coefficients of selected O II and N II lines as a function of electron temperature and densityMcNabb et al., 2011, in preparation.Poster # 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  24. 24. Fractional intensities of O II 3p 4Do – 3s 4P (V1) as a function of densityThe ratio of λ4649 (J = 7/2 – 5/2) to λ4662 (J = 3/2 – 3/2) is a sensitive density diagnostic Storey 2010, private communication 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  25. 25. The ratio of the O II 3p 4D7/2o – 3s 4P5/2 λ4649 (V1) to 4fG[5]11/2o – 3d 4F9/2 λ4089 is a sensitive temperature diagnostic Storey 2010, private communication 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  26. 26. Fractional intensities of N II 3p 3D – 3s 3Po (V3) as a function of densityThe ratio of λ5679 (J = 3 – 2) to λ5666 (J = 2 – 1) is a sensitive density diagnostic Fang, Storey & Liu, 2011, A&A, 530, 18 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  27. 27. The ratio of the N II 3p 3D3 – 3s 3P2o λ5679 (V3) to 4f G[9/2]5 – 3d 3F4o λ4041 is a sensitive temperature diagnostic Fang, Storey & Liu, 2011, A&A, 530, 18 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  28. 28. Te and Ne, and associated NGC 7009 Te and Ne, and associated errors from O II lines adf = 4.7 errors from N II lines北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  29. 29. Te and Ne, and associated Hf 2-2 Te and Ne, and associated errors from O II lines adf = 84 errors from N II lines北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  30. 30. Te and Ne, and associated M 1-42 Te and Ne, and associated errors from O II lines adf = 22 errors from N II lines北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  31. 31. Te and Ne, and associated NGC 6153 Te and Ne, and associated errors from O II lines Adf = 9.2 errors from N II lines北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  32. 32. Te and Ne, and associated M 42 Te and Ne, and associated errors from O II lines Adf = 1.02 errors from N II lines北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  33. 33. 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  34. 34. Simulated distributions of N II and O II line intensities in NGC 7009 McNabb et al., 2011, in preparation. Poster # 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  35. 35. Conclusions• New ab initio effective recombination coefficients of N II and O II recombination spectra have been calculated, extending down to temperatures as low as 100 K and taking into account the dependence on electron density of the level populations of the ground states of the recombining ions.• Suits of temperature- and density-diagnostics based on those heavy element recombination lines have been developed.• Applications of the above tools to PNe show that heavy element recombination lines arise from plasmas of temperatures of ∼1000 K, consistent with the expectations of the two-abundance model for high adf nebulae. 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  36. 36. Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code (DARC) Flexible Atomic Code (FAC): Non-resonance Collision strengths Most important at low Tes H-like ionsHe to Zn : Hamada, K., et al., “Effective collision strengths for optically allowed transitions among degenerate levels + 29+of hydrogenic ions with 2⩽Z⩽30”, 2010, ADNDT, 96, 481N6+ to Na10+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Heeter, R. F., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impactexcitation rates for transitions in H-like N VII, O VIII, F IX, Ne X and Na XI”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5006 He-like ionsLi , Be , B , C : Aggarwal, K. M., Kato, T., Keenan, F. P., Murakami, I., “Energy Levels, Radiative Rates and + 2+ 3+ 4+Electron Impact Excitation Rates for Transitions in He-like Li II, Be III, B IV and C V”, 2011, PhysScr, 83, 5302N5+, F7+, Na9+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Heeter, R. F., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impactexcitation rates for transitions in He-like N VI, F VIII and Na X”, 2009, PhysScr, 80, 5301N5+, Ne6+, Mg10+, Al11+, Si12+, S14+, Ca18+: Delahaye, F., Pradhan, A. K., Zeippen, C. J., "Electron Impact Excitationof Helium-like Ions up to n = 4 Levels Including Radiation Damping", 2006, JPhB, 39, 3465 Li-like ionsBe to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Badnell, N. R., "R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Li-like Iso-Electronic + 33+Sequence Including Auger and Radiation Damping", 2011, A&A, 528, A69N4+, F6+, Ne7+, Na8+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Heeter, R. F., “Energy Levels, Radiative Rates and ElectronImpact Excitation Rates for Transitions in Li-like N V, F VII, Ne VIII and Na IX”, 2010, PhysScr, 81, 5303 Be-like ionsMg : Hudson, C. E., "Breit-Pauli R-Matrix Calculation for Fine Structure Effective Collision Strengths from Electron 8+Impact Excitation of Mg IX”, 2009, A&A, 493, 697C2+, N3+, O4+: Fogle, M., et al.,“Electron-Impact Ionization of Be-like C III, N IV, and O V”, 2008, ApJS, 175, 543Ar14+: Bhatia, A. K., Landi, E., “Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ar XV”, 2008, ADNDT, 94, 223 B-like ionsC : Tayal, S. S., "Electron Impact Excitation Collision Strength for Transitions in C II", 2008, A&A, 486, 629; Tayal, S. +S., "Electron Impact Excitation Collision Strength for Transitions in C II", 2009, A&A, 501, 381O3+: Keenan, F. P., et al., “Ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet line ratio diagnostics for O IV”, 2009, A&A, 495, 359 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  37. 37. Collision strengths C-like ionsN : Tayal, S. S., “Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Singly Ionized Nitrogen”, 2011, ApJS, 195, 11 + N-like ionsN0: Tayal, S. S., "New Accurate Oscillator Strengths and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for N I", 2006, ApJS,163, 207O+: Tayal, S. S., “Oscillator Strengths and Electron Collision Rates for Fine-Structure Transitions in O II ”, 2007, ApJS,171, 331; Tayal, S. S., “Electron impact excitation of forbidden and allowed transitions in O II”, 2006, J.Phys.B, 39, 4393;Montenegro, M., Eissner, W., Nahar, S. N., Pradhan, A. K., "Relativistic and Correlation Effects in Electron ImpactExcitation of Forbidden Transitions of O II", 2006, JPhB, 39, 1863; Pradhan, A. K., Montenegro, M., Nahar, S. N.,Eissner, W., "[O II] Line Ratios", 2006, MNRAS, 366, L6 O-like ionsMg : Hudson, C. E., Ramsbottom, C. A., Norrington, P. H., Scott, M. P., "Breit-Pauli R-Matrix Calculation of Fine 4+Structure Effective Collision Strengths for the Electron Impact Excitation of Mg V", 2009, A&A, 494, 729 F-like ionsNe to Kr : Witthoeft, M. C., Whiteford, A. D., Badnell, N. R., "R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Calculations + 27+along the F-like Iso-Electronic Sequence", 2007, JPhB, 40, 2969Kr27+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Lawson, K. D., “Electron impact excitation of Kr XXVIII”, 2011, ADNDT, 97, 225 Ne-like ionsNi : Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., "Effective Collision Strengths for Transitions in Ni XIX", 2008, A&A, 488, 365 18+Na+ to Kr26+: Liang, G. Y., Badnell, N. R., “R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Ne-like Iso-ElectronicSequence”, 2010, A&A, 518, A64 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  38. 38. Collision strengths Na-like ionsMg to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Whiteford, A. D., Badnell, N. R., "R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Na- + 25+like Iso-Electronic Sequence", 2009, A&A, 500, 1263 Mg-like ionsFe : Norrington, P. H., Hudson, C. E., “Effective Collision Strengths for Mg-like Iron Peak Ions”, 2009, JPhCS, 163, 14+2033 Al-like ionsSi+: Bautista, M. A., et al., "Radiative Transfer Rates and Collision Strengths for Si II", 2009, A&A, 508, 1527 P-like ionsS : Tayal, S. S. and Zatsarinny, O., "Breit-Pauli Transition Probabilities and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for +Singly Ionized Sulfur", 2010, ApJS, 188, 32 S-like ionsAr2+: Munoz Burgos, J. M., Loch, S. D., Ballance, C. P., Boivin, R. F., "Electron-Impact Excitation of Ar2+", 2009, A&A,500, 1253 Ar-like ionsK : Tayal, S. S., Zatsarinny, O., "Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Transitions in K II", 2010, A&A, 510, A79 +Ni10+: Verma, N., Jha, A. K. S., Mohan, M., “Electron Collisional Excitation of Argon-like Ni XI using the Breit-Pauli R-Matrix Method”, 2007, EurPhysJ, 42, 235 K-like ionsCa+: Meléndez, M., Bautista, M. A., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project⋆ LXIV. Radiative transitionrates and collision strengths for Ca II”, 2007, A&A, 469, 1203 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  39. 39. Collision strengths Iron-peak ionsCr : Wasson, I. R., Ramsbottom, C. A., Norrington, P. H., "Electron-Impact Excitation of Cr II A Theoretical +Calculation of Collision and Effective Collision Strengths for Forbidden Transitions", 2010, A&A, 524, A35Ni+: Cassidy, C. M., Ramsbottom, C. A., Scott, M. P., Burke, P. G., "Electron-Impact Excitation of Ni II CollisionStrengths and Effective Collision Strengths for Low-Lying Fine-Structure Forbidden Transitions", 2010, A&A, 513, A55Fe0, Fe1+, Fe15+, Fe16+: Montenegro, M., et al., “The Iron Project And The RMAX Project: Radiative and CollisionalProcesses of Iron Ions - Fe I, Fe II, Fe XVI, Fe XVII”, 2008, APS DMP, L2056Fe2+: Bautista, M. A., Balance, C. P., Quinet, P., "Atomic Data and Spectral Model for Fe III", 2010, ApJL, 718, L189Fe6+: Witthoeft, M. C., Badnell, N. R., "Atomic data from the IRON Project. LXV. Electron-impact excitation of Fe 6+",2008, A&A, 481, 543Fe10+: Del Zanna, G., Storey, P. J., Mason, H. E., “Atomic data from the IRON project. LXVIII. Electron impactexcitation of Fe xi”, 2010, A&A, 514, A40Fe12+: Storey, P. J., Zeippen, C. J., “Atomic data from the IRON project. LXVII. Electron impact excitation of Fe XIII”,2010, A&A, 511, A78Fe14+, Fe15+: Montenegro, M., et al., “The Iron Project and the RMAX Project: Transitions in Fe XV, Fe XVI, andAstrophysical Applications”, 2007, APS DMP, D1060Fe17+: Nahar, S. N., “Atomic data from the Iron Project. LXII. Allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe XVIII inrelativistic Breit-Pauli approximation”, 2006, A&A, 457, 721; Witthoeft, M. C., et al., “Atomic data from the IRONproject. LX. Electron-impact excitation of n = 3, 4 levels of Fe17+”, 2006, A&A, 446, 361Fe18+: Butler, K., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project. LXVI. Electron impact excitation of Fe18+”, 2008,A&A, 489, 1369Fe19+: Witthoeft, M. C., Del Zanna, G., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project. LXIII. Electron-impactexcitation of Fe19+ up to n = 4”, 2007, A&A, 466, 763Fe16+ to Fe22+: Landi, E., and Gu, M. F., “Atomic Data For High-Energy Configurations In Fe xvii–xxiii”, 2006, ApJ,640, 1171 OthersSi , Si , Si : Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for 11+ 12+ 13+transitions in Si XII, Si XIII and Si XIV”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5302 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  40. 40. Radiative and di-electronic recombination rates He-like (recombined) ionsNe IX: Nahar, S. N., Pradhan, A. K.,“Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. X. Ne VIII and Ne IX for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, ApJS, 2006, 162, 417N VI, F VIII: Nahar, S. N., “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. XI. N V–VI and F VII–VIII for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, 2006, ApJS, 164, 280Na X, Mg XI: Nahar, S. N., “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. XII. Na IX, Na X, Mg X, and Mg XI for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, 2006, ApJS,167, 315Total 32 ions, from He I to Zn XXIX, plus Kr XXXV, Mo XXXXI and Xe XXXXXIII: Badnell, N. R.,“Dielectronic recombination data for dynamic finite-density plasmas X. The hydrogen isoelectronic sequence”, 2006, A&A,447, 389 Li-like (recombined) ionsNe VIII: Nahar, S. N., Pradhan, A. K.,“Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. X. Ne VIII and Ne IX for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, ApJS, 2006, 162, 417N V, F VII: Nahar, S. N., “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. XI. N V–VI and F VII–VIII for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, 2006, ApJS, 164, 280Na IX, Mg X: Nahar, S. N., “Electron-ion recombination rate coefficients and photoionization cross sections forastrophysically abundant elements. XII. Na IX, Na X, Mg X, and Mg XI for ultraviolet and X-ray modeling”, 2006, ApJS,167, 315Li – Ni, Zn, Kr, Mo, and Xe: Bautista, M. A., Badnell, N. R., “Dielectronic recombination data for dynamic finite-density plasmas XII. The helium isoelectronic sequence”, 2007, A&A, 466, 755 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  41. 41. Di-electronic recombination rates Ne-like (recombined) ionsFrom Ne I to Zn XXI, as well as for Kr XXVII, Mo XXXIII, and Xe XXXXV: Zatsarinny, O., et al.,“Dielectronic recombination data for dynamic finite-density plasmas IX. The fluorine isoelectronic sequence”, 2006, A&A,447, 379 Mg-like (recombined) ionsTotal 22 ions, from Mg I to Zn XIX, as well as Kr XXV, Mo XXXI, and Xe XXXXIII: Altun, Z., et al.“Dielectronic recombination data for dynamic finite-density plasmas XI. The sodium isoelectronic sequence”, 2007, A&A,447, 1165Ca IX to Zn XIX: Kwon, D. H., Savin, D. W., “Effects of Configuration Interaction for Dielectronic Recombination ofNa-like Ions Forming Mg-like Ions”, 2011, ApJ, 734, 2 Al-like (recombined) ionsFe XIV: Lukic D. V., et al., “Dielectronic recombination of Fe XV forming Fe XIV: Laboratory measurements andtheoretical calculations”, 2007, ApJ, 664, 1244 K-like (recombined) ionsFrom KI to Zn XII: Nikolic, D., et al, “Dielectronic recombination of argon-like ions”, 2010, A&A, 516, 97 Iron (recombined) ionsFe VIII – Fe XII: Badnell, N. R., “Dielectronic recombination of Fe 3pq ions: A key ingredient for describing X-rayabsorption in active galactic nuclei”, 2006, ApJ, 651, L73Fe XIII: Badnell, N. R., “Dielectronic recombination of Fe13+: benchmarking the M-shell”, 2006, JphB, 39, 4825Fe XXII: Savin, D. W., et al, “Dielectronic recombination of Fe XXIII forming Fe XXII: Laboratory measurements andtheoretical calculations”, 2006, ApJ, 642, 1275 Neutron-capture (recombined) ionsSe I – Se VI: Sterling, N. C., Witthoeft, M. C., “Atomic data for neutron-capture elements. I. Photoionization andrecombination properties of low charge selenium ions”, 2011, A&A, 529A, 147Kr I – Kr VI: Sterling, N. C., “Atomic data for neutron-capture elements II. Photoionization and recombinationproperties of low-charge krypton ions”, arXiv:1107.3843 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  42. 42. Radiative rates H-like ionsN to Na : Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Heeter, R. F., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact 6+ 10+excitation rates for transitions in H-like N VII, O VIII, F IX, Ne X and Na XI”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5006Si13+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitionsin Si XII, Si XIII and Si XIV”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5302 He-like ionsN , Ne , Mg , Al , Si , S , Ca : Delahaye, F., Pradhan, A. K., Zeippen, C. J., “Electron Impact Excitation 5+ 6+ 10+ 11+ 12+ 14+ 18+of Helium-like Ions up to n = 4 Levels Including Radiation Damping”, 2006, JPhB, 39, 3465Li+, Be2+, B3+, C4+: Aggarwal, K. M., Kato, T., Keenan, F. P., Murakami, I., “Energy Levels, Radiative Rates andElectron Impact Excitation Rates for Transitions in He-like Li II, Be III, B IV and C V”, 2011, PhysScr, 83, 5302Si12+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitionsin Si XII, Si XIII and Si XIV”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5302 Li-like ionsN , F , Ne , Na : Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., Heeter, R. F., “Energy Levels, Radiative Rates and Electron 4+ 6+ 7+ 8+Impact Excitation Rates for Transitions in Li-like N V, F VII, Ne VIII and Na IX”, 2010, PhysScr, 81, 5303Be+ to Kr33+: Liang, G. Y., Badnell, N. R., “R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Li-like Iso-ElectronicSequence Including Auger and Radiation Damping”, 2011, A&A, 528, A69Si11+: Aggarwal, K. M., Keenan, F. P., “Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitionsin Si XII, Si XIII and Si XIV”, 2010, PhysScr, 82, 5302 Be-like ionsC , N , O : Fogle, M., et al.,“Electron-Impact Ionization of Be-like C III, N IV, and O V”, 2008, ApJS, 175, 543 2+ 3+ 4+Ar14+: Bhatia, A. K., Landi, E., “Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ar XV”, 2008, ADNDT, 94, 223Mg8+: Zanna, G. D., Rozum, I., and Badnell, N. R., “Electron-impact excitation of Be-like Mg”, 2008, A&A, 487, 1023;Hudson, C. E., "Breit-Pauli R-Matrix Calculation for Fine Structure Effective Collision Strengths from Electron ImpactExcitation of Mg IX”, 2009, A&A, 493, 697 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  43. 43. Radiative rates B-like ionsC : Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and Singly +Ionized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron”, 2006, NLA Conf. 278 S., "Electron Impact Excitation Collision Strength forTransitions in C II", 2008, A&A, 486, 629; Tayal, S. S., "Electron Impact Excitation Collision Strength for Transitions in CII", 2009, A&A, 501, 381O3+: Aggarwal, K.M., Keenan, F. P., ”Energy levels, radiative rates, and excitation rates for transitions in O IV”, 2008,A&A, 486, 1053 C-like ionsC : Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and Singly 0Ionized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron”, 2006, NLA Conf. 278N+: Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and SinglyIonized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron”, 2006, NLA Conf. 278; Fang, X., Storey, P. J., Liu, X. -W., “New effectiverecombination coefficients for nebular N II lines⋆”, 2011, A&A, 530, A18 N-like ionsN : Tayal, S. S., "New Accurate Oscillator Strengths and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for N I", 2006, ApJS, 0163, 207; Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and SinglyIonized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron”, 2006, NLA Conf. 278O+: Montenegro, M., Eissner, W., Nahar, S. N., Pradhan, A. K., "Relativistic and Correlation Effects in Electron ImpactExcitation of Forbidden Transitions of O II", 2006, JPhB, 39, 1863; Tayal, S. S., “Oscillator Strengths and Electron CollisionRates for Fine-Structure Transitions in O II”, 2007, ApJS, 171, 331 F-like ionsNe to Kr : Witthoeft, M. C., Whiteford, A. D., Badnell, N. R., "R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Calculations + 27+along the F-like Iso-Electronic Sequence", 2007, JPhB, 40, 2969 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  44. 44. Radiative rates Ne-like ionsNa to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Badnell, N. R., “R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Ne-like Iso-Electronic + 26+Sequence”, 2010, A&A, 518, A64 Na-like ionsMg to Kr : Liang, G. Y., Whiteford, A. D., Badnell, N. R., “R-Matrix Electron-Impact Excitation Data for the Na- + 25+like Iso-Electronic Sequence”, 2009, A&A, 500, 1263 Al-like ionsSi+: Bautista, M. A., et al., “Radiative Transfer Rates and Collision Strengths for Si II”, 2009, A&A, 508, 1527 P-like ionsS : Tayal, S. S., Zatsarinny, O., “Breit-Pauli Transition Probabilities and Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for +Singly Ionized Sulfur”, 2010, ApJS, 188, 32 Ar-like ionsK+: Tayal, S. S., Zatsarinny, O., “Electron Excitation Collision Strengths for Transitions in K II”, 2010, A&A, 510, A79Ni10+: Verma, N., Jha, A. K. S., Mohan, M., “Electron Collisional Excitation of Argon-like Ni XI using the Breit-Pauli R-Matrix Method”, 2007, EurPhysJ, 42, 235 K-like ionsCa+: Meléndez, M., Bautista, M. A., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project⋆ LXIV. Radiative transitionrates and collision strengths for Ca II”, 2007, A&A, 469, 1203 K-VacancyNe, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca: Palmeri, P., et al., “Radiative and Auger Decay of K-Vacancy Levels in the Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar,and Ca Isonuclear Sequences”, 2008, ApJ, 177, 408Be+ to Zn27+: Gorczyca, T.W., et al., “Importance of Configuration Interaction For Accurate Atomic Data: FluorescenceYields of K-Shell Vacancy, Lithium-Like Ions”, 2006, ApJ, 638, L121 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/
  45. 45. Radiative rates Iron-peak ionsSc : Bautista, M. A., et al., “Scandium and chromium in the strontium filament in the Homunculus of η Carinae”, 2009, +MNRAS, 1503, 1512Cr+: Bautista, M. A., et al., “Scandium and chromium in the strontium filament in the Homunculus of η Carinae”, 2009,MNRAS, 1503, 1512; Wasson, I. R., Ramsbottom, C. A., Norrington, P. H., "Electron-Impact Excitation of Cr II ATheoretical Calculation of Collision and Effective Collision Strengths for Forbidden Transitions", 2010, A&A, 524, A35Fe0, Fe+: Wiese, W. L., Fuhr, J. R., “New Critical Compilations of Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and SinglyIonized Carbon, Nitrogen, and Iron”, 2006, NLA Conf. 278Fe2+: Bautista, M. A., Ballance, C. P., Quinet, P., “Atomic Data and Spectral Model For Fe III”, 2010, ApJL, 718, L189Fe3+: Nahar, S. N., “Atomic data from the iron project LXI. Radiative E1, E2, E3, and M1 transition probabilities for FeIV⋆”, 2006, A&A, 448, 779Fe6+: Witthoeft, M. C., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON Project LXV. Electron-impact excitation of Fe6+”,2008, A&A, 481, 543Fe13+: Liang, G. Y., et al., “R-matrix Electron-Impact Excitation of Fe13+ and its Application To the Soft X-ray andExtreme-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Corona-Like Plasmas”, 2010, ApJS, 190, 322Fe15+: Liang, G. Y., Whiteford, A. D., and Badnell, N. R., “R-matrix inner-shell electron-impact excitation of Fe15+including Auger-plus-radiation damping”, 2008, JPhB, 41, 5203Fe17+: Witthoeft, M. C., et al., “Atomic data from the IRON project LX. Electron-impact excitation of n = 3, 4 levels ofFe17+”, 2006, A&A, 446, 361; Nahar, S. N., “Atomic data from the Iron Project⋆ LXII. Allowed and forbidden transitions inFe XVIII in relativistic Breit-Pauli approximation”, 2006, A&A, 457, 721Fe18+: Butler, K., Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project LXVI. Electron impact excitation of Fe18+⋆”, 2008,A&A, 489, 1369Fe19+: Witthoeft, M. C., Zanna, G. Del, and Badnell, N. R., “Atomic data from the IRON project⋆ LXIII. Electron-impactexcitation of Fe19+ up to n = 4”, 2007, A&A, 466, 763Fe16+ to Fe22+: Landi, E., and Gu, M. F., “Atomic Data For High-Energy Configurations In Fe xvii–xxiii”, 2006, ApJ, 640,1171Ni+ to Ni27+: Palmeri, P., et al., “Radiative and Auger Decay Data For Modeling Nickel K Lines”, 2008, ApJ, 179, 542 北京大学物理学院天文学系 北京大学科维理天文与天体物理研究所 http://vega.bac.pku.edu.cn/astro/astro.htm http://kiaa.pku.edu.cn/

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