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Ph 131 - Endocrine

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PH 131 B.S. Public Health …

PH 131 B.S. Public Health
University of the Philippines Manila
Presentation of Endocrine System and Disorders

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • 1. ENDOCRINE
    SYSTEM
    HORMONES * HORMONES * HORMONES
    JANDUSAY * JAVIER * JOVEN * KAMIYA * KALAW
    LEONG * LLAMZON * LORENZO * LUKBAN
  • 2. WHAT TO EXPECT:
    REPORT OBEJECTIVES
    SHORT REVIEW
    DISORDERS and DISEASES
    REPORT SUMMARY
  • 3. To provide a short review on the Endocrine System
    To present preventive measures and cures
    REPORT OBEJECTIVES
    To discuss common & rare Endocrine diseases & disorders
    To familiarize students with Endocrine processes
    To discuss the effects on normal physiology
    To provide a short summary on the topics discussed
    REPORT*OBEJECTIVES
  • 4. REVIEW
  • 5. REVIEW
    ENDOCRINOLOGY
    VS.
    neurons
    hormones
  • 6. REVIEW
    ENDOCRINOLOGY
    VS.
    long-lasting
    nervous
    endocrine
    fast
  • 7. REVIEW
    ENDOCRINOLOGY
    NEGATIVE
    FEEDBACK
    MECHANISM
  • 8. Hormone Summary
    ENDOCRINOLOGY
  • 9. DISEASES
    AND
    DISORDERS
  • 10. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 11. PITUITARY GLAND
    DWARFISM & GIANTISM
    DIABETES INSIPIDUS
  • 12. PITUITARY GLAND
    DWARFISM & GIANTISM
    DIABETES INSIPIDUS
  • 13. Pituitary Gland Disorders
    Diabetes Insipidus
  • 14. Diabetes Insipidus
    -(“diabetes”= overflow, “insipidus”= tasteless)
    -most common abnormality associated with the dysfunction of the posterior pituitary
    -due to defects in antidiuretic hormone receptors or inability to secrete ADH
    -can be neurogenic (or central) or nephrogenic
  • 15. Diabetes InsipidusHow does the normal physiology is disrupted?
  • 16. Diabetes Insipidus
    Symptoms:
    - excretion of large volumes of urine with resulting dehydration and thirst
    - bed-wetting
  • 17. How can normal physiology be regained?
    • Hormone replacement, usually for life (for neurogenic DI)
    • 18. Subcutaneous injection or nasal application of ADH analogs
    • 19. Restriction of salt in the diet and diuretic drugs
  • Pancreatic Islet DisorderHyperinsulinism
  • 20. Pancreatic Islet Disorder
    Hyperinsulinism
    • also known as hyperinsulinemia
    • 21. Usually causes Type 2 diabetes
    • 22. Occurs when there is reduced sensitivity of diabetics who undergo insulin therapy
    • 23. Can also occur when insulin is injected by non-diabetics. This is usually done by athletes who are trying to enhance their overall anaerobic performances.
  • Some Causes
    -obesity/ overweight
    -excess glucocorticoids
    -excess growth hormone
    -mutations of insulin receptors
  • 24. 3. Hyperinsulinism
  • 25. 3. Hyperinsulinism
    How can normal physiology be regained?
    - immediate intravenous administration of large quantities of glucose
    - administration of glucagon (or, less effectively of epinephrine) can cause glycogenolysis in the liver and thereby increase blood glucose level extremely rapidly
    **Permanent damage to the neuronal cells of the nerous system usually occurs when treatment is not given immediately.
  • 26. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 27. THYROID GLAND
    GOITER
    HYPERTHYROIDISM
    HYPOTHYROIDISM
  • 28. GOITER
    WHY, YES. THIS IS A….
    GOITER?
    WHAT IS A GOITER?
    ENLARGEMENT
    OF THE
    THYROID.
  • 29. GOITER
    SYMPTOMS
    NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
    Thyroid Hormones (T3 & T4)
    - produced by cells in thyroid gland
    - regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    - produced through the attachment of
    iodine atoms to ring structures of T3 and T4
    AHEM! AHEM!
    Breathing and swallowing difficulties
    Coughing and hoarseness
  • 30. CAUSES
    TREATMENT
    POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS
    GOITER
    HYPERTHYROIDISM
    Surgery- thyroidectomy
    Lugol’s Iodine
    Radiocative Iodine
    HYPOTHYROIDISM
  • 31. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 32. PARATHYROID GLAND
    HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
  • 33. FUNCTION &NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    * control calcium within the blood.
    * control how much calcium is in the bones,
    and therefore, how strong and dense the bones are!
    * As the blood filters through the parathyroid glands,
    they detect the amount of calcium present in the blood
     making more or less parathyroid hormone (PTH).
    Calcium level in the blood is too low: the parathyroid cells make more parathyroid hormone.
  • 34. PARATHYROID GLAND
    …occurs when your parathyroid glands make too much PT
    and cause you to have too much calcium in the bloodstream.
    CAUSES OF TOO MUCH PTH:
    Growth on the parathyroid glands!
    Enlargement of 2 or more of the parathyroid glands!
    OR medical conditions (like, lessay, kidney failure and rickets...)
     
    HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
  • 35. HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
    Normally, the amount of calcium going into your bones matches the amount of calcium passing out of your bones. This means that the amount of calcium in your bones should stay about the same all the time. If you have hyperparathyroidism, more calcium is coming out of your bones than is going back in. When this happens, your bones might hurt, ache or become weak. Weak bones break more easily and heal slower than normal bones.
    PHYSIOLOGY&IMPLICATIONS
  • 36. HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
    Feeling weak or tired most of the time
    General aches and pains
    Frequent heartburn
    Nausea & Vomiting; Loss of appetite
    An increase in bone fractures or breaks
    Confusion and memory loss
    Kidney stones; Excessive urination
    High blood pressure
    THE SYMPTOMS
  • 37. HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
    SURGERY
    DRINK PLENTY OF WATER
    LIMIT INTAKE OF CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D
    DO NOT SMOKE
    EXERCISE DAILY
    TREATMENT
  • 38. HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
  • 39. PARATHYROID GLAND
    HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
  • 40. HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare conditionin which your body secretes abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone (parathormone). This hormone plays a key role in regulating and maintaining a balance of your body's levels of two minerals — calcium and phosphorus.
    The low production of parathyroid hormone in hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally
    low ionized calcium levels in your blood and bones
    and to an increased amount of phosphorus.
    PHYSIOLOGY&IMPLICATIONS
  • 41. HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    Tingling or burning (paresthesias)
    Muscle aches or cramps; Twitching or spasms
    Fatigue or weakness
    Painful menstruation
    Patchy hair loss, such as thinning of your eyebrows
    Dry, coarse skin; Brittle nails
    Headaches; Depression, mood swings
    Memory problems
    THE SYMPTOMS
  • 42. HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
    RESTORE THE CALCIUM
    AND MINERAL BALANCE IN THE BODY.
    Treatment involves calcium carbonate and vitamin D supplements, which usually must be taken for life. Blood levels are measured regularly to make sure that the dose is correct. A high-calcium, low-phosphorous diet is recommended.
    TREATMENT
  • 43. HYPOPARATHYROIDISM
  • 44. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 45. CUSHING’S SYNDROME
    CUSHING’S DISEASE
    ADRENAL GLAND
    ADDISON’S DISEASE
  • 46. SYNDROME
    CUSHING’S
  • 47.
    • Occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol
    • 48. Characterized by high plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol
    • 49. Another name hypercortisolism
    • 50. Can occur from multiple causes including:
    Adenomas of the anterior pituitary that secrete large amounts of ACTH
    Abnormal function of the hypothalamus that causes high levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) “ectopic secretion” of ACTH by a tumor elsewhere in the body
    Adenomas of the adrenal cortex
    CUSHING’S
  • 51. High blood pressure.
    High blood sugar.
    Suppressed immunity (and more infections).
    Insulin resistance
    Suppressed sex hormones and reduced libido.
    Suppressed thyroid hormones.
      - A round, red, full face, often called a "moon" face.  - Muscle weakness and thin limbs.  - Growth of fine hair on the face, upper back, or arms.  - A lump of fat (buffalo hump) on the back of the neck.  - Stretch marks over abdomen.
    CUSHING’S
    SYMPTOMS
  • 52. CUSHING’S
    DISEASE
  • 53. CUSHING’S
    Cushing's syndrome is treated by restoring a normal balance of hormones. This may involve surgery, radiation treatments or drugs. Tumors on the adrenal glands are removed by surgery. If there is a tumor on just one adrenal gland, the other gland usually shrinks and ceases normal productivity.
    TREATMENT
  • 54. ADDISON’S
    DISEASE
  • 55. Addison's disease results from damage to the adrenal cortex.
     This damage may be caused by the following:
    The immune system mistakenly attacking the gland (autoimmune disease)
    Infections such as tuberculosis, HIV, or fungal infections
    Hemorrhage, blood loss
    Tumors
    Use of blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants)
    A disorder that occurs when your body produces insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by your adrenal glands.
    It may be due to :
    a disorder of the adrenal glands themselves (primary adrenal insufficiency) or
    inadequate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary gland (secondary adrenal insufficiency)
    ADDISON’S
  • 56. ADDISON’S
    • Changes in blood pressure or heart rate
    • 57. Chronic diarrhea
    • 58. Darkening of the skin ; Paleness
    • 59. Extreme Weakness
    • 60. Unintentional weight loss
    • 61. Mouth lesions on the inside of a cheek
    • 62. Nausea and vomiting
    • 63. Salt craving
    • 64. Slow, sluggish movement
    SYMPTOMS
  • 65. ADDISON’S
    Taking hormones to replace the insufficient amounts being made by your adrenal glands (glucocorticoids (cortisone or hydrocortisone) and mineralocorticoids (fludrocortisone))
    TREATMENT
  • 66. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 67. DIABETES MELLITUS
    PANCREATIC ISLET
  • 68.
  • 69. PANCREAS
    retroperitoneal
    Exocrine gland
    Endocrine gland
    -98% of the secreting cells in the pancreas make digestive enzymes
    -2% of the cells make hormones that are secreted into the portal vein
  • 70. Pancreatic Hormones
  • 71. Normal Physiology
    Circulating glucose is derived from three sources:
    1. intestinal absorption during the fed state
    2. glycogenolysis -breakdown of glycogen
    3. gluconeogenesis -formation of glucose primarily from lactate and amino acids during the fasting state
    insulin is the key regulatory hormone of glucose disappearance (hypoglycemic hormone), and glucagon is a major regulator of glucose appearance (extremely potent hyperglycemic agent)
  • 72.
  • 73. Disruptions on Physiology
  • 74. Insulin and glucagon
    antagonistic interaction
    humoral stimuli   
    potent regulators
    of glucose metabolism
    bi-hormonal
    definition of diabetes:
    diabetic state = insulin deficiency
    + glucagon excess
  • 75. Diabetes [Mellitus] Pathophysiology
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78. NOTE:
    TYPE1 – noticeable early
    symptoms
    TYPE2 – may occur without
    or gradual development of symptoms
  • 79. Diabetes Complications (VASCULAR)
  • 80. Diabetes Complications (NEURAL)
  • 81. Treatment and Prevention
  • 82. DISEASES&DISORDERS
    PITUITARY GLAND
    THYROID GLAND
    PARATHYROID GLAND
    ADRENAL GLAND
    PANCREATIC ISLET
    SEX HORMONES
  • 83. KLINEFELTER’S DISEASE
    POLYCYSTIC OVARIES
    SEX HORMONES
  • 84. PCOS
    polycystic ovary syndrome
  • 85. PCOS
    Management
    • Lifestyle modification: health control; exercise
    • 86. Birth control pills
    • 87. Diabetes medications
    • 88. Fertility medications
    • 89. Surgery - laparascopic ovarian drilling
    Symptoms
    •  irregular or non-existent periods
    • 90. very light or very heavy bleeding during your period
    • 91. mild to moderate abdominal discomfort
    • 92. excessive hair growth on your face, chest and lower abdomen
    • 93. acne
    • 94. Infertile
    • 95. overweight
    What causes PCOS?
    • Resistance to the hormone insulin diabetes
    • 96. Too much production of LH compared to FSH  follicles on the ovaries produce more of the male hormone testosterone than the female hormone estrogen adrenal glands start to produce increased amounts of testosterone
    • 97. Too much testosterone  prevents ovulation
    • 98. Estrogenis still produced  deficiency in progesterone
    • 99. one of the most common female endocrine disorders
    • 100. a health problem caused by hormonal system imbalance: increase in ovarian production and insulin resistance
    polycystic ovary syndrome
  • 101.
    • a condition in which human males have an extra X chromosome instead of the normal XY
    • 102. also known as XXY Syndrome or 47, XXY
    • 103. low testosterone level
     
    What causes XXY Syndrome?
    • X and Y chromosome fail to pair and fail to exchange genetic material  production of an additional X chromosome
    KLINEFELTER’SDISEASE
  • 104. KLINEFELTER’SDISEASE
    Symptoms
    • Small, firm testes
    • 105. Osteoporosis (in young or middle-age men)
    • 106. Motor delay or dysfunction
    • 107. Speech and language difficulties
    • 108. Attention deficits
    • 109. Learning disabilities
    • 110. Dyslexia or reading dysfunction
    • 111. Psychosocial or behavioural problems
    Management and Treatment
    Educational guidance
    Therapeutic Options 
    Medical Options
    e.g. Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT)
  • 112. References:
    Elaine N. Marieb, KatjaHoehn. Human Anatomy & Physiology 7th edition
    Aronoff, S. et al. Glucose Metabolism and Regulation: Beyond Insulin and Glucagon. Retrieved from http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/17/3/183.full
    http://www.hormone.org/Diabetes/diabetes.cfm
    Photos from Google images
  • 113. References:
    Guyton, A. & Hall, J. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th Edition
    Tortora, G. & Derrickson, B. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 11th Edition
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117648-overview

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