March 2, 2012
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Activities   Activity 1:   Draw 4 lines that pass through all the    points in the figure. (2 minutes)   Activity 2:  ...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Didactic Triangle
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Learning Process   What is our conception of the learning    process, or otherwise said, how do our    students learn?
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Teaching Process   What is our conception of the teaching    process, or otherwise said, what should    characterize the ...
Teaching and Learning
Conclusion to both    Processes It seems obvious that the analysis of errors is strictly  linked to our vision and percep...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Educational Theories about  the Learning Process   Learning styles     Kolb: Innovator (why?), analytic (what is there t...
Learning Styles
Educational Theories about  the Learning Process Learning strategies as described by different educational specialists   ...
Educational Theories about  the Learning Process  4 categories:    Affective (stress management, auto-     motivation)  ...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Educational Theories about  the Teaching Process   Therer and Willemart, based on Blake and    Mouton, defined four teach...
Conclusion   Teaching is a communication process that    facilitates learning. Teaching, hence, is    not just transmitti...
Conclusion   Teaching and Learning ContinuumTeaching                                     Learning            To teach   T...
Conclusion   To teach (using teaching methods)   To teach how to learn (the teacher    manages with the learners the con...
Conclusion To favor the learning to learn (the  teacher helps every learner to acquire  his customized learning methods)...
   “Tell me and Ill forget; show me and I    may remember; involve me and Ill    understand.”                        Conf...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Reasons for Errors   Recap. on plenary session:   In most reviewed RAS papers,     teachers suggested one reason for an...
Reasons for Errors We need to take into consideration that:  there may be several reasons for an error  the description...
Reasons for Errors   The need to analyze the error based on our    conception of the learning and teaching    processes
Reasons for Errors   For the category reasons: The differences    between sources and causes and    consequent results   ...
Reasons for Errors   The causes for the error could be the answer to the    question: What in the learner’s background   ...
Reasons for Errors   The reasons for the error could be      Intrinsic reasons or reasons related to the       learner h...
Reasons for Errors   Extrinsic reasons or reasons related to    the teaching context, namely:    • The way the teaching a...
Reasons for Errors•   Extrinsic reasons or reasons    related to the teaching    context, namely:    • The nature of the e...
Reasons for Errors    L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and     causes of errors     Errors related to the situation:  ...
Reasons for Errors
Reasons for Errors    L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and     causes of errors     Errors related to the instructions...
Reasons for Errors    L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and     causes of errors     Errors related to intellectual ope...
Reasons for Errors    L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and     causes of errors     Errors related to intellectual ope...
Reasons for Errors   Astolfi on sources and causes of    errors, Astolfi who defined errors as    epistemological obstacl...
Reasons for Errors    Epistemological                            Obstacles         Complexity of                    Altern...
Reasons for Errors   Astolfi on sources and causes, Astolfi    defined errors as epistemological    obstacles     Errors...
Reasons for Errors   Recap. on reasons for errors:     Intrinsic, extrinsic     La Sarthe: errors related to situation,...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Remedial Describe the remedial as a set of options  rather than a single procedure. Define whether the remedial is linke...
Remedial   Specify the form or modality of the    remedial:     Feedback (through answer key or others)     Remediation...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Remarks in RAS This area is allocated in case one or more  students require specific remedial outside  the classroom. Th...
Remarks in RAS   The remarks area could be reserved    also for     commenting on the inefficiency of certain      decis...
Outline   Activities   Didactic Triangle   Learning Process   Teaching Process   Educational Theories about the Learn...
Reflection on                  DocumentsWhat error to retain (Xavier Rogers) Punctual error       Occasional (related to...
Reflection on            Documents   Description and sources of errors (Xavier    Rogers) (cf. ANNEX IV-B)   Description...
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on             Documents Answers   to the dot and square activities.
Reflection on           Documents Conclusion: As long as remain within the constraints of the rules and lines of thinkin...
Always think outside the   box and embrace   opportunities that appear, wherever they       might be        Lakshmi Mittal
Hey wait!
Give us your feedback            please   Kindly fill out the evaluation form and    hand it over to your moderator      ...
Saint Joseph School Professional day march 2, 2012
Saint Joseph School Professional day march 2, 2012
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Saint Joseph School Professional day march 2, 2012

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Learning and teaching, error analysis, remedial

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  • It is like the process of buying and selling, if you have not bought then I cannot claim that I sold.
  • Kolb:http://www.erudium.polymtl.ca/html-fra/education/education4b.php (english/french)http://www.erudium.polymtl.ca/html-fra/education/education4e.php (english/french)
  • Epistemology is the study of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity. Coming from latin episteme or knowledge
  • Saint Joseph School Professional day march 2, 2012

    1. 1. March 2, 2012
    2. 2. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    3. 3. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    4. 4. Activities Activity 1: Draw 4 lines that pass through all the points in the figure. (2 minutes) Activity 2: Remove 8 lines from the figure keeping 2 squares that don’t intersect. (2 minutes)
    5. 5. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    6. 6. Didactic Triangle
    7. 7. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection and Studying of Documents RAS Policy Solution to Activities
    8. 8. Learning Process What is our conception of the learning process, or otherwise said, how do our students learn?
    9. 9. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    10. 10. Teaching Process What is our conception of the teaching process, or otherwise said, what should characterize the activities that we propose to students to facilitate learning?
    11. 11. Teaching and Learning
    12. 12. Conclusion to both Processes It seems obvious that the analysis of errors is strictly linked to our vision and perception of how students learn, while selecting an appropriate remedial is linked to our perception of teaching.
    13. 13. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    14. 14. Educational Theories about the Learning Process Learning styles  Kolb: Innovator (why?), analytic (what is there to know?), practical (how?), dynamic (what will happen if?)  Dunn and Dunn: Visual, auditory, haptic or kinesthetic  Gardner: Multiple intelligences (Intrapersonal, interpersonal, kinesthetic, linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, visual- spatial, naturalistic
    15. 15. Learning Styles
    16. 16. Educational Theories about the Learning Process Learning strategies as described by different educational specialists  Direct strategies:  Memorization (mnemonics)  Compensation (seek help, invent)  Cognitive (repeat, analyze)  Indirect strategies:  Meta-cognitive (practice, organize, self- monitor)  Affective (phrase out challenges, self-boost)  Social (ask questions, work in groups)
    17. 17. Educational Theories about the Learning Process  4 categories:  Affective (stress management, auto- motivation)  Cognitive (observation, resolution, solution)  Meta-cognitive (auto- evaluate, synthesize, organize learning)  Management of resources (time management, planning)
    18. 18. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    19. 19. Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Therer and Willemart, based on Blake and Mouton, defined four teaching styles:  Transmissive (focused mostly on content)  Inciting (focused both on content and learner)  Associative (focused more on student then on content)  Permissive (focused on neither) Teaching models  Transmissive – behaviorist (Pavlov, Skinner)  Cognitivist (Piaget) - constructivist (Vygotsky)
    20. 20. Conclusion Teaching is a communication process that facilitates learning. Teaching, hence, is not just transmitting; it is provoking, organizing, facilitating and managing. Teaching and learning are no longer two paradigms, but rather intertwined at the two ends of a continuum as such from teaching to learning:
    21. 21. Conclusion Teaching and Learning ContinuumTeaching Learning To teach To teach To how to how to To let To favor teach learn learn to learn learning learn
    22. 22. Conclusion To teach (using teaching methods) To teach how to learn (the teacher manages with the learners the contact between teaching and learning strategies) To teach how to learn to learn (the teacher proposes differentiated learning methods)
    23. 23. Conclusion To favor the learning to learn (the teacher helps every learner to acquire his customized learning methods) To let learn (the teacher allows the learners to utilize their customized learning methods for further learning)
    24. 24.  “Tell me and Ill forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and Ill understand.” Confucius (551 – 479 BC)
    25. 25. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    26. 26. Reasons for Errors Recap. on plenary session: In most reviewed RAS papers,  teachers suggested one reason for an error.  other teachers described the error in the cell reason  others simply wrote the source or the cause  all perceived the error as the student’s fault
    27. 27. Reasons for Errors We need to take into consideration that:  there may be several reasons for an error  the description of the error which is in fact an observation of the error, is stated in the RAS sheet in the cells  6 Error (where)  7 (frequency)  8 Type of error (what)
    28. 28. Reasons for Errors The need to analyze the error based on our conception of the learning and teaching processes
    29. 29. Reasons for Errors For the category reasons: The differences between sources and causes and consequent results  The sources of the error could be the answer to the question: What caused the learner to answer the way he/she answered while taking the test?  This is in relation to the students learning style and strategies
    30. 30. Reasons for Errors The causes for the error could be the answer to the question: What in the learner’s background caused him to make this error. It could include options such as:  Lack of diversification of examples or activities  Teaching style too theoretical  General difficulties such as abstractions …  Lack of time for assimilation This is in relation to the teaching style and strategies
    31. 31. Reasons for Errors The reasons for the error could be  Intrinsic reasons or reasons related to the learner himself, namely: • The learner’s cognitive structures • Factors related to his conative commitment (the energy he decides to employ for learning) • Factors related to his affective commitment (the impact of the subject and the learning itself have on the learner) • Factors related to commitment, to motivation, task management …
    32. 32. Reasons for Errors Extrinsic reasons or reasons related to the teaching context, namely: • The way the teaching activities are structured • The quality of the teaching activities (lack of concrete examples, unclear pronunciation by the teacher ...) • The dominant cognitive teaching style (Visual, auditory, kinesthetic ...)
    33. 33. Reasons for Errors• Extrinsic reasons or reasons related to the teaching context, namely: • The nature of the experience of the learner vis- à-vis the learning (failure, punishments) • The lack of occasions to employ acquired knowledge in situations • Lack of stimulus in the family environment
    34. 34. Reasons for Errors L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and causes of errors  Errors related to the situation:  New situation  Known situation but requiring a line of thinking or reasoning that the student does not master  Known situation but requiring important constraints, in terms of time, of number of exercises …
    35. 35. Reasons for Errors
    36. 36. Reasons for Errors L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and causes of errors  Errors related to the instructions:  The formulation of the instruction (ambiguous, double meaning, complex vocabulary etc.)  The understanding of the instruction (reading problem, adding, omitting or replacing elements in the instruction)  The learner’s comportment vis-à-vis the instruction (lack of autonomy, too little or too much anticipation, forgetting the instruction, not re-reading the instructions)
    37. 37. Reasons for Errors L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and causes of errors  Errors related to intellectual operations:  Repetition (to indicate, copy, reproduce, recite)  Conceptualization (to pass from grasping the meaning of objects or events to moving to a general representation)  Application (to make use of acquisitions and rules of one domain and apply them to another)  Exploration (to extract a particular element from a given and characterized set)
    38. 38. Reasons for Errors L’académie de la Sarthe on sources and causes of errors  Errors related to intellectual operations:  Mobilization (to refer to the entire set of acquisitions and extract certain elements in response to specific and new conditions)  Reinvestment (to transfer knowledge from one learning situation into a parallel or totally new one)  Errors related to prerequisites (partially acquired previous knowledge, not consolidated or incorrect or simply not acquired)
    39. 39. Reasons for Errors Astolfi on sources and causes of errors, Astolfi who defined errors as epistemological obstacles  Errors related to the teaching process:  Writing and understanding of instructions  Problems related to transfer  Internal complexity of content  Errors related to the learning process:  Alternative representations (comparing old to new representations)  Gaps from expected processes  Intellectual operations available
    40. 40. Reasons for Errors Epistemological Obstacles Complexity of Alternative content representations Writing andunderstanding of Gap from expected instructions processesProblems Available intellectualrelated to operations transfer Didactic Psychological Obstacles Obstacles Decoding the State of cognitive didactic custom overload
    41. 41. Reasons for Errors Astolfi on sources and causes, Astolfi defined errors as epistemological obstacles  Errors related to the teaching – learning continuum:  Cognitive overload  Decoding the didactic custom (understanding what the teacher requests)
    42. 42. Reasons for Errors Recap. on reasons for errors:  Intrinsic, extrinsic  La Sarthe: errors related to situation, to instructions, to intellectual operations, errors prerequisites  Astolfi errors to teaching process, to learning process, to the training/education process Hence the error is related to either the student with his perception, background, learning styles or to the teacher with his teaching style, preparation planning
    43. 43. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    44. 44. Remedial Describe the remedial as a set of options rather than a single procedure. Define whether the remedial is linked to the teaching or learning processes or both. Define the type/title of the decided tasks:  Preparing the tools, resources  Informing administration and concerned for needs Specify the timing and duration of remediation and the consequent results on work progress and syllabus.
    45. 45. Remedial Specify the form or modality of the remedial:  Feedback (through answer key or others)  Remediation at a whole class level depending on recurrence and percentage of errors, minimal criteria not met, prerequisites not acquired …  At a class level but based on students grouped by needs  Extra work which starts in class and is completed at home The consequences of agreed upon remedial should be reflected in subsequent RAS’s.
    46. 46. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    47. 47. Remarks in RAS This area is allocated in case one or more students require specific remedial outside the classroom. The specific remedial could be in the form of sessions or special lessons. Students are named here provided that there is a complete description of the procedure to be followed in their case. This need is to be processed to the administration, department members, and consequently to parents.
    48. 48. Remarks in RAS The remarks area could be reserved also for  commenting on the inefficiency of certain decisions  the need to change the book selection  commenting on the exam timing  commenting on the class atmosphere or discipline that is affecting the teaching/learning process
    49. 49. Outline Activities Didactic Triangle Learning Process Teaching Process Educational Theories about the Learning Process Educational Theories about the Teaching Process Reasons for Errors Remedial Remarks in RAS Reflection on Documents
    50. 50. Reflection on DocumentsWhat error to retain (Xavier Rogers) Punctual error  Occasional (related to contextual factors and not requiring remediation)  Requiring immediate remediation (remediation that is rapid and targeted) Recurrent error  Going back in time  Does not incur serious consequences (eventually to be remediated)  Incurs serious consequences (requires deep remediation)  Recent  Could fade away with further learning (requires no immediate remediation)  Should be immediately remediated (requires targeted and rapid remediation)
    51. 51. Reflection on Documents Description and sources of errors (Xavier Rogers) (cf. ANNEX IV-B) Description/ sources/ causes/ remedial (Xavier Rogers) (cf. ANNEX IV-C) Pedagogy of integration (cf. ANNEX IV- D) RAS policy
    52. 52. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    53. 53. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    54. 54. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    55. 55. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    56. 56. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    57. 57. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    58. 58. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    59. 59. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    60. 60. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    61. 61. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    62. 62. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    63. 63. Reflection on Documents Answers to the dot and square activities.
    64. 64. Reflection on Documents Conclusion: As long as remain within the constraints of the rules and lines of thinking we imposed on ourselves, it will be vain to seek a solution.
    65. 65. Always think outside the box and embrace opportunities that appear, wherever they might be Lakshmi Mittal
    66. 66. Hey wait!
    67. 67. Give us your feedback please Kindly fill out the evaluation form and hand it over to your moderator Thank you for being a great audience

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