Differentiated Instruction       Claudia Mewald            (c)Mewald        1
Five Major Tasks of Teachers1. Designing teaching goals & objectives/aims and   developing learning designs2. Understandin...
Rationale  (c)Mewald   3
Differentiated instruction is the process ofrecognizing the students various backgroundknowledge, readiness, language, pre...
(c)Mewald                                5http://prekandksharing.blogspot.co.at/2012/04/differentiating-power-of-clipboard...
We differentiate according to the learner’s …..background knowledge, readiness, language,preferences in learning, interest...
Background knowledge & languageDiagnostic testing or Formative assessment• a range of formal and informal assessment  proc...
Formative assessment•   teacher observation•   classroom discussion•   analysis of output/products•   homework            ...
Diagnostic testingA1 : YLE FlyersA2 : KETB1 :PEThttp://www.cambridgeenglish.org/prepare-and-practise/find-free-resources/ ...
Preferences in learninghttp://prekandksharing.blogspot.co.at/2012/04/differentiating-power-of-clipboard-and.html          ...
http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/ict/multiple_int/questions/questions.cfm                     ...
(c)Mewald   12
http://www.thinkingclassroom.co.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=iACSmiz7w8w%3d&tabid=66                                      ...
MI Profilehttp://www.thinkingclassroom.co.uk/linkclick.aspx?fileticket=144                                                ...
Display MI Profile, self-chosen work and targets           .... e.g. for KEL meetings                       (c)Mewald     ...
http://koinonia-all.org/homeschool/learnstyles.htm                                                     (c)Mewald   16
(c)Mewald   17
(c)Mewald                                    18http://www5.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/school/aal/international-baccalaureate/ib-a...
(c)Mewald   19
Backward design    1. Identify      desired       results        2. DetermineWhat should the        acceptablepupils be ab...
Learning designs                                                  3. Expected                 1. ANC                      ...
Planning for differentiation means ...• using varied teaching approaches• using varied strategies for providing input and ...
Planning for differentiation                                              Tomlinson (2010)                        http://w...
(c)Mewald                                 24Tomlinson (2010) http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
Instructional Strategies for differentiation•    RAFTS                              • Independent Studies•    Graphic orga...
Role Audience Format Topic (R.A.F.T.)• is a writing strategy• helps students understand a topic from different  perspectiv...
RAFT - Instructions1. Identify the goal of the reading or listening (lesson)2. Choose a text (book, video …) to read or wa...
Example: Bend it like BeckhamRole         Audience Format                TopicJess         Jules          informal        ...
Graphic organisers•   Flow chart•   Spider Map•   KWS / KWL (H)•   Sense chart•   Cluster diagram    etc.http://www.edupla...
8 most effective strategies to scaffold reading•   Comprehension monitoring•   Cooperative learning•   Graphic organizers•...
Scaffolded reading                       Planning               Graded goals based on standardsExpected                 de...
Multiple Strategy1. Making assumptions & gist questionsLook at he pictures and answer my questions.What kind of text is th...
Multiple Strategy2. Question generating – e.g. Information gap   Ask your partner questions and fill the gaps.Elizabeth is...
Multiple Strategy3. Listen to / read the story. Listen to the story or read it silently. Then putthe statements into the c...
Multiple Strategy4. SummarizingSummarize the story.Use key words / phrases / sentence starters /sample text.Use linking wo...
CubingCubing gives students the opportunity to constructmeaning about a topic through six different ways:•   Description (...
(c)Mewald   37
Tic-Tac-Toehttps://pantherfile.uwm.edu/edyburn/www/tictactoe.html                    (c)Mewald                            38
Learning contractshttp://www.iu29.org/resources/Documents/StudLearnContract.pdf                                   (c)Mewal...
(c)Mewald   40
Tiering     1. Choose a concept from Standards that students should        know or understand and choose whether to tier a...
Learning/Interest Centres• Learning/Interest Centres structure the classroom to allow   students to work in groups• Studen...
Independent Studies• Topics selected by students for in-depth study• Students and teacher agree on a statement of student ...
Intelligence preferenceshttp://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-howard-gardner-video                               ...
Orbital studies• done individually or in small groups• short term (3-6 weeks) projects• students choose their own topic th...
Complex Instruction• developed by Elizabeth Cohen, Rachel Lotan, and theircolleagues at the Stanford School of Education• ...
Complex InstructionMultiple ability curricula• designed to foster the development of higher-order  thinking skills through...
Complex InstructionInstructional strategies• teacher trains the students to use cooperative norms   and specific roles to ...
Complex InstructionTeachers recognize and treat status problems• the more that students talk and work together, the more t...
4MAThttp://www.4mat.eu/4mat-what-is-it.aspx                    (c)Mewald             50
4MATType 1 - wants to know WHY    The imaginative type likes being absorbed into feelings and spending time reflecting,   ...
WebQuests• focus on doable and interesting tasks – ideally scaled down versions  of things that adults do as citizens or w...
ETCEducational Technology ClearinghouseDigital resources for Floridas schoolshttp://etc.usf.edu/                      (c)M...
(c)Mewald   54
Task• Discus which strategies would suit your  learning design• Use them in your learning design                      (c)M...
Input through filmExample“Moments”http://film-english.com/2013/03/04/moments-2/                       (c)Mewald           ...
Discuss the                                                            questions in                                       ...
Discuss the                                                            questions in                                       ...
The two photos are taken from a short film. Work ingroups of 4 and create a story in which the man andwoman are characters...
Task:Develop materials to scaffold / differentiate the picturedescription.Develop materials to scaffold / differentiate th...
http://de.scribd.com/doc/127931410/Homelessness-Discussion-Questions                                         (c)Mewald    ...
Input through pictures                  Welcome Home! by Sylvia White (1995, Paperback)                  ISBN-10: 05164819...
Task:Collect pictures and materials to describes differenthomes.Develop differentiated materials to describe picturesof ho...
Input through graphshttp://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/How_Many.html                       (c)Mewald              ...
Input through music                                       Adulterated song                                       text:    ...
Input through poetry         (c)Mewald     66
Input through text / reading                                        Reading:                                        How ca...
Input through text / listening                                                  Listening:                                ...
Bibliography• Black P. & Wiliam D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning.  Assessment in Education, 5 (1): 7-74.• Bla...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Differentiated instruction.handout

1,202 views
1,080 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,202
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Differentiated instruction.handout

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction Claudia Mewald (c)Mewald 1
  2. 2. Five Major Tasks of Teachers1. Designing teaching goals & objectives/aims and developing learning designs2. Understanding learner characteristics and implementing learning profiles3. Understanding and implementing ideas about the nature of learning and motivation, e.g. developing learning profiles4. Selecting and implementing ways of teaching (approaches, methods, strategies) in learning designs5. Assessing learning processes and outcomes (c)Mewald 2
  3. 3. Rationale (c)Mewald 3
  4. 4. Differentiated instruction is the process ofrecognizing the students various backgroundknowledge, readiness, language, preferences inlearning, interests, and to react responsivelywhen planning for instruction. Differentiatedinstruction is an approach to teaching andlearning for students of differing abilities in thesame class. The intent of differentiatinginstruction is to maximize each student’sgrowth and individual success by meeting eachstudent where he or she is, and assisting in thelearning process. Source: http://www.efdlrs.com/~crown/di/act-1890.html (c)Mewald 4
  5. 5. (c)Mewald 5http://prekandksharing.blogspot.co.at/2012/04/differentiating-power-of-clipboard-and.html
  6. 6. We differentiate according to the learner’s …..background knowledge, readiness, language,preferences in learning, interests (c)Mewald 6 http://prekandksharing.blogspot.co.at/2012/04/differentiating-power-of-clipboard-and.html
  7. 7. Background knowledge & languageDiagnostic testing or Formative assessment• a range of formal and informal assessment procedures• employed by teachers during the learning process• to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment• typically involves qualitative feedback (rather than scores) for both student and teacher• feedback focuses on the details of content and performance (c)Mewald 7
  8. 8. Formative assessment• teacher observation• classroom discussion• analysis of output/products• homework assessments become formative when the• diagnostic tests information is used to adapt teaching and learning to meet the learner’s needs Brown & Wiliam 1998b (c)Mewald 8
  9. 9. Diagnostic testingA1 : YLE FlyersA2 : KETB1 :PEThttp://www.cambridgeenglish.org/prepare-and-practise/find-free-resources/ (c)Mewald 9
  10. 10. Preferences in learninghttp://prekandksharing.blogspot.co.at/2012/04/differentiating-power-of-clipboard-and.html (c)Mewald 10
  11. 11. http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/ict/multiple_int/questions/questions.cfm (c)Mewald 11
  12. 12. (c)Mewald 12
  13. 13. http://www.thinkingclassroom.co.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=iACSmiz7w8w%3d&tabid=66 (c)Mewald 13
  14. 14. MI Profilehttp://www.thinkingclassroom.co.uk/linkclick.aspx?fileticket=144 (c)Mewald 14
  15. 15. Display MI Profile, self-chosen work and targets .... e.g. for KEL meetings (c)Mewald 15
  16. 16. http://koinonia-all.org/homeschool/learnstyles.htm (c)Mewald 16
  17. 17. (c)Mewald 17
  18. 18. (c)Mewald 18http://www5.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/school/aal/international-baccalaureate/ib-attitudes/
  19. 19. (c)Mewald 19
  20. 20. Backward design 1. Identify desired results 2. DetermineWhat should the acceptablepupils be able to evidencedo at the end of a 3. Plan learning sequence? experiences What can we and instruction assess? How can this be done? What and how canWiggins & McTighe, 2005:16 we teach to reach the desired results? (c)Mewald 20
  21. 21. Learning designs 3. Expected 1. ANC outcome and its 2. E8 BIST assessment 4. Achieve- ment test5. Diagnostic test Requires differentiation 6. Learning design (c)Mewald 21
  22. 22. Planning for differentiation means ...• using varied teaching approaches• using varied strategies for providing input and eliciting output (celebrating success)• using varied assessment strategies (c)Mewald 22
  23. 23. Planning for differentiation Tomlinson (2010) http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html (c)Mewald 23
  24. 24. (c)Mewald 24Tomlinson (2010) http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
  25. 25. Instructional Strategies for differentiation• RAFTS • Independent Studies• Graphic organisers • Intelligence preferences• Scaffolded reading • Orbitals• Cubing • Complex Instruction• Tic-Tac-Toe • 4MAT• Learning contracts • Web Quests & Web• Tiering Inquiry• Learning/Interest Centres • ETC (c)Mewald 25 Tomlinson (2010) http://www.diffcentral.com/model.html
  26. 26. Role Audience Format Topic (R.A.F.T.)• is a writing strategy• helps students understand a topic from different perspectives• provides a focused writing assignment• encourages students to analyze the content while assuming different roles and addressing different audiences• motivates students by allowing for choice and involving them in the topic in a personal way www.learningthroughlistening.org (c)Mewald 26
  27. 27. RAFT - Instructions1. Identify the goal of the reading or listening (lesson)2. Choose a text (book, video …) to read or watch/listen to3. Identify a number of roles (R) the learners can assume as they write/speak about the topic4. Decide who the audience (A) will be and what format (F) the writing/discussion will follow.5. After reading/listening the learners choose from the R.A.F.T. options.6. Writing/speaking can be done individually or in groups Adapted from www.learningthroughlistening.org (c)Mewald 27
  28. 28. Example: Bend it like BeckhamRole Audience Format TopicJess Jules informal her love to Joe and her guilty letter conscience towards her family and her best friendMrs. Praxton her husband text message Jess has just to come to visit Jules and it seems the girls have a lesbian relationshipMr. Bhamra Equality and formal letter complains that he was kicked Human Rights out of a cricket club because Commission of his raceMr. Bhamra her mother informal the upcoming wedding and letter her daughter JessJoe Mr. and Mrs. informal to ask for permission to let Bhamra letter Jess play in the finals (c)Mewald 28
  29. 29. Graphic organisers• Flow chart• Spider Map• KWS / KWL (H)• Sense chart• Cluster diagram etc.http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/http://my.hrw.com/nsmedia/intgos/html/igo.htmhttp://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1kwlh.htm (c)Mewald 29
  30. 30. 8 most effective strategies to scaffold reading• Comprehension monitoring• Cooperative learning• Graphic organizers• Story structure• Question answering• Question generating• Summarization• Multiple Strategyhttp://www.phschool.com/eteach/language_arts/2002_12/essay.htmlhttp://www.reading.org/advocacy/nrp/index.html (c)Mewald 30
  31. 31. Scaffolded reading Planning Graded goals based on standardsExpected descriptors and appropriate Assessmentoutcomes reading strategiesLearners: readiness, interests, learning profiles Implementation1Pre-reading Post-reading Input texts & reading tasks tasks tasks (c)Mewald 31
  32. 32. Multiple Strategy1. Making assumptions & gist questionsLook at he pictures and answer my questions.What kind of text is this?Who is the story about?What is the story about? (c)Mewald 32
  33. 33. Multiple Strategy2. Question generating – e.g. Information gap Ask your partner questions and fill the gaps.Elizabeth is a beautiful princess. She lives in ________and haswonderful clothes. She wants to marry _________. His name isRonald.One day ___________acomes to her castle and lives in a castle and ha Elizabeth is beautiful princess. She smashes it. Itburns all her clothes and it carries off __________________.His name ________________. She wants to marry a prince. _____________.________________ is very angry but she has an idea. She lookseverywhere forday a dragon comes The only thing she finds is a One something to wear. to her castle and _____________.____________. She puts it on and runs __________________. Ronal burns ___________________and it carries off Prince (c)Mewald 33
  34. 34. Multiple Strategy3. Listen to / read the story. Listen to the story or read it silently. Then putthe statements into the correct order. A dragon destroys her clothes and her castle and carries off Prince Ronald. Wearing a paper bag, Elizabeth finds the dragon. Elizabeth is a beautiful princess who wears fancy clothes. But Ronald tells her to come back when she is dressed like a real princess. She wants to marry Prince Ronald. She outwits the him to save Ronald. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIPrb-sA6Uo (c)Mewald 34
  35. 35. Multiple Strategy4. SummarizingSummarize the story.Use key words / phrases / sentence starters /sample text.Use linking words, sentence starters etc.Draw the summary.Act out the story. (c)Mewald 35
  36. 36. CubingCubing gives students the opportunity to constructmeaning about a topic through six different ways:• Description (What is it like?)• Comparison (What is it similar to or different from?)• Association (What does it make you think of?)• Analysis (How is it made or what is it composed of?)• Application (What can you do with it? How is it used?)• Argumentation (Take a stand, arguing for or against it)http://sddial.k12.sd.us/esa/doc/teachers/differ_instruc.htmhttp://www.readwritethink.org/parent-afterschool-resources/games-tools/mystery- cube-a-30188.html (c)Mewald 36
  37. 37. (c)Mewald 37
  38. 38. Tic-Tac-Toehttps://pantherfile.uwm.edu/edyburn/www/tictactoe.html (c)Mewald 38
  39. 39. Learning contractshttp://www.iu29.org/resources/Documents/StudLearnContract.pdf (c)Mewald 39
  40. 40. (c)Mewald 40
  41. 41. Tiering 1. Choose a concept from Standards that students should know or understand and choose whether to tier according to readiness, interest, or learning profile. 2. Assess students profile, readiness, and/or interest. 3. Create an activity or project that is clearly focused on the concept. 4. Adjust the activity to provide different levels of difficulty. 5. Match students to appropriately tiered assignment. More complex Simpler task Target task taskwww.pps.k12.or.us/files/tag/Tiered_Instruction-Foundation.ppt Simpler task with (c)Mewald help 41
  42. 42. Learning/Interest Centres• Learning/Interest Centres structure the classroom to allow students to work in groups• Students move through the centres, which are based on a set of skills or activities established by the teacher• Centre rotation can be done in a specific time or based on individual student needs• Learning/Interest Centres structure learner groups and skill-based activities to maximize student autonomy and time-on-taskwww.iatefl.org/component/option.comhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIa0vHdChN8 (c)Mewald 42
  43. 43. Independent Studies• Topics selected by students for in-depth study• Students and teacher agree on a statement of student objective, research, and planned presentation• Students design products to demonstrate their understanding of a topic• Independent study encourages student autonomy in planning and problem solvinghttp://www.adifferentplace.org/classroom.htmhttp://www.ntuaft.com/TISE/Access%20Folder/Differentiated%20Learning/Differentiated%20Inst ruction%20-%20Introduction.htm (c)Mewald 43
  44. 44. Intelligence preferenceshttp://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-howard-gardner-video (c)Mewald 44
  45. 45. Orbital studies• done individually or in small groups• short term (3-6 weeks) projects• students choose their own topic that orbits around the curriculum• students investigate independently• presentation to five of their classmates for 10-20 minutes• display or demonstration• 1 page handout (c)Mewald 45
  46. 46. Complex Instruction• developed by Elizabeth Cohen, Rachel Lotan, and theircolleagues at the Stanford School of Education• goal of CI is to provide academic access and successfor all students in heterogeneous classrooms• 3 major components: Multiple ability curricula,Instructional strategies, Teachers recognize and treatstatus problems http://www.stanford.edu/group/pci/images/logo_color.gif (c)Mewald 46
  47. 47. Complex InstructionMultiple ability curricula• designed to foster the development of higher-order thinking skills through group work activities organized around a central concept or big idea• tasks are open-ended• Students work interdependently to solve problems• tasks require a wide array of intellectual abilities so that students from diverse backgrounds and different levels of academic proficiency can make meaningful contributions to the group task http://www.stanford.edu/group/pci/images/logo_color.gif (c)Mewald 47
  48. 48. Complex InstructionInstructional strategies• teacher trains the students to use cooperative norms and specific roles to manage their own groups• teacher is free to observe groups carefully, to provide specific feedback, and to treat status problems which cause unequal participation among group members http://www.stanford.edu/group/pci/images/logo_color.gif (c)Mewald 48
  49. 49. Complex InstructionTeachers recognize and treat status problems• the more that students talk and work together, the more they learn• students who are social isolates or students who are seen as lacking academic skills often fail to participate and thus learn less than they would if they were more active in the groups• teachers use status treatments to broaden students perceptions of what it means to be smart, and to convince students that they each have important intellectual contributions to make to the multiple-ability task http://www.stanford.edu/group/pci/images/logo_color.gif (c)Mewald 49
  50. 50. 4MAThttp://www.4mat.eu/4mat-what-is-it.aspx (c)Mewald 50
  51. 51. 4MATType 1 - wants to know WHY The imaginative type likes being absorbed into feelings and spending time reflecting, seeking personal meaning and involvement. Type 1 is focused on personal values for them selves and others and making connections. Favourite question: Why?Type 2 - wants to know WHAT The analytic type likes listening to and thinking about information, seeking facts, thinking through ideas, formulating ideas - and learning what the experts think. Favourite question: What?Type 3 - wants to know HOW The common sense type likes thinking and doing. Type 3 are most happy experimenting, building and creating usability. They like tinkering and applying useful ideas. Favourite question: How?Type 4 - wants to find out WHAT IF The dynamic type likes doing and feeling. They are constantly seeking hidden possibilities and exploring ideas to create original adaptations, they learn by trial and error and self-discovery. Favourite question: What if?http://www.4mat.eu/method-learning-styles.aspx (c)Mewald 51
  52. 52. WebQuests• focus on doable and interesting tasks – ideally scaled down versions of things that adults do as citizens or workers (=authentic)• require higher level thinking, not simply summarizing = include synthesis, analysis, problem-solving, creativity and judgment• make good use of the web• are more than a research report or a step-by-step science or math procedure - simply distilling web sites and making a presentation about them isnt enough• are more than just a series of web-based experiences - go look at this page, then go play this game, then go here and turn your name into hieroglyphs doesnt require higher level thinking skills ….http://webquest.org/index-create.phphttp://questgarden.com/51/22/4/070608090111/index.htm (c)Mewald 52
  53. 53. ETCEducational Technology ClearinghouseDigital resources for Floridas schoolshttp://etc.usf.edu/ (c)Mewald 53
  54. 54. (c)Mewald 54
  55. 55. Task• Discus which strategies would suit your learning design• Use them in your learning design (c)Mewald 55
  56. 56. Input through filmExample“Moments”http://film-english.com/2013/03/04/moments-2/ (c)Mewald 56
  57. 57. Discuss the questions in pairs. What does the woman look like? What kind of person do you think she is? What has she done in her life? How is she feeling right now? What’s she looking at? (c)Mewald 57http://film-english.com/2013/03/04/moments-2/
  58. 58. Discuss the questions in pairs. What does the man look like? What kind of person do you think he is? What has he done in his life? How is he feeling now? What’s he looking at? (c)Mewald 58http://film-english.com/2013/03/04/moments-2/
  59. 59. The two photos are taken from a short film. Work ingroups of 4 and create a story in which the man andwoman are characters.- 10 minutes to take notes- one student from each group will present their storyYou are going to watch a short film. Sit back to back -the person facing the screen tells the other whathe/she can see.Compare your stories with the story you saw in thefilm.http://player.vimeo.com/video/17896628 (c)Mewald 59
  60. 60. Task:Develop materials to scaffold / differentiate the picturedescription.Develop materials to scaffold / differentiate the storytelling.Develop materials to scaffold / differentiate the storyviewing. (c)Mewald 60
  61. 61. http://de.scribd.com/doc/127931410/Homelessness-Discussion-Questions (c)Mewald 61
  62. 62. Input through pictures Welcome Home! by Sylvia White (1995, Paperback) ISBN-10: 0516481932 | ISBN-13: 9780516481937Show students pictures of different homes around theworld. Discuss how basic needs and comforts might bemet in each home. Show students the picture of ahomeless family (e.g. White, 1995, page 25).Compare this family with any other family. (c)Mewald 62
  63. 63. Task:Collect pictures and materials to describes differenthomes.Develop differentiated materials to describe picturesof homes / places.Develop differentiated materials to describe howpeople live in different places of the world. (c)Mewald 63
  64. 64. Input through graphshttp://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/How_Many.html (c)Mewald 64
  65. 65. Input through music Adulterated song text: Underline the words that are not correct. Listen to the song. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DFluKXQfiw (c)Mewald 65
  66. 66. Input through poetry (c)Mewald 66
  67. 67. Input through text / reading Reading: How can you differentiate the reading task?http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-20696458 (c)Mewald 67
  68. 68. Input through text / listening Listening: How can you differentiate the listening task?http://www.covenanthouse.org/homeless-kids/theres-always-tomorrow (c)Mewald 68
  69. 69. Bibliography• Black P. & Wiliam D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5 (1): 7-74.• Black P. & Wiliam D. (1998b). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 (2): 139-148. (Available online: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm.)• Maduakolam, I. & Ibeneme, O.T. (2010) Differentiating instruction to meet the needs of diverse technical/technology education students at the secondary school level. African Journal of Teacher Education. Vol. 1/1, pp. 106-114.• Oaksford L. & Jones L. (2001) Differentiated instruction abstract. Tallahassee, FL: Leon County Schools.• Wiggins G. & McTighe J. (2005) Understanding by Design. Expanded 2nd Edition. VA: Pearson Education/Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. (c)Mewald 69

×