1. Methods and Theory:English Language LearningUNIVERSIDAD NACIOINAL MICAELA BASTIDAS DE APURIMAC“Curso Internacional sobre Estrategias de Enseñanza y Aprendizajedel Idioma Ingles.”July 21 & 22, 2013Claudia Behnke
2. Method: Grammar-TranslationSkill: Writing and ReadingEmphasis: Translation, L1 only.Activities:Read and translate texts.Respond to written questions.Memorize vocabulary and grammar rules.Pros: Translation of documents with no communicative focus, or the studyof classic literature.Cons: NOT AUTHENTIC, no production.
3. Method: Audio-lingual (Charles Fries)Skill: Speaking.Emphasis: Correct pronunciation.Activities: Dialogues:Teacher models a dialogue and students memorize and practice.Pros: Good pronunciation.Cons: NOT AUTHENTIC, no ‘real’ production.
4. Method: Direct (Berlitz & Sauzé)Skill/system: Grammar and Speaking.Emphasis: No L1!Activities:Use of visual aids to teach vocabulary.The teacher speaks to students in l2 naturally and corrects students’errors in L2. The teacher never translates.Pros: Students receive ‘natural’ input in the L2 and may produceauthentically.Cons: Students may need more support to learn the L2.
5. Method: Total Physical Response [TPR](James Asher)Skill/system: VocabularyEmphasis: Comprehension before production (or action).Activities: Solo use of the imperative.The teacher states the command and demonstrates the action. The teacher does not correctstudent error, but repeats the command and action.The student only repeats the command or action when he or she feels comfortable. The finalphase has a student volunteer give the commands to the class.Pros: Students are confident when they speak. Students comprehend without the use of translation.Cons: TPR cannot teach grammar, no authentic input.
6. Method: Community Language Learning(Charles Curran)Skill: SpeakingEmphasis: Interpersonal communication, Fluidity is more important than correctness.Activities:Based on themes and topics rather than grammar/vocabulary lessons.The teacher advises students and seeks student input to create activities and facilitatesconversation.Students (members of the community) learn through interactions with other communitymembers.Pros: Students receive input and produce authentically. The class is student driven (i.e. class topic isinteresting and engaging). Students receive support from other classmates and the teacher.Cons: Not all students are interested in the same topics. Not all students are comfortable producingimmediately in front of their peers.
7. Method: Natural Approach (Krashen &Terrell)Skill: Communicative (listening, speaking, reading, writing)Emphasis: Comprehensible input!Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Theory: Every human is born with an innate ability to acquirelanguage.Each language has a universal grammar. As a child is exposed to input which activatesdifferent grammar rules.
8. Natural Approach, cont.Activities: The students interact with lots of comprehensible input.Level of input: i + 1Students must “negotiate meaning”.The teacher exemplifies a natural use of the L2 and creates learning opportunities for students.The teacher must create a stress-free environment so the students have a lowered “AffectiveFilter”.
9. Natural Approach, Cont.Pros:Models how we learn our L1.Creates an environment that is conducive to learning.Encourages authentic and natural expression in the L2.Encourages use of authentic materials = cultural information.Cons:The adult brain learns language differently than the child brain.
10. Method: Task-Based Learning(Prabhu)Skill: All language skills and possibly skills of other disciplines.Emphasis: Using the L2 to complete real life tasks.Activities:Pre-task: The teacher gives instrucctions and may prepare students with relevantvocabulary or grammar.Task: Students complete the task as the teacher monitors.Review: The students give and receive feedback.Example: Information gap activityPros: Students are motivated to complete the task and use the L2 in the real world. Studentsmay also benefit from the task itself or strengthen their knowledge of other disciplines.Cons: The task must be level appropriate or students will feel overwhelmed and defeated.
11. What method?Students translate an old biology book fromLatin to English.
12. What method?METHOD: GRAMMAR TRANSLATION:Students translate an old biology book fromLatin to English
13. What method?Student A receives an advertisement for anapartment for sale. Student B is the owner ofthe apartment and receives more details aboutthe apartment. Student A will call student B toinquire more information about the apartment.
14. What method?METHOD: TASK BASED LEARNING:Student A receives an advertisement for anapartment for sale. Student B is the ownerof the apartment and receives more detailsabout the apartment. Student A will callstudent B to inquire more information aboutthe apartment.
15. What method?Students receive a story about “Little Red Riding Hood”.First they answer comprehension questions about the story inEnglish.Then they work with a partner to underline all of the verbsconjugated in the Past.Next, students decide whether the past conjugation is ‘regular’ or‘irregular’.Finally, students write their own story in the past tense.
16. What method?METHOD: NATURAL APPROACH:Students receive a story about “Little Red Riding Hood”.First they answer comprehension questions about the story inEnglish.Then they work with a partner to underline all of the verbsconjugated in the Past.Next, students decide whether the past conjugation is ‘regular’ or‘irregular’.Finally, students write their own story in the past tense.
17. What method?Students listen to the teacher model adialogue at a restaurant. Students then repeatand practice the dialogue with a partner.
18. What method?METHOD: AUDIO-LINGUAL:Students listen to the teacher model adialogue at a restaurant. Students thenrepeat and practice the dialogue with apartner
19. What method?The teacher demonstrates a ‘chores’ activity.He demonstrates the action and says thecommand. For example, “sweep!”. Thestudents repeat the action.
20. What method?METHOD: TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE(TPR)The teacher demonstrates a ‘chores’activity. He demonstrates the action andsays the command. For example, “sweep!”.The students repeat the action.
21. But... What method do Iuse?Why are the students studying English?What is the objective of the lesson?How many students are participating?How can I accommodate different learning styles?How old are the students? What are their cultural backgrounds? Whatis their level of English?The best method = An eclectic approach
22. Other techniques:Increase STT (Student talk time) anddecrease TTT (Teacher talk time).Always identify student errors. Give themthe opportunity to self-correct.Elicit meaning: draw, mime, synonyms, etc.NO TRANSLATION!Always engage the students with the topic.Be energetic and make things interesting!
23. Other techniques, cont. :Ensure your students understand! Use comprehension checkquestions (CCQs):Grammar: “I am going to travel to Arequipa.”Is this past, present or future? Are you traveling now?When are your going to travel?Vocabulary: “Sightseeing”1. Obvious: In Cusco, Sam went and sawmany important historical places of Cusco like theQoricancha and Sacsayhuaman.2. Yes/No: Can I go sightseeing in Paris?3. 50/50: Do you sightsee at your house or when youtravel?4. Open: If I got sightseeing in Peru, what will I see?Ultimate: Students write an example sentence using thevocabulary.
24. Teaching Grammar:Two approaches:Explicit: The teacher gives the grammarrule or structure. The students practice andproduce.Implicit: The teacher gives examples anguides the students to define the rule orstructure themselves. The students practiceand produce.
25. Explicit Grammar Approach: FUTURETENSETeacher tells students: To form the future, add“will” before the stem verb.Students change verbs from the present to thefuture.Students write a dialogue using the futuretense.
26. Implicit Grammar Approach: FUTURETENSEStudents read the sentence “I will drink beer on Friday.”Students answer questions:When will you drink beer? Is this past, present or future? Etc.Students receive more example sentences and must define the rule.“Future = will + VERB”.Students change verbs from present to future.Students write a dialogue using the future tense.
27. P.A.C.E. Method(Implicit Grammar Approach)Gerunds vs. InfintivesGerunds vs. InfintivesGerunds vs. InfintivesP.resentation: students read a story or dialogue. After, they answercomprehension questions.A.ttention: Students return to the text and underline all infinitives andcircle all gerunds. With a classmate they begin to hypothesize why thegerund/infinitive was used.C.o-construcction: As a class the teacher will solicit hypothesis andask students to support these hypothesis with examples from the text.After the rule is discovered, students will practice.E.xtension: Students will produce the rule in writing or speaking. Thisactivity is used to evaluate the lesson.
28. Teaching Vocabulary:Always create a context!Present the vocabulary with visual aids:graphs, photos, miming, as part of a story, etc.Have students repeat the word, write theword, identify the word and use the word.
29. Example:Elicit the vocabulary: What’s the weather like today? (teachershows “windy”).Students repeat “windy” and teacher checks for correctpronunciation.Check for comprehension: Show me “windy”.Label a picture:Use the word: What activities can you do when it’s windy?When it’s windy I can fly a kite.
30. Teaching ReadingSelect texts that are relevant, interesting andlevel appropriate (i + 1).Reading activities must have 3 parts:Pre-reading.Reading.Post-reading.
31. Teaching ReadingPre-reading tasks:Students make hypothesis about thereading based on the title.Students answer pre-reading questions.Students research the author or the culturalimportance of the reading, etc.The teacher prepares students with keyvocabulary from the reading.
32. Teaching ReadingReading:Reading aloud keeps students on task, practices pronunciation but studentsalso need to READ SILENTLY.Reading silently is when comprehension occurs.Reading cycle:Individual students read aloud for 3-4 paragraphs.The students silently read the same 3-4 paragraphs and underline anyunknown vocabulary.The teacher elicits the meaning of the new vocabulary and asks CCQs.The teacher asks a few CCQs regarding the content of 3-4 paragraphs.Repeat the cycle.
33. Teaching ReadingPost-reading tasks:Students answer comprehension questions. (Demonstrates knowledge of facts andevents from the reading)Students complete ‘big-idea’ activities:Change the title.Write a review or summary.Write a love or hate letter to one of the protagonists.Students produce:Students write a poem, song, etc. about the reading.Write a different ending.Change the title.
34. Teaching SpeakingGive students materials to guide their speaking. Reading out loud ISNOT speaking.Narrate a comic strip.Describe a photo.Give directions.Compare and contrast.Other speaking activities:Guess whoPrompt questions. “What are you going to do this weekend?”Interviews (speed dating).
35. Teaching ListeningListening is difficult!Students can’t recognize words in the spoken form.They have difficulty concentrating (depending on the type andlength of the passage).They can’t remember what they have listened to.They are so focused on understanding the first point mentioned inthe passage that they don’t pay attention to the rest of the audio.They understand the words but not the overall message, ormeaning
36. Teaching ListeningUseful tools to practice listening skillsUsing music in the target languageWeb 2.0 tools: VokiUsing authentic videos in the targetlanguage
37. Teaching ListeningMusic: Why it is effectiveIt motivates students inside and outside of class to find music tolisten to in the target language.It can be used to enforce culture (perspectives and references),grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and most importantly,listening comprehension skills.There is easy access for both teachers and students to music.
38. Teaching ListeningHow to use music in the classroomStart with pre-listening activities: Introduce the artist, where they are from, thegenre, the topic (introduce title), and if any awards have been won.Have students make hypotheses about what the song is about based on the title,and discuss unknown key vocabulary.In groups, students draw a representation of a stanza of the song, then the classorders the pictures and listens to the song to check the order.It is important to choose songs that can be easily represented in drawings and thattell a story.Have students discuss whether their hypotheses were correct.Teacher checks comprehension.
39. Teaching ListeningOther activities using music:Pre-listening activities: Students receive the title of the song, andthen in groups create semantic maps associating other words withthe title.While listening, each group will be assigned one stanza of thesong and will take notes to answer the following questions:Who is the singer? Where is he from? Where is he now? Whatis the singer’s dilemma?Post-listening activities: The groups present their answers to theclass and discuss. Each group draws a visual representation oftheir interpretation of the song.
40. Teaching ListeningWeb 2.0 Tools: VokiVoki is an online program that uses speaking avatars, which can be sentand received as messages, or embedded in a website.http://www.voki.com/
41. Teaching ListeningWeb 2.0 Tools: VokiTeachers can send speaking avatars to students. Students listento the message and then reply using their own avatars. In thissense, Voki encourages listening in transactional interactions.We can use Vokis in jigsaw listening activities. Teachers cancreate characters telling different parts of the story and studentshave to listen to the different characters and take notes in order tore-create the logical sequence of events.
42. Teaching ListeningExamples of Voki activitiesListening comprehension activity using Voki (listening in an interaction with theteacher)Students listen to a recording on Vocaroo (Vocaroo.com) giving a brief descriptionof a famous figure in Latin America including a physical description.Students then create their own Voki that resembles the physical description. Afterbrief research, the student then records a short message speaking as if they werethe famous person.QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
43. Teaching ListeningExamples of Voki ActivitiesJigsaw activity: Thanksgiving DayQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.QuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
44. Teaching ListeningUsing Videos in the ClassroomUsing videos allows the listener to process both the aural andvisual information transmitted by the speaker (Wagner, 2008).Provides students with language used in real life as well ascultural references.Provides students with a visual, which can aid in listeningcomprehension.Simulates an authentic listening situation.
45. Teaching ListeningUsing Videos in the ClassroomUsing videos allows the listener to process both the aural andvisual information transmitted by the speaker (Wagner, 2008).Provides students with language used in real life as well ascultural references.Provides students with a visual, which can aid in listeningcomprehension.Simulates an authentic listening situation.
46. Teaching ListeningActivities Using VideosActivity #1:Teacher shows a video on mute, and students hypothesize aboutthe content of the dialogue.Teacher plays the video with sound and students compare theirhypotheses with the actual dialogue.
47. Teaching ListeningExample: Mafalda - HypothesizingQuickTime™ and adecompressorare needed to see this picture.
48. Teaching ListeningActivities Using VideosActivity #2:Teacher shows a video and pauses halfway through. Thestudents then make predictions about what is going to happennext. Students must justify their hypotheses based on what theyhave heard.
49. Teaching ListeningExample: El Chavo - Predicting
50. Teaching ListeningWhy these tools are successfulThey involve technology, which engages this generation ofstudents.They can be cultural, which interests students.They are accessible outside of the classroom, so students canuse them at home.The songs and videos provide students with authentic language.
51. Questions?Find this presentation at:Contact me:Claudia.email@example.com