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  • 1. To assign the right person to the right job …
    … who masters the requiredskills…
    … in orderthatone’swork output meets the organization’sneeds for operations and sustainablegrowth
    Isn’titcritical ?
    Claude Trépanier
    Professional in measurement, assesssment and development of skills
    Extended version of a scientific communication deliveredat the 2008 Annualconference of the Canadian EducationalResearcher’s Association (http://www.csse.ca/CERA/home.htm)
    Copyright 2010. All rightsreserved.
  • 2. Content
    Practicalproblemaddressed
    Study of researchproblem
    Selected a skills typologies
    Action-researchundertook
    Applications of skills typologies
    Furtherscientificresearchesrequired
    Conclusion
    References
  • 3. 1. Practicalproblemaddressed
    Researchobject : Skills set of a position
    Problem observed: Teachers and workplace trainers cannot easily reuse job skills set, as defined by employers, to design courses aimed at developing skills in a valid and effective fashion.
    Drawbacks : The skillsdevelopeddon’tyield optimal correlationwithskillsexpected in the job, theydon’tyield optimal performance (effectiveness = results) and competence(efficiency = use of resources).
  • 4. Cost of the problem
    “The World Bank finances about US$720 million in training every year, through both its lending projects and its in-house World Bank Institute (WBI).
    The evaluation found that while most of the training reviewed resulted in demonstrable participant learning, this learning frequently did not lead to real change in participants' workplace performance.
    Poor training outcomes most often resulted from training content that wasn't relevant to the needs and goals of the target institutions, or from the trainees' lack of incentives or resources to apply learning in their workplaces.
    These findings highlight how important it is for training to be embedded in broader capacity-building programs that identify and address organizational and institutional capacity constraints alongside human ones.”
    Source : www.worldbank.org/ieg/training,
    Cost = billions of dollars $wastedeachyearworldwide
  • 5. 2. Study of researchproblem
    Research problem :
    • How to define the skills set of a position in order to measure, assess and develop them in a valid and reliable fashion ?
    So … :
    • teachers and workplace trainers can easily reuse job skills set, as defined by employers, to design courses aimed at developing skills in a valid and effective fashion.
    Hence enabling us as educational researchers, to become better at:
    Identifiyng skills to develop;
    Teaching skills;
    Measuring ans assessing skills.
  • 6. 2. Study of researchproblem
    Methodology
    1. Problem observed within two Delphi sessions on ICT skills set definition www.ictc-ctic.ca.
    2. Studied occupational skills Profile Models (frameworks).
    3. Studied various skills typologies.
    4. Draw specifications for a universal skills typology deemed universal (workplace and classroom).
  • 7. What happened
    A facilitator asked experts of a workplace position (Intellectual Property Manager), to validate proposed set of accountabilities and skills, to precise them and to propose additional ones.
    Occupational levels
    Accountabilities
    Skills
    2.1 Problemobservedwithin Delphi sessions
    The expert discuss until a consensus is reached
  • 8. Observed accountabilities and skills through practical experience alone
    Job
    Intuitive observer
    Scope of essential
    accountabilities and skills for a job
    Accountabilities and skills which cannot be observed by practical experience alone
    2.1 Problemobservedwithin Delphi sessions
    Job experts recalled their experience of the job activities and competencies only through their memory, hence inducing biases : interpretations, unbalanced weightings, emotive recalls, etc..
  • 9. About the validity of the sessions
    It is fine for experts to recall past experiences and memories of a position to define accountabilities and skills.
    But :
    1. How can they be confident they have covered all aspects?
    2. How do they know they have not been too focused on certain aspects and omitted some?
    3. Can they ensure their wording of competencies and skills can be reused by teachers in order to design courses developing and assessing exactly the competencies sought?
    How valid were the accountabilities and skills hence defined ?
    There are hence serious limitations stemming from the absence of an underlying conceptual framework in teaching and learning
  • 10. ICTC
    Ancillary competencies
    Secondary competencies
    Core competencies
    2.2 StudiedOccupationalSkills Profile Models (frameworks)
    Logical representation of factors contributing to understanding, developing and managing occupational skills.
    DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)
    Tasks, knowledge, behaviour, skills, tools and equipment
    Competency A Prepare meals
    Sub-competency A1 Buy food
    Sub-competency A2 Wash food
    Sub-competency A3 Cut food
    CSTD Training Competency Architecture
    Analyzing performance/training needs
    Designing training
    Facilitating/instructing
    Evaluating training
    Coaching the application of training
  • 11. 2.2 StudiedOccupationalSkills Profile Models (frameworks)
    Findings :
    1. Mainly facts, information and tasks-based.
    2. Most are groupings of competencies in homogeneous categories, sometimes in a sequence of visible tasks.
    3. None based on any theories (educational, organizational, psychological).
    4. Equivocal relation between activity, competency and skill : « a skill is the capacity to undertake an activity ». Circular definitions.
    5. Wording of skills using a language’s syntax, no framework used. How one can be sure a skill is properly worded ?
    6. Non-systemic, loosely structured frameworks.
    7. None enable alignement of workplace and human capital resources.
  • 12. 2.3 Studiedvariousskills typologies
    Typology of skills typologies
    1. Based on groups of skills applications (areas in which they are used)
    • Very loosely defined. Not grounded much in theories
    • 13. No clear statement guidelines. Proned to interpretations.
    • 14. Proned to mainly state visible behaviors (tasks)
    • 15. Knowledge
    • 16. Attitude
    • 17. Know-how
    • 18. Knowledge
    • 19. Declarative Knowledge
    • 20. Process knowledge
    • 21. Cognitivism-based
    • 22. What about other people’s dimensions ? Affectivity, social, imagination, physical skills ?
    2. Skills based on a framework of learning styles and experiential learning theory (domain specific)
    • Grounded in theory
    • 23. Observable and measurable behaviors
    • 24. Cover most of a person’s skills areas
    • 25. Not integrated within a framework preventing inclusion of common skills traits
  • Is … similar to looking through capped binoculars
    … hence yielding researchers and educators to …
    Drawbacks of typologies of skills studied
    Educational researchers beware !
    If skills typologies lack :
    1. Grounds in psychological and educational theories;
    2. An underlying framework/model depicting the functioning of a person;
    3. Universal, objective, observable and measurable criteria to define specific skills …
  • 26. Characteristics sought from an ideal skills framework
    1. Skills are observable and measurable behaviors;
    2. Skills cover all of a person’s set of observable and measurable behaviors (including internal dimensions affecting demonstration of behaviors)
    3. Grounded on an integration of theoriespertaining to personal functioning and development;
    4. Skills of the same type are grouped within functions;
    5. Prescribes a clear, unequivocal structure to state skills;
    6. Prescribes a clear, unequivocal structure to link skills with competencies, teaching models and measurement and assessment instruments;
    7. Universal uses : personal development, interpersonal relationships, teaching learning and coaching within a classroom as well in workplaces with persons of all age ranges, allowing to align personal and professional development.
  • 27. 3. Selected a skillstypology
    Selected the Synergistic Person’s typology of skills (Racine, 2003)
    • Based on how a person functions (behave) and learn
  • Paradigm and theories underneath a proposed skills typologies
    Positivist paradigm putting a person’s functioning model at the core of the teaching and learning system (observable and measurable behaviors)
  • 28. Functions-based process transforming inputs in outputs
    Inputs
    Outputs
    Imaginative
    Resources
    Results of functions in action
    Social
    Affective
    Cognitive
    Physical
    Physique
    The synergistic person model©
    Each function integrates a typology of skills
  • 32. Definition:
    Any learned human process deemed with a certain value acting on an object and generating a product (effect).
    Skill : Definition, structure and formula
    Structure
    A skill is composed of three elements:
    An object
    A process
    A product
    Formula
    Product (output is an observable and measurable behavior or deliverable generated by the act)
    Process (activities processing resources in outputs)
    Object (resource)
    Skill =
    +
    +
  • 33. Typologies of skills of the Synergistic person
    Racine, S. (2003)
  • 34. Skills : Examples
    I4 To solve (process) a problem (object) to generate a solution (product)
    A4 To organize (process) self around a value (object) in order to live by those values (product)
    P5 To convey a message (object)through speaking in public (process) in order to inform, entertain, convince or mobilize (product)
    C3 To apply (process) rules (object) in order to generate a deliverable expected by our role/position (product)
    S3 To help (process) customers satisfy their needs (object) in order they take decisions in their best interest (product)
  • 35. A thoroughly validated typology of skills
    Validated with over 5,000 persons who completed a personal functioning test (PFT) on 7 occasions.
    (Racine, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007)
    Validity based on :
    How well a respondent recognizes one’s PFT (over 97%)
    Content validity :
    • Skills’experts through consensus within a Delphi session
    • 36. Measure of how well items are linked to a function
    Construct validity : Through structural equation modeling, confirmatory factor analysis
    Diverging validity : Divergence between negative and positive items (forced choice items)
    Predictive validity : Regression indice
    Internal coherence = Internal fidelity : Homogeneity of test with sub-test
    Theoretical validity : link between items and taxons
  • 37. Competence : Definition, structure and formula
    Definition
    • Socially acceptable human activity;
    • 38. integrating various skills of various functions (imaginative, affective, physical, cognitive and social);
    • 39. realised beyond a measurable performance threshold.
  • Skill of the A function =
    object –> process –> product
    Skill of the I function =
    object –> process –> product
    Skill of the P function =
    object –> process –> product
    Skill of the C function =
    object –> process –> product
    Skill of the S function =
    object –> process –> product
    Skill #6
    Skill #5
    Skill #4
    Skill #1
    Skill #3
    Skill #2
    Competence structure
    integration of skills of various functions in an action:
  • 40. Competence formula
    Comp. = Σ weighted skills
    Comp. = (Iskill*weightI)+ (Askill * weightA) +
    (Pskill * weightP) + (Iskill * weightC) + (Iskill * weightS)
    Examples:
    I To know thyself (A2) in order to give a meaning to one’s life (I5) and a direction
    A To organize self (A4) and to explore (C4) with others means of living in harmony (S4)
    P To express verbally (P5) one’s emotions (A2) in order to willingly cooperate with others in solving relationship issues (S4)
    C To write a technical report according to industry’s guidelines (C3), which help target readers make sound decisions based on the findings (S3)
    S To help people (S3) find what they are looking for, through applying bureaucratic rules (C3) and showing them a hand-made picture (I3)
  • 41. A definition of learning
    Learning is :
    A change in a person’s imaginative, affective, physical, cognitive and social functions;
    as aimed by the objectives (operational formulation of skills and competencies based on typologies);
    amplified by the teaching (application of the appropriate teaching models) and;
    noticed through using appropriate measurement and assessment instruments.
  • 42. 4. Action-researchundertook
    Goal: To design three competency-based university courses according to the competency profiles of the sought positions : R&D Manager, IP manager, Events organizer.
    Methodology followed
    1. Identified experts for each position.
    2. Devised questionnaires to draw competency profiles for the positions.
    3. Analysed results, gathered experts for a Delphi session until consensus was reached.
    4. Used the skills position profiles as exit profiles in the design of three university courses.
    5. Delivered the courses.
    6. Measured and assessed the developed skills.
  • 43. 5. Delphi sessions for three workplace positions
  • 44. Process
    Corresponding
    job functions
    Person’s functions
    To conceive
    Imaginative
    To choose
    Affective
    To execute tasks
    Physical
    To assess :to process information
    Cognitive
    To communicate
    Social
    Feedback loops
    Synergistic Workplace System Model
    Every job transforms inputs into outputs through a process using 5 functions :
    Inputs
  • Defined a position competency profile
    Sent a survey questionnaire to experts of the positions.
    Synthesizedresults.
    Set-up a Delphi session to reach a consensus.
    Used a job-personmatching test to weigh I, A, P, C and S functionsdeemedmostdesirable in the position.
    Author:Serge Racine
    Available for free on : www.synergimax.com
  • 49. Job-Person Matching Test©
    Desired Position Functioning Profile
    Auteur:
    - Serge Racine. Ph.D
  • 50. … and those of an individual
    … skillsdeemeddesirable in the job…
    Results to the skills test
    Once skills set required are known for a job, skills of a person (candidate to the job or workeractuallyfilling the job), have to beassessed. Then, one has to assess gaps between…
    Coloredcellssuggest the level of skillsrequired in eachfunction, (based on the typology of skills)
    Result of the Job-Person Matching Test (JPMT) (consensus of experts)
    • Gaps suggestsomelearningisrequired!
  • Identification of skillsrequiringdevelopment
    Results of the JPMT : Skillssought in the job=>
    Skillsrequiringdevelopment=>
    Results to a skills test ;
    Skillsmastered by an individual=>
  • 51. Tailoring of skills selected from typologies, to a role or a job
    Upon having identified, within the skills’typologies, the generic skills within the I, A, P, C and S functions which are deemed desirable for a particular role or job, one has to tailor them to a particular role or job.
    Application for a trainer’s role :
  • 52. Functioning types deemedmostdesirable for the three positions surveyed
  • 53. 3
    1
    2
    Skills typologies
    Models of teaching
    Measurement and assessment instruments
    Imaginative skills
    Affective skills
    Physical skills
    Cognitive skills
    Social skills
    Used the skills position profiles as exit profiles in the design of three university courses
  • 54. Delivered the courses, measured and assessed the skills
    Allows to grade change in skills as a scorecard in Excel
    Kirkpatrick’s level #2
  • 55. 5. Applications of skills typologies
    Framework for any task aimed at measuring, assessing and developing any human organizational element:
    Personal Functioning Test
    Job-Person Matching Test
    Course design (choice of objectives, teaching models and measurement and assessment instruments)
    Course satisfaction assessment
    Competence and skills measurement and assessment
    Assessment of educational research
    Diagnostic of an organization
    Achitecturing information/content/template tools within organization’s databases
  • 56. The use of the sameframeworkinsures congruent links
    Organization’s diagnostic
    Measurement and assessment ok keyperformance indicators:
    Functions : Direction, Management, Production, Assessmentand Sales
    Management dashboard, Prescription of enhancementactivities
    Job situationalassessment
    Competencies and skills profiles : Imaginative, Affective, Physical, Cognitive and Socialskillssought in a role or a job
    Competenciesdevelopmentprogram :
    Program, Course outlines, Pre-test, Educationalmaterial, Measurement and assessmentinstruments, post-test
    • Production of a formative and sommative evaluation
    • 57. Prescription of skillsenhancementactivities
  • 6. Furtherscientificresearchesrequired
    Furthervalidateskills by functionwithskills experts (Delphi)
    Furtherdefinestatement of skills by type (I, A, P, C and S) and provide application examples for variousroles and jobs
    Validatecorrespondingteachingmodels and measurement and assessment instruments
    Validatewith lots of positions (hundredsubjects per position)
  • 58. 7. Conclusion
    Skills typologies are an invaluable science-basedtool, an enablingtechnology, usedat the heart of humans and organization’sfunctioning.
    Theyallow us to:
    1) Know more precisely how we behave;
    2) Significantly learn better through more adapted teaching, thus becoming empowered;
    3) Assign the right person in the right job in order to deliver the expected performance, in alignment with the organizational‘s objectives.
  • 59. 8. References
    BANDLER, R. GRINDER, J. (1982), Les secrets de la communication, Actualisation edh.
    D'HAINAUT, L. (1988), Des fins aux objectifs de l'éducation, Labor Nathan, Coll 2000.
    GORDON, W. J. (1987) The New Art of the Possible: The Basic Course in Synectics, Cambridge: Porpoise Books.
    HARROW, A. (1972), a Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain. McKay.
    KOHLBERG, L. (1969), Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization.
    KRATHWOHL, D.R. & al. (1964), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook II: Affective Domain, McKay.
    RACINE, S., (2003), La personne synergique : théorie et applications, Ste-Foy : Septembre.
    RACINE, S., (1996), A dynamic and holistic model for formulating competence, choosing teaching strategies and evaluating synergic effects. In H.M. Kandarakis (Ed.) New Horizons in learning assessment: Conference Proceeding of the 21st annual meeting of the International Association for Educational Assessment. Montréal, Que: Université de Montréal).
    RACINE, S., (2007) Étude de validation du test de fonctionnement personnel, www.synergimax-international.com.
    TORRANCE, E. P. (1966), Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Normal Annual, Research Edition, Personnal Press.
  • 60. About Claude Trépanier
    Professional services consultant in Human Capital Management, educational researcher, educational advisor, university lecturer in management and free-lance corporate trainer.
    Undergoing theoric and field researches along the organizational competencies development chain, from needs assessment to the assessment of competencies developed.
    Develops practical in-class and workplace practices and tools for the measurement, assessment and development of skills and competencies.
    Has delivered since 1998, more than 1 000 hours of courses with syllabus.
    Has developed and delivered since 2003 more than 15 competency-based courses, developed and used numerous performance assessment tools (skills assessment, teamwork’s diagnostic, project’s diagnostic, organization’s diagnostic).
    Electronic portfolio : http://eduportfolio.com/22421
    Claude.trepanier@videotron.caPh. : 450-674-5904 (Canada)