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Streaming, Content Delivery & Networks Dr Angus Hay Neotel


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STREAMING MEDIA FOR ORGANISATIONS CONFERENCE 3 & 4 November 2009 The Wanderers Club, Johannesburg, South Africa

STREAMING MEDIA FOR ORGANISATIONS CONFERENCE 3 & 4 November 2009 The Wanderers Club, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • 1. Streaming, Content Delivery and Networks Dr Angus Hay
  • 2. The old paradigm… Telephony Mail Photos Music Newspapers TV Film Communications Media
  • 3. … disrupted... Telephony Mail Photos Music Newspapers TV Film Communications Media
  • 4. … creating a new paradigm Content Aggregation Distribution Devices and software Media/Communications
  • 5. The Internet
    • Around 30000 unique BGP4 Autonomous Systems
      • 50% of traffic on 150 ASs
    • More than 5 Exabytes of traffic carried monthly
    • 680 million host computers
    • 1.5 billion unique users
    • 444 million (fixed line) broadband connections
    • “ IP over everything & everything over IP”
    Neotel is a member of the Internet Service Providers Association (ISPA)
  • 6. The Internet in South Africa
    • Six Regional Tier 1 (Tier 2) providers*
      • Around 150 ISPs of various sizes and tiers
    • Internet Transit and Peering
      • Two public Internet exchanges (JINX and CINX)
      • 900 Mbps exchanged publicly; probably 5 Gbps privately
    • 4,6 million unique Internet users (2008)
    • 700 000 dial-up connections (still!)
    • 1,69 million broadband connections (Q1 2009)
      • South African definition includes fixed and mobile
    • South Africa ranked 61 st on Broadband Quality
    • * Neotel / Tata Communications Global Tier 1 network is present in South Africa
    Sources: World Wide Worx, MyADSL, Oxford Broadband Quality Study, ISPA,
  • 7. The distribution bottleneck Content Aggregation Distribution Devices
  • 8. The changing world of broadband
    • Broadband access becoming standard
      • Applications drive bandwidth requirements
      • Cost of bandwidth must decline over time
    • Broadband 2.0
      • Higher bandwidth, low contention ratio
      • Symmetrical access and Quality of Service
      • High-definition video speeds (20+ Mbps)
      • Multiple sources of content, peer-to-peer
    • Two worlds of broadband
      • Wireless for personal broadband access
      • Optical fibre for fixed Broadband 2.0 access
      • Copper access becoming a legacy technology
      • Wireless will dominate broadband in Africa
  • 9. SA Population and Internet Users Sources: UNISA Bureau of Market Research & World Wide Worx, extrapolated
  • 10. Content on the Internet
    • Internet is at an inflection point – Connectivity to Content
      • Web Applications, Cloud Computing, and Content Delivery Networks
    • Traffic Trends
      • % of peer-to-Peer traffic is reducing in favour of Video / Streaming
      • Video is fastest growing, now accounts for 25% of all Internet traffic
      • Google alone (including YouTube) accounts for 6% of all traffic
    • Video Content Delivery
      • Conventional video, IPTV or walled garden (dedicated network)
      • Live or server content streamed (RTMP/RTSP) over the Internet
      • Progressive download (HTTP, pseudo-streaming) over the Internet
      • Trend to HTTP and Flash (RTMP), % Windows Media (RTSP) falling
      • Typical streaming speeds 500-750 kbps in developed markets
    Sources: Frost & Sullivan, ATLAS Internet Observatory
  • 11. The New Internet Concept from ATLAS Internet Observatory “ Hyper Giants” Large Content, Consumer, Hosting CDN Tier 2 Regional ISP Tier 2 Regional ISP Tier 1 Global Transit Backbones IXP IXP IXP Customer Networks
  • 12. Conventional web page retrieval
    • Any content can be transferred via HTTP/TCP, without QoS
    Web page css, js, xml Image files (jpg, png, gif …) Flash (swf) file web page (html, php) URL URL URL HTTP Servers (web servers) Initial request
  • 13. Streaming / Progressive download
    • Compiled application / runtime plug-in (e.g. Flash), downloaded by the browser, that runs locally, fetches and plays a remote video file, starting before it is finished downloading, using either a streaming protocol (RTSP/RTMP) or progressive download (HTTP)
    web page (html, php) URL http HTTP Servers (web servers) Flash video player Flash video (FLV, MP4) URL Streaming Media Server http RTMP(T,E) OR AND
  • 14. Video – factors to consider
    • Client requirements (player)
      • RTMP requires Flash player (so does HTTP), any platform
      • RTSP requires ActiveX control in Internet Explorer, or an RTSP/RTP compliant set top box, or Windows Media Player
    • Server features (independent of protocol)
      • Security features, Digital Rights Management (DRM)
      • Seeking (fast forward, skipping to a point in the video)
      • For true streaming, must match bitrate of user’s connection
    • Video coding and quality
      • Trend towards H.264 standard, but multiple codecs exist
      • Quality depends on the resolution (e.g. HD), and frame rate
      • BitRate (kbps) = FrameRate (fps) x FrameWeight (kb/frame)
    • Live or server encoding and ingestion of content
  • 15. Content Delivery Networks
    • Developed to cache (mirror) files across the Internet
      • Concept pioneered by Akamai in the late 1990s
    • Many CDNs, but a few dominate
      • Akamai
      • Limelight
      • Level 3
      • Panther
      • BitGravity
    • Today account for 10% of all Internet traffic
    • CDNs today carry more varied traffic, including streaming
      • Video is about a third of the traffic, but not of the economic value
      • The video CDN market will grow to around $1bn by 2012
    Sources: Frost & Sullivan, ATLAS Internet Observatory
  • 16. Content Delivery Networks
    • Why use a Content Delivery Network?
      • Distributed servers, distributed bandwidth
      • Consistent local performance, close to users
      • Optimised for content e.g. video delivery
      • Google, Apple, Microsoft can build their own, but most content owners prefer to use a CDN
    • Role of the telecoms carrier
      • Historically, CDNs were customers of carriers
      • Trend towards carriers in the CDN space
      • Amongst majors, Level 3 is the only carrier
      • Tata Communications part-owns BitGravity
      • Network is a key factor in competitive pricing
    Source: Frost & Sullivan
  • 17. FTTx – The new alternative local loop
    • Metro Ethernet
      • Ethernet point-to-point
      • Speed up to 1 Gbps
      • Highly scalable
      • Cost effective
    Jo’burg CBD Randburg Sandton Rosebank Germiston Brixton Killarney Midrand Pretoria CBD Durban CBD Umhlanga Umgeni Pinetown Mt Edgecombe Cape Town CBD Epping Milnerton N1 City Newlands Observatory Tygerberg
  • 18. Why optical fibre?
    • Almost infinite bandwidth
      • 25.4 Tbps (160 x 160 Gbps wavelengths) demo
      • 600 Gbps on a single wavelength in laboratory
      • Commercial Terabit per second cables
    • High reliability and availability vs copper
    • Highly scalable bandwidth using DWDM
  • 19. SEACOM – Live July 2009
  • 20. Submarine cables – 2011 WACS E Λ SSy
  • 21. Tata Communications
    • A global player, delivering a new world of communications
    • Home base in developing markets: India, South Africa, Far East
    • Tier 1 IP network carrying 15% of the Internet ’s traffic
      • Among the top 5 Global IP transit providers, 132Gbps of peering
    • Largest carrier of international wholesale voice minutes
      • >20 billon voice minutes per year, 1400 interconnection agreements
    • Amongst the largest owners of submarine cable capacity
    • Presence in 195 countries, across the 5 continents
    • Neotel’s international PoP in Johannesburg forms part of the global Tata Communications network, delivering:
      • Tier 1 Internet transit and value-added services
      • International voice transit and value-added services
      • NeoLink Global leased lines, including Direct Global Ethernet
      • NeoVPN Global MPLS virtual private networks
  • 22. Tata Communications Global CDN Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Bitcast_IP Load balancer AS6453 global, united, worldwide & consistent Customer ISP ISP ISP upstream AS6453 peer BGP announce Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP Load balancer Load balancer Bitcast_IP Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP
  • 23. Neotel: Infrastructure for content
    • New high bandwidth national optical fibre backbone
    • New international submarine optical fibre cable systems
    • High quality national and international Internet / IP
    • Carrier-class voice on IP core
    • New access networks
      • Optical fibre (FTTC)
        • Expanding to FTTH/FTTB
      • 3G wireless (CDMA2000)
      • Fixed wireless (WiMAX)
    • Cisco Powered Metro Ethernet
    Jo’burg CBD Randburg Sandton Rosebank Germiston Brixton Killarney Midrand Pretoria CBD
  • 24. Neotel and content delivery
    • Wholesale
      • Tier 1 Global IP Transit (AS6453), as well as SA / Regional IP Transit
      • Deployment of Tata Communications CDN planned in Johannesburg
    • Enterprise
      • NeoVPN – South Africa’s only end-to-end, top-to-bottom MPLS IP Virtual Private Network, national optical core, access up to 1Gbps
        • An enabler of corporate CDNs – Bandwidth and QoS are critical
      • NeoInternet – Dedicated or shared, fixed-bandwidth leased line Internet connection; Global Tier 1 Internet blended with local transit
      • NeoPresence – Public or private Telepresence rooms, global network
    • Connectivity and Hosting
      • NeoMetro Link – Optical fibre Metro Ethernet, up to 1 Gbps available
      • NeoHost – Range of hosting services in world-class Data Centres
  • 25. Hosting and Data Centres
    • Data Centres increasingly house content
      • Makes sense as bandwidth prices decline
      • National, International, CDN Connectivity
    • Neotel’s NeoHost Services (phased)
      • Collocation
      • Managed servers
      • Virtualisation: Multitenant
      • Managed applications
      • On-demand / SaaS
    • Midrand and Cape Town Data Centres
      • Meet-me room access for any carrier
      • Collocation: SEACOM customers (Midrand)
      • Driving the hosting homecoming revolution
  • 26. Thank You