Streaming, Content Delivery & Networks Dr Angus Hay Neotel


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STREAMING MEDIA FOR ORGANISATIONS CONFERENCE 3 & 4 November 2009 The Wanderers Club, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Streaming, Content Delivery & Networks Dr Angus Hay Neotel

  1. 1. Streaming, Content Delivery and Networks Dr Angus Hay
  2. 2. The old paradigm… Telephony Mail Photos Music Newspapers TV Film Communications Media
  3. 3. … disrupted... Telephony Mail Photos Music Newspapers TV Film Communications Media
  4. 4. … creating a new paradigm Content Aggregation Distribution Devices and software Media/Communications
  5. 5. The Internet <ul><li>Around 30000 unique BGP4 Autonomous Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of traffic on 150 ASs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than 5 Exabytes of traffic carried monthly </li></ul><ul><li>680 million host computers </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 billion unique users </li></ul><ul><li>444 million (fixed line) broadband connections </li></ul><ul><li>“ IP over everything & everything over IP” </li></ul>Neotel is a member of the Internet Service Providers Association (ISPA)
  6. 6. The Internet in South Africa <ul><li>Six Regional Tier 1 (Tier 2) providers* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 150 ISPs of various sizes and tiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Transit and Peering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two public Internet exchanges (JINX and CINX) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>900 Mbps exchanged publicly; probably 5 Gbps privately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4,6 million unique Internet users (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>700 000 dial-up connections (still!) </li></ul><ul><li>1,69 million broadband connections (Q1 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South African definition includes fixed and mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa ranked 61 st on Broadband Quality </li></ul><ul><li>* Neotel / Tata Communications Global Tier 1 network is present in South Africa </li></ul>Sources: World Wide Worx, MyADSL, Oxford Broadband Quality Study, ISPA,
  7. 7. The distribution bottleneck Content Aggregation Distribution Devices
  8. 8. The changing world of broadband <ul><li>Broadband access becoming standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications drive bandwidth requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of bandwidth must decline over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadband 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher bandwidth, low contention ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetrical access and Quality of Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-definition video speeds (20+ Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of content, peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two worlds of broadband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless for personal broadband access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fibre for fixed Broadband 2.0 access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper access becoming a legacy technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless will dominate broadband in Africa </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. SA Population and Internet Users Sources: UNISA Bureau of Market Research & World Wide Worx, extrapolated
  10. 10. Content on the Internet <ul><li>Internet is at an inflection point – Connectivity to Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Applications, Cloud Computing, and Content Delivery Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traffic Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>% of peer-to-Peer traffic is reducing in favour of Video / Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video is fastest growing, now accounts for 25% of all Internet traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google alone (including YouTube) accounts for 6% of all traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video Content Delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional video, IPTV or walled garden (dedicated network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live or server content streamed (RTMP/RTSP) over the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive download (HTTP, pseudo-streaming) over the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend to HTTP and Flash (RTMP), % Windows Media (RTSP) falling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical streaming speeds 500-750 kbps in developed markets </li></ul></ul>Sources: Frost & Sullivan, ATLAS Internet Observatory
  11. 11. The New Internet Concept from ATLAS Internet Observatory “ Hyper Giants” Large Content, Consumer, Hosting CDN Tier 2 Regional ISP Tier 2 Regional ISP Tier 1 Global Transit Backbones IXP IXP IXP Customer Networks
  12. 12. Conventional web page retrieval <ul><li>Any content can be transferred via HTTP/TCP, without QoS </li></ul>Web page css, js, xml Image files (jpg, png, gif …) Flash (swf) file web page (html, php) URL URL URL HTTP Servers (web servers) Initial request
  13. 13. Streaming / Progressive download <ul><li>Compiled application / runtime plug-in (e.g. Flash), downloaded by the browser, that runs locally, fetches and plays a remote video file, starting before it is finished downloading, using either a streaming protocol (RTSP/RTMP) or progressive download (HTTP) </li></ul>web page (html, php) URL http HTTP Servers (web servers) Flash video player Flash video (FLV, MP4) URL Streaming Media Server http RTMP(T,E) OR AND
  14. 14. Video – factors to consider <ul><li>Client requirements (player) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RTMP requires Flash player (so does HTTP), any platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTSP requires ActiveX control in Internet Explorer, or an RTSP/RTP compliant set top box, or Windows Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server features (independent of protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security features, Digital Rights Management (DRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking (fast forward, skipping to a point in the video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For true streaming, must match bitrate of user’s connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video coding and quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend towards H.264 standard, but multiple codecs exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality depends on the resolution (e.g. HD), and frame rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BitRate (kbps) = FrameRate (fps) x FrameWeight (kb/frame) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live or server encoding and ingestion of content </li></ul>
  15. 15. Content Delivery Networks <ul><li>Developed to cache (mirror) files across the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept pioneered by Akamai in the late 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many CDNs, but a few dominate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akamai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limelight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panther </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BitGravity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today account for 10% of all Internet traffic </li></ul><ul><li>CDNs today carry more varied traffic, including streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video is about a third of the traffic, but not of the economic value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The video CDN market will grow to around $1bn by 2012 </li></ul></ul>Sources: Frost & Sullivan, ATLAS Internet Observatory
  16. 16. Content Delivery Networks <ul><li>Why use a Content Delivery Network? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed servers, distributed bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent local performance, close to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimised for content e.g. video delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google, Apple, Microsoft can build their own, but most content owners prefer to use a CDN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of the telecoms carrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, CDNs were customers of carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend towards carriers in the CDN space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amongst majors, Level 3 is the only carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tata Communications part-owns BitGravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network is a key factor in competitive pricing </li></ul></ul>Source: Frost & Sullivan
  17. 17. FTTx – The new alternative local loop <ul><li>Metro Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet point-to-point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up to 1 Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly scalable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul>Jo’burg CBD Randburg Sandton Rosebank Germiston Brixton Killarney Midrand Pretoria CBD Durban CBD Umhlanga Umgeni Pinetown Mt Edgecombe Cape Town CBD Epping Milnerton N1 City Newlands Observatory Tygerberg
  18. 18. Why optical fibre? <ul><li>Almost infinite bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25.4 Tbps (160 x 160 Gbps wavelengths) demo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600 Gbps on a single wavelength in laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Terabit per second cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High reliability and availability vs copper </li></ul><ul><li>Highly scalable bandwidth using DWDM </li></ul>
  19. 19. SEACOM – Live July 2009
  20. 20. Submarine cables – 2011 WACS E Λ SSy
  21. 21. Tata Communications <ul><li>A global player, delivering a new world of communications </li></ul><ul><li>Home base in developing markets: India, South Africa, Far East </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 1 IP network carrying 15% of the Internet ’s traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the top 5 Global IP transit providers, 132Gbps of peering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest carrier of international wholesale voice minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>20 billon voice minutes per year, 1400 interconnection agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amongst the largest owners of submarine cable capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Presence in 195 countries, across the 5 continents </li></ul><ul><li>Neotel’s international PoP in Johannesburg forms part of the global Tata Communications network, delivering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 Internet transit and value-added services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International voice transit and value-added services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoLink Global leased lines, including Direct Global Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoVPN Global MPLS virtual private networks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Tata Communications Global CDN Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Bitcast_IP Load balancer AS6453 global, united, worldwide & consistent Customer ISP ISP ISP upstream AS6453 peer BGP announce Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP Load balancer Load balancer Bitcast_IP Bitcast_IP BGP announce Bitcast_IP
  23. 23. Neotel: Infrastructure for content <ul><li>New high bandwidth national optical fibre backbone </li></ul><ul><li>New international submarine optical fibre cable systems </li></ul><ul><li>High quality national and international Internet / IP </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier-class voice on IP core </li></ul><ul><li>New access networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fibre (FTTC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding to FTTH/FTTB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3G wireless (CDMA2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless (WiMAX) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cisco Powered Metro Ethernet </li></ul>Jo’burg CBD Randburg Sandton Rosebank Germiston Brixton Killarney Midrand Pretoria CBD
  24. 24. Neotel and content delivery <ul><li>Wholesale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1 Global IP Transit (AS6453), as well as SA / Regional IP Transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment of Tata Communications CDN planned in Johannesburg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoVPN – South Africa’s only end-to-end, top-to-bottom MPLS IP Virtual Private Network, national optical core, access up to 1Gbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An enabler of corporate CDNs – Bandwidth and QoS are critical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoInternet – Dedicated or shared, fixed-bandwidth leased line Internet connection; Global Tier 1 Internet blended with local transit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoPresence – Public or private Telepresence rooms, global network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectivity and Hosting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoMetro Link – Optical fibre Metro Ethernet, up to 1 Gbps available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NeoHost – Range of hosting services in world-class Data Centres </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Hosting and Data Centres <ul><li>Data Centres increasingly house content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes sense as bandwidth prices decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National, International, CDN Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neotel’s NeoHost Services (phased) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualisation: Multitenant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-demand / SaaS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Midrand and Cape Town Data Centres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet-me room access for any carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collocation: SEACOM customers (Midrand) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving the hosting homecoming revolution </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Thank You