The Steps toward War Dr. Bruce Clary Monday, January 3, 2011
“There was never a moment during the earliestyears of our national history when the slavery issuewas not a sleeping serpent. The issue lay coiled upunder the table during the deliberations of theConstitutional Convention in 1787. It was, owingto the cotton gin, more than half awake at the timeof the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.... Thereafter,slavery was on everyones mind, though not alwayson his tongue.” ——John Jay Chapman
Northwest Ordinance 1787• Most important act of the Congress of Confederation• Established territory west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River as free territory
“Representatives and direct taxes shall beapportioned among the several states which may beincluded within this union, according to theirrespective numbers, which shall be determined byadding to the whole number of free persons,including those bound to service for a term ofyears, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths ofall other Persons.” U.S. Constitution Article I, Section 1
“No person held to service or labor in one state,under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall,in consequence of any law or regulation therein, bedischarged from such service or labor, but shall bedelivered up on claim of the party to whom suchservice or labor may be due.” U.S. Constitution Article IV, Section 4
“The Migration or Importation of such Persons asany of the States now existing shall think proper toadmit, shall not be prohibited by the Congressprior to the Year one thousand eight hundred andeight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on suchImportation, not exceeding ten dollars for eachPerson.” U.S. Constitution Article I, Section 9
Slave Trade Act of 1807 Abolished the international slave tradeThis replica of a slave trade ship moored by Tower Bridge in 2007 to commemoratethe 200th anniversary of the Slave Trade Act.
“We the People of the United States, in Order toform a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insuredomestic Tranquility, provide for the commondefence, promote the general Welfare, and securethe Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and ourPosterity, do ordain and establish this Constitutionfor the United States of America.” U.S. Constitution Preamble
The Nullification Crisis• In 1828 and 1832, Congress passes tariffs that exacerbate economic difficulties plaguing South Carolina. “Please give my• South Carolina passes an Ordinance of compliments to my friends in your State and say to Nullification, claiming that the tariffs shall them, that if a single drop not apply in the state. of blood shall be shed there in opposition to the• President Jackson pushes through the laws of the United States, I Force Bill, which empowers the federal will hang the first man I can government to enforce the tariff, resulting lay my hand on engaged in such treasonable conduct, in the Compromise Tariff of 1833. upon the first tree I can reach.” —Andrew Jackson
Manifest DestinyThree Key Themes• the virtue of the American people and their institutions;• the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and• the destiny under God to accomplish this work.
Compromise of 1850 • Enacts the Fugitive Slave Act • Admits California as a free state • Opens New Mexico and Utah territories under popular sovereignty
• Published in 1852, it sold 300,000 copies in the U.S. alone in its first year.• The book’s impact was so great that when Lincoln met Stowe, he allegedly said, “So this is the little lady who made this big war.”
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) • Creates territories of Kansas and Nebraska • Repeals the Missouri Compromise • Establishes popular sovereignty, empowering territorial settlers to determine if they will allow slavery within their boundaries
Dred Scott Decision 1857 U.S. Supreme Court rules that • No people of African descent could beThe authors of theConstitution, said Chief citizensJustice Roger B. Taney inhis decision, viewed all • Congress had no authority to prohibitblacks as “beings of aninferior order, and slavery in federal territories and, thus, thealtogether unfit to associate Missouri Compromise waswith the white race, eitherin social or political unconstitutionalrelations, and so far inferiorthat they had no rights • Slaves cannot be taken from ownerswhich the white man was without due processbound to respect.” —Andrew Jackson
John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry October 1859
Election of Abraham Lincoln November 6, 1860“I have no purpose, directlyor indirectly, to interferewith the institution ofslavery in the States where itexists. I believe I have nolawful right to do so, and Ihave no inclination to doso.” Abraham Lincoln
Crittenden CompromiseThe Crittenden Compromise was a last-ditch effort by a Kentuckysenator to head off the secession crisis. It would have• Guaranteed the existence of slavery in the slave states• Permanently re-established the Missouri Compromise line: slavery would be prohibited north of the 36°30´ parallel and guaranteed south of itThe compromise included a clause that it could not be repealedor amended.
Order of Secession• December 20, 1860 South Carolina• January 9, 1861 Mississippi• January 10, 1861 Florida• January 11, 1861 Alabama• January 19, 1861 Georgia• January 26, 1861 Louisiana• February 1, 1861 Texas
Lincoln Inaugural“In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not inmine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The governmentwill not assail you. You can have no conflict, without beingyourselves the aggressors.… We are not enemies, but friends.We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained,it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chordsof memory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriotgrave, to every living heart and hearth-stone, all over thisbroad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, whenagain touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels ofour nature.”