Traditional Grammar


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A concentrated unit on the traditional grammar that every comm and journalism major should know.

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Traditional Grammar

  1. 1. CM305 EditingUnderstanding the English Sentence
  2. 2. Basic Sentence PartsThere are four…• Subject• Verb • Direct Object • Subject Complement
  3. 3. Intransitive VerbsSome sentences express a complete ideawith nothing but a subject and verb.Verbsthat do not take direct objects or subjectcomplements are intransitive verbs. Ex: Rivers flow. Ex: Kim teaches. Ex: Dusty writes.
  4. 4. Direct ObjectsMost sentences have a third part thatidentifies receiver of the action, which iscalled the object of the verb or the directobject. Ex: Germany invaded Poland. Ex: Kim teaches literature. Ex: Ben manages a grocery store.
  5. 5. Transitive VerbsVerbs that take a direct object to completethe meaning of the sentence are transitiveverbs.
  6. 6. Linking VerbsIn some sentences, the verb is not an actionword. It is a state-of-being word. We callthese verbs linking verbs.Words or phrases that follow linking verbsare called subject complements. Ex: Editors are leaders. Ex: Editors are curious.
  7. 7. Subject ComplementsSubject complements come in twovarieties: predicate nominatives and predicateadjectives.Predicate nominatives rename the subject. Ex: Editors are leaders.Predicate adjectives describe the subject. Ex: Editors are curious.
  8. 8. Linking VerbsVerbs followed by subject complementsinclude all forms of the verb to be: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, beenIn addition, some verbs can function aseither an action verb or a linking verb: Ex: That lettuce looks wilted.
  9. 9. Linking Verbs• look • appear• feel • become• sound • remain• smell • stay• taste • get • grow • prove • seem
  10. 10. Assignment #11. Write 10 sentences with intransitive verbs.2. Write 10 sentences with transitive verbs (meaning with direct objects).3. Write 10 sentences with to be verbs. Five should take predicate nominatives and five should take predicate adjectives.4. Write 10 sentences with the substitute linking verbs. In five they should be active verbs and in the other five, true linking verbs.
  11. 11. ModifiersModifiers serve to change or identify otherparts of the sentence. Only two kinds ofmodifiers: adjectives and adverbs.Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns(subjects, objects, and predicatenominatives)Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and otheradvers.
  12. 12. ModifiersEx: Metallic paint shines brightly. Serious problems exist today.To find adjectives: What kind? Which one?How many?To find adverbs: How? When? Where? Why?To what extent?
  13. 13. Pronoun CaseIs it important to know when a word isused as an object and when it is used as asubject complement?Yes! Personal pronouns take one form forthe subject complement and a differentform for objects.Subjects and predicate nominatives usenominative case pronouns. Objects takeobjective case pronouns.
  14. 14. Pronoun Case Nominative Case Objective Case• I • me• you • you• he • him• she • her• it • it• we • us• they • them
  15. 15. Pronoun CaseSubjects and predicate nominatives mustcome from the nominative case list. Objectsmust come from the objective case list.Ex: It was ___ who complained. Me and Ben took the pictures. (Nope!) The winners were Jordan and ____.
  16. 16. Indirect ObjectsSentences with transitive verbs and directobjects often have another complementthat receives the direct object called theindirect object.Ex: Ned brought me his article. Becki gave Adrielle an A. Ben sent us his résumé.
  17. 17. Indirect ObjectsRemember:• There can be no receiver of the direct object unless there is a DO.• Indirect objects take objective case pronouns.• When receivers of the direct object are in prepositional phrases, they are no longer indirect objects. Ex: Ned brought his article to me.
  18. 18. Compound Sentence PartsIt is quite common for sentences to havecompound parts (S-V-O-SC) and compoundmodifiers Ex: President Bush lowered taxes and increased the deficit. Ex: Ethan is quite capable and responsible. Ex: The Spec editors ate chili and crackers. Ex: Brittanie and Dusty sent Shannon and Shane their articles.
  19. 19. Compound Sentence PartsCoodinate conjunctions join compound parts andmodifiers. They keep the combined parts equalin importance. and, but, or, nor, for, yetCorrelative conjunctions are always used in pairs. either…or neither…nor both…and not only…but also whether…or
  20. 20. Assignment #21. Write five sentences with compound subjects. In two sentences, use correlative conjunctions to join your subjects.2. Write five sentences with compound action verbs. In two sentences, us intransitive verbs.3. Write five sentences with compound direct objects.4. Write five sentences with compound subject complements. In two sentences, use compound predicate adjectives; in the other three, compound predicate nominatives.5. To any of the sentences above, add five adjectives and five adverbs. Underline adjectives once. Underline adverbs twice.
  21. 21. Assignment #2 (cont.)6. Write five sentences with linking verbs. Make the subject complement in each a predicate nominate with a nominative case pronoun as the complement.7. Write five sentences transitive verbs. In two sentences, include an objective case pronoun as the indirect object of the sentence. In the other three, use the objective case pronoun as the direct object.
  22. 22. Correct Verb UsageMost English verbs can be used as eithertransitive or intransitive verbs. However, threepairs of particularly troublesome verbs can beused in only one way. The key to using themcorrectly lies in knowing which way they arebeing used – transitively or intransitively.
  23. 23. Correct Verb UsageIntransitive (No direct object)Present Pres. Part. Past Past Part.lie (recline) lying lay (has) lainsit (rest) sitting sat (have) satrise rising rose (has) risenTransitivelay laying laid have laidset setting set (had) setraise raising raised (has) raised
  24. 24. Assignment #31. Write five sentences using the intransitive verb to lie. Write two sentences in the present tense. Write three sentences in the past tense.2. Write five sentences using the transitive verb to lay. Use the present tense in three of your sentences. Use the past tense in the other two.
  25. 25. ClausesClauses are subject-verb groups of words thatact as part of a sentence.The independent clause carries the main idea of asentence. Two or more independent clauses in asentence comprise a compound sentence. Ex: Shannon is interviewing LaMonte, but Allison is taking photos. Ex: Ben and Dusty like Meat Lovers pizza; however, Ronaldo and I prefer Hawaiian.
  26. 26. Compound SentencesIndependent clauses can be joined intocompound sentences in two ways:1. Two independent clauses can be joined bycoordinating or correlative conjunctions and acomma.2. Two independent clauses can be joined byconjunctive adverbs and a semicolon.
  27. 27. Conjunctive Adverbsaccordingly indeedcertainly likewiseconsequently meanwhileconversely moreoverfinally neverthelessfurthermore nonethelesshence otherwisehowever similarly therefore
  28. 28. Assignment #41. Write five compound sentences joined with coordinating conjunctions or correlative conjunctions.2. Write five more compound sentences joined with conjunctive adverbs and a semicolon.
  29. 29. ClausesSubordinate clauses are subject-verb wordgroups that act as a single part of speech(adjective, adverb, or noun only) or a single partof a sentence, i. e., a subject, subjectcomplement, or object.Subordinate clauses never contain the main ideaof the sentence. For that reason, always find theindependent clause first.
  30. 30. Adverb ClausesAdverb clauses are subordinate clauses thatfunction as an adverb in the sentences.REMEMBER: Adverbs usually modify verbs, butthey also modify adjectives and other adverbs. Ifa clause is an adverb clause, it will answer oneof the adverb questions: How? When? Where?Why? Under what conditions? To what extent?
  31. 31. Adverb ClausesExs: England entered the war after Germanyinvaded Poland.When Dusty submitted his story, Eric edited hiscopy.The board will not approve a new dormitoryunless the money has already been raised.The words after, when, and unless aresubordinating conjunctions. Even when theyappear at the beginning of the sentence,subordinating conjunctions join the two clauses.
  32. 32. Subordinating Conjunctionscause, effect as, because, since so, so that, in order thatcondition if, even if, if only, unlesscontrast although, even though, despitecomparison as if, as though, than, whereas, whilechoice rather than, than, whether after, as , as long as, before, once, since, until,sequence when, whenever, whilespace where, wherever
  33. 33. Punctuation RuleWhen an adverb clause precedes theindependent clause, separate the clauses with acomma. No comma is needed when the adverbclause follows the independent clause.
  34. 34. Assignment #5 Write 10 sentences with adverb clauses.1. Place five of the adverb clauses before the independent clause and five of them after the independent clause. Punctuate accordingly.2. Use the following subordinating conjunctions once: because, as long as, since, whenever, and where. Use subordinating conjunctions of your choice for the other five.
  35. 35. Adjective ClausesAdjective clauses are subordinate clauses thatmodify nouns or pronouns. Most often, theadjective clause is immediately preceded by thenoun or pronoun that is being modified.Exs: Betsy Shaffer, who edits the campus lifepages, wrote that feature story.The student who edits the campus life pageswrote that feature story.The book that the bookstore received was notthe book that I ordered.
  36. 36. Adjective ClausesAdjective clauses begin with relative pronouns.These pronouns are “relatives” or substitutesfor the noun or pronoun being modified.The relative pronoun in an adjective clause isalmost always the subject, predicatenominative, or direct object within the adjectiveclause.
  37. 37. Relative Pronounswho whichwhom thatwhose whatwhoever whicheverwhomever whateverwhosoever
  38. 38. Punctuation RuleWhether or not an adjective clause ispunctuated depends upon the clause’simportance to the clarity of the entiresentence. When the clause is necessary to makea completely understood statement, it isrestrictive or essential; commas are not needed.When the clause merely adds extrainformation, it is nonrestrictive or nonessential,and commas are required.
  39. 39. Assignment #61. Write five sentences with restrictive adjective clauses. Begin the sentences with the relative pronouns who, whose, which, that, and whoever.2. Write five sentences with nonrestrictive adjective clauses. Use the same relative pronouns as the preceding five sentences. Punctuate correctly.
  40. 40. Noun ClausesNoun clauses can be used wherever a noun isused – that is, as a subject, predicate nominativeor object in an independent clause.NOTE: Since a noun clause is actually a basicpart of the independent clause and not just amodifier, the independent clause does not makea complete sentence with the subordinate nounclause.
  41. 41. Noun ClausesExamplesDavid said that he was telling the truth.That Titanic is a lousy movie is rarely disputed.Writing is what Jordan does best.The EMT did what he could, but it wasn’tenough.Closer analysis revealed that the clause wasacting as the direct object.
  42. 42. Noun ClausesNoun clauses, like adjective clauses, begin withrelative pronouns, but it is uncommon for therelative pronoun in a noun clause to be thesubject or object within the clause. However, asthe third example showed, it can happen.That is the most common relative pronounused to start noun clauses, but the followingare also used: what, where, how, if, when, why,whether, lest.
  43. 43. Assignment #7Write 10 sentences with noun clauses.• In sentences 1–3, use the noun clause as subject.• In sentences 4–7, use the noun clause as DO.• In sentences 8–10, use the noun clause as a predicate nominative.
  44. 44. PhrasesA phrase is a word group that begins with apreposition or a verb form that acts as a singlepart of speech.
  45. 45. Prepositional PhraseA prepositional phrase is a word group thatbegins with a preposition followed by a noun orpronoun object (and any modifiers of thatobject).Prepositional phrases are always adjectivephrases or adverb phrases.NOTE: (1) Prepositional phrases can function aspredicate adjectives. (2) Noun clauses often actas the object in a prepositional phrase.
  46. 46. Prepositionsabout by ofabove down offafter during onagainst except ontoamong following overaround for pastat from sincebefore in thanbehind inside throughbeneath into tobetween like towards
  47. 47. Prepositional PhrasesExamplesTate ran around the table and returned to hischair.Each of the editors from the Spectator receivedadvice about punctuating clauses.The referee told Coach Swartzendruber to talkto the commissioner about problems he hadwith his calls.
  48. 48. Assignment #81. Write sentences (any number) that include a total of 10 prepositional phrases functioning as adverbs.2. Write sentences (any number) that include a total of 10 prepositional phrases functioning as adjectives.
  49. 49. Verbal PhrasesA verbal phrase is a word group that begins witha verb form and that acts as a single part ofspeech.Because verbal phrases begin with a verb form,they often take objects. The objects receive theaction expressed by the verbal, just like a directobject.NOTE: Noun clauses can serve as the object ina verbal phrase.
  50. 50. Verbal PhrasesThere are three types of verbal phrases:1. Gerunds – Gerunds are always nouns.2. Participles – Participles are always adjectives.3. Infinitives – Infinitives can be adjectives,adverbs, or nouns.
  51. 51. Verbal PhrasesThe verb forms used as verbals are based uponthe principal parts of verbs: Present Past Infinitive Past Participle Participle to run running ran (have) run to talk talking talked (have) talked
  52. 52. Gerund PhrasesGerund phrases always begin with presentparticiples (-ing verb forms) and always functionas nouns in sentences or clauses.Ex: Playing flag football is a popular intramuralsport.Liz objected to my inviting him to the party.Benjy likes singing country songs in the sauna.Jordan’s favorite pastime is playing volleyball.
  53. 53. Usage RuleSince gerunds are nouns, they are oftenpreceded by possessives. (See example 2,previous slide.) Thus, “me inviting” would be aswrong as “me car” or “me book.Use possessive pronouns, not personal pronouns,before gerunds.
  54. 54. Assignment #9Write ten sentences that include gerundphrases.• In sentences 1–3, use gerund phrase as subject.• In sentences 4–7, use gerund phrase as DO.• In sentences 8–10, use gerund phrase as an object of the preposition.
  55. 55. Participial PhrasesParticipial phrases begin with either a presentparticiple or a past participle (-ing or -ed verbform) and always function as adjectives insentences or clauses.Ex: Students selecting easy courses may laterregret their choices.All students elected to SGA must attendorientation.
  56. 56. Assignment #10Write 10 sentences with participial phrases.• Sentences 1–5, use the present participle.• Sentences 6–10, use the past participle.
  57. 57. Infinitive PhrasesInfinitive phrases are word groups that almostalways begin with infinitives (to + verb form).They can function as nouns, adjectives, oradverbs.Exs: To edit copy carefully requires attention todetail.To provide necessary funds for studentjournalism, SGA increased the Spec budget.The need to find alternative energy sources isgrowing daily.
  58. 58. Assignment #11Write 10 sentences with infinitive phrases.• In sentences 1–3, use the infinitive phrase as a noun.• In sentences 4–7, use the infinitive phrase as an adjective.• In sentences 8-10, use the infinitive phrase as an adverb.
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