I thought that it would be wise to find some information on when ADHD first started to show up in literature, and be studied. Most people believe it started or came about around the 1990’s because of the attention it was know being given.
I also thought that it would be wise to dispel some common misperceptions about ADHD. With lack of understanding there is a stigma against. This intern causes more stress but also can lead to ineffective treatment.
ADHD is an umbrella term that covers the three aspects of ADHD, attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. It was just known as ADD back in the 1980’s.
Even though many children suffer from ADHD most have average to above average intelligent. Boys have a tendency to be more restless, while girls tend to day dream more.
The rate of male children that are diagnoses with ADHD is significantly higher than that of females. However once in adult hood it drops.
This is probably the most difficult time to deal with ADHD because of the physical changes, as well as the hormones. At this stage too they are trying to gain independence from the parents, having ADHD makes it harder because they have to address this issue to as well as all the others.
Since ADHD is no longer looked at as a childhood disorder adolescents and adults are being able to continue getting help, or establish help for it. Making it easier to be healthy.
As an adult with ADHD the main issues involve time management, organization, and good social interactions. This can lead to undo stress, depression, and unhealthy living.
Since ADHD has been recognized as a problem in adults the help that they are receiving and getting is very encouraging. If it is not already known it usually is discovered for another reason such as depression, or anxiety.
The biggest weakness that I discovered was that the information from vast research says that a combination of therapy's, and drugs are the best treatment. But this for what ever reason is not being carried out. The problem with this is that children are being given drugs that are not approved for their age but are also not receiving the proper means to handle this issue as the grow older because many believe that the drugs are enough.
If the mental health community, along with the medical community would push for skills being taught to deal with ADHD rather than the quick fix of medication this would allow individuals to live happier and healthy lives.
The main reason why I choose this topic for one it is an interest of mine second I have ADHD. I also suffer from test anxiety, and low self-esteem. Looking back I can see that both of these are a direct result of ADHD.
Treating Adhd 1
Treating ADHD The Right Way
ADHD History <ul><li>The first accurate description of ADHD was back in1845. “...the first person to describe ADD ADHD in its commonly accepted sense was Dr. Heinrich Hoffman.” (adult-child-add-adhd.com) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It wasn't until 1902 that such characteristics were actually studied by the medical community, as was done by Sir George F. Still,” (adult-child-add-adhd.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Zooming ahead to the 1980 was when it first appeared in The Diagnostic Manuel for Psychological Disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Since than it has been studied quit frequently. </li></ul>
ADHD Myths <ul><li>That it is not real, or it is just children being lazy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: It has been around for a very long time it just has not been studied till more recent times. </li></ul><ul><li>It only affects children and they out grow it. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: It effects about 2/3rds of all Adults that have been diagnosed as children. </li></ul><ul><li>Using medicine is the only cure, or management. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: The best way to treat it is with behavior therapy, coping skills and, and lastly medicine if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>All excerpts, paraphrases taken from (adhdquestionsandanswers.com) </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><ul><li>ADHD is an abbreviation for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are three different aspects to this disorder “ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and significant impairment to multiple domains of functioning” (Langberg, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can cause or lead to secondary problems such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. </li></ul></ul>
ADHD and Childhood <ul><li>From studies it is estimated that 5-7% of school age children are diagnosed with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>It effects a child’s ability to pay attention and to focus on what is being taught , as well as schoolwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Some children fidget and have trouble sitting still, others day dream. </li></ul>
Research Strengths <ul><li>The amount of research on this subject is quite large. Even gaining news and political attention. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some specific policy issues that need to be addressed include the limited access to quality services; the trend in viewing child mental health narrowly using a medical, as opposed to an integrative bio-psychosocial, approach; and the expansion of psychological services to children and adolescents through school-based and primary care programs.” (Levant, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Another strength is the recent focus on how it effects females and not just males. “Nevertheless, there are data supporting the presence of a valid syndrome of ADHD in girls (Hinshaw et al., 2002).” (Seidman, 2006) </li></ul>
ADHD in Adolescences <ul><li>The main difference from childhood is trying to learn to deal with ADHD more independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Another factor is that school has become harder putting even more pressure on the struggling student to practice skills previously learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper socialization and the need to fit into a group becomes a very important part of life at this age. ADHD can impair a persons ability to socialize. </li></ul><ul><li>“… peer relationships(Landau, Milich, & Diener, 1998), and the upholding of societal standards (Hinshaw, 1987). Many of these problems persist into adolescence and adulthood (Barkley, 1998), and new problems also arise at these later ages.” (Flory, 2003) </li></ul>
Research Strengths <ul><li>One of the strengths in general is addressing the needs at this stage of development differently compared to childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Participants made significant improvements in organizational and homework management skills during the intervention and these gains were maintained at 8 week follow-up.” (Langberg, 2008) . At this age these skills can be understood and mastered to benefit the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of research, a focus on other developing problems such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are being addressed, and recognized as stemming from ADHD. </li></ul>
ADHD Adulthood <ul><li>One difficulty of dealing with ADHD as an adult is the significant lack of time management, and organization that occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>If an adult has learned coping skills these need to be redirected from a school setting to fit into a work environment, or managing a house hold. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ADHD in adults can significantly affect quality of life and often impairs performance at school and work, in relationships, and with social functioning, health, and safety” (Manos, 2010) </li></ul>
Research Strengths <ul><li>Because of the research done that proves ADHD is not out grown adults are able to find help to deal with this issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Also psychologists are taking note on how to deal with patients who have ADHD as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Without taking into account ADHD’s neurologic foundation, unstructured therapies that place a premium on monitoring the associations presented by patients run the risk of becoming too unfocused to be effective.” (Ramsey, </li></ul><ul><li> “ It is now clear that two thirds of children with ADHD will continue to have problems attributed to ADHD as adults and, because ADHD is a chronic disorder, will require treatment throughout their lives.” (Root & Resnick, 2003) </li></ul>
Research Weaknesses <ul><li>One of the weaknesses is that very little research has been done involving female children and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Properly presenting the information in a way that can be used for the general public. Specifically addressed to parents of children, and adults who have ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Such poor coordination results in inefficient and at times conflicting treatments.” (Levant, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Another weakness is the lack of treating secondary symptoms and treating the main symptoms rather than teach coping skills. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>To best address ADHD it needs to be treated appropriately from childhood to adulthood. This includes good understandable information. </li></ul><ul><li>More research needs to be done on how to prevent the many secondary problems associated with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Different treatment methods at various stages is the best way to help an individual with ADHD. </li></ul>
Authors Notes <ul><li>I have found this research project to be very enlightening in a few ways. </li></ul><ul><li>I sought out to prove that the best way to treat ADHD was with various methods throughout life. </li></ul><ul><li>This was true based on research but this is not how the majority of individuals are treated. </li></ul><ul><li>I also learned how little research has been done involving adults and females. Moat research thus far has dealt with young boys </li></ul><ul><li>The lack research that extends to secondary symptoms such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, high drug use. If research is found little is done in the area of prevention/intervention. </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Flory, K., Milich, R., Lynam, D., Leukefeld, C., Clayton, R., Relation Between Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Substance Use and Dependence Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Individuals With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder Are Uniquely at Risk, 2003, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Vol. 17, No. 2, 151–158 </li></ul><ul><li>Langberg, J., Epstein, J., Urbanowiez, C., Simon, J., Graham, A., Efficacy of an Organizational Skills Intervention to Improve the Academic Functioning of students With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, School Psychology Quarterly, 2008, Vol. 23, No3,407-417. </li></ul><ul><li>Levant, R., Tolan, P., Dodgen, D., New Directions in Children’s Mental Health Policy: Psychology’s Role, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2002, Vol. 33, No.2, P115-124. </li></ul><ul><li>Manos, M., Nuances of Assessment and Treatment of ADHD in Adults: A Guide for Psychologists, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2010, Vol. 41,No. 6, 511-51. </li></ul>
References Continued <ul><li>RAMSAY, J., ROSTAIN A., ADAPTING PSYCHOTHERAPY TO MEET THE NEEDS OFADULTS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, 2005, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 42, No. 1, 72–84 </li></ul><ul><li>Root II, R., Resnick, R., An Update on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention –Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2003, Vol. 34, No 1, p.34-41 </li></ul><ul><li>Seidman, L., Biederman, J., Valera, E., Monuteaux, M., Doyle, A., Faraone S., Neuropsychological Functioning in Girls With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Learning Disabilities, Neuropsychology , 2006, Vol. 20, No 2, 166-177 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adult-child-add-adhd.com/categories/general/history_adhd.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adhdquestionsandanswers.com/ADHD_Facts_and_Myths.html </li></ul>