Academic Careers Workshop


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Career Pathways within Academia

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Academic Careers Workshop

  1. 1. Academic Careers Clark Bonilla, Director Alumni and Career Services School of Public Policy 1st Annual Public Policy Career Week1 Academic Careers
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Define an ―Academic Career.‖  Differentiate between ―Academic‖ and ―Research‖ Careers.  Identify Alternative Career Pathways within Academia.  Recognize Steps in Career Management.  Improve Self-Assessment for Career Decisions.  Understand Academic Labor Market.  Understand Impact of Organizational Culture on Careers.  Understand Benefits of GRA, Grants and Fellowships for Career Advancement.2 Academic Careers
  3. 3. Introduction Campus Career Services3 Academic Careers
  4. 4. Goal Learn the steps and resources for career management to improve career opportunities, advancement and satisfaction within a realistic assessment of your place in the academic labor market.4 Academic Careers
  5. 5. Intended Audience  BS Students and Alumni  MS Students and Alumni  PhD Students and Alumni  Postdoctoral Scholars5 Academic Careers
  6. 6. PP Career Services  Public Policy’s Career Services addresses occupational markets, requirements, professional development, and professional identity for effective career management (environmental exploration).6 Academic Careers
  7. 7. PP Career Advisement: Market-Based Model Job Market Optimal Career Options Personal Education Preferences7 Academic Careers
  8. 8. Georgia Tech Career Services  Georgia Tech’s Career Services focuses on self-assessment leading to clarified life values and preferences in career decision making (self-exploration)8 Academic Careers
  9. 9. GT Career Advisement: Sequential Model 2. Choose a 1. Self-Exploration Degree Program 4. Find 3. Choose a A Job Career9 Academic Careers
  10. 10. 1. An Academic Career What is an Academic Career?10 Academic Careers
  11. 11. Career as Occupational Pathway Barley (1989): ―a structural  Graduate Teaching Assistant  Graduate Research Assistant property of an occupation  Postdoctoral Scholar or an organization.‖  Assistant Professor (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994, p. 4),  Associate Professor i.e., a sequence of  Director, Center/Program positions held within an  Professor occupation.  Chair11 Academic Careers
  12. 12. Career as Work Patterns over Life  Greenhaus & Callanan (1994): ―the pattern of work- related experiences that span the course of a person’s life.‖ (p. 5) – Objective: positions, duties, decisions – Subjective: work aspirations, expectations, values – Career Decision: reasons for position selection, changes in type or level of occupation (lateral or vertical movement)12 Academic Careers
  13. 13. “Career Pathways” Defined The various career choices realistically open to an individual with a given education, skill sets, experience, interests, and values, that open up alternative career paths, i.e., inter-occupational mobility, intra-occupational mobility (vertical to management, or horizontal to non- management positions). These pathways expand or contract over time as the individual has effectively managed her career, contingent also, in part, on whether she prefers to be a generalist or a specialist.13 Academic Careers
  14. 14. Sample PhD Pathways in Academia The Ph.D. Scholar Professorial Administrative Research (Only) Assistant to Assistant Director, Professor Research Director VP, Research Sponsored Programs Director, Faculty Associate Professor Director, Center Chief Scientist Training/Development Associate Director, Associate Director, Assistant Professor Research Associate Governmental Affairs Community Relations Associate Director, Director, Technology Postdoctoral Scholar Institutional Effectiveness Laboratory Manager Transfer Visiting Professor Associate Director, Director, Industry Or Lecturer Institutional Research Relations14 Academic Careers
  15. 15. Sample MS Pathways in Academia The MS Graduate Instruction Administrative Research (Only) Assistant Professor, Assistant Director, Assistant Director, Lab Manager Community College Governmental Affairs Community Affairs Instructor, Coordinator, Faculty Research Assistant, Development Officer Community College Training/Dev. Survey Research Adjunct Instructor & Research Associate, Associate, Regulatory Survey Interviewer Online Instructor Institutional Research Compliance Coordinator Officer, Regulatory Budget Analyst Policy Analyst Curriculum Dev. Compliance Contracting Officer, Tutor QA Analyst Sponsored Programs15 Academic Careers
  16. 16. Sample BS Pathways in Academia The MS Graduate Instruction Administrative Research (Only) Specialist Officer, Coordinator, Lab Manager Curriculum Planner Governmental Affairs Community Affairs Admissions Research Assistant, Tutor Development Officer Specialist Survey Research Specialist, Advisor, International Study Abroad Academic Advisor Survey Interviewer Education Programs Contracting Officer, Officer, Regulatory Lab Assistant Sponsored Programs Compliance16 Academic Careers
  17. 17. 2. Student Decision Making in Choosing Faculty Careers Rational Agents? Maybe Not …17 Academic Careers
  18. 18. Exercise 1: Your Decision Criteria  Identify the top 10 factors influencing your decision to pursue a faculty career.  Rank them (1: greatest, 10: least).  Classify them as (A) wholly within your control, (B) partially in your control, (C) mostly out of your control.  Reflect on risk and probability. Discuss.18 Academic Careers
  19. 19. Career Attractors (Source: Golde and Dore, 2001) Factors Affecting Pursuit of More No Less Faculty Career Interested Effect Interested Enjoyment of Teaching 83.2% 12.4% 4.4% Working on College Campus 79.9% 19.2% 0.9% Enjoyment of Research 72.1% 19.6% 8.3% Lifestyles of Faculty 59.5% 30.1% 10.4% Enjoyment Received from Faculty 47.3% 44.2% 8.4% Enjoyment of Service 40.6% 54.6% 4.7% Exposure to Other Careers 31.9% 51.8% 16.3%19 Academic Careers
  20. 20. Career Detractors Factors Affecting Pursuit of More No Less Faculty Career Interested Effect Interested Tenure and Promotion Process 3.5% 47.8% 48.6% Academic Job Market in Field 8.5% 48.9% 42.5% Work Load Expectations 9.6% 58.5% 31.9% Obtaining Research Funding 14.7% 58.1% 27.2% Salary Levels 6.1% 69.9% 23.9%20 Academic Careers
  21. 21. 3. S&E Career Exits as Indicators of Decision Efficacy Why They Leave … Are They More Rational Agents?21 Academic Careers
  22. 22. Survey of S&E Career Exits (Source: Preston, 2004: 30) Percentage Who Cited Men Women Better Pay in Non-S&E Positions 68.0% 33.0% Career Opportunities Lacking 64.0% 34.0% Other Fields More Interesting 36.0% 30.0% S&E Positions Not Available 34.0% 21.4% Preferred Other Positions 23.0% 35.0% Promoted Out of Science 18.0% 2.9% Impossible to Have Family and S&E Work 4.5% 21.4% Demands of Career Too Severe 4.5% 2.9% Hours Required Too Long 0% 20.0% S&E Unfriendly to Women 0% 19.0%22 Academic Careers
  23. 23. The Student v. Worker: Comparison of Perspectives  Idealized Expectations  Real-World Expectations  Experience-Oriented  Income-Oriented  Type-of-Work Oriented  Advancement-Oriented  Individual-Centered  Family-Oriented  Preference for Ideal  Non-Preference for Work Actual Work  Quality of Work  Quality of Life  Expectation of Full  Expectation of Limited Employment Employment Options23 Academic Careers
  24. 24. 4. Academic Labor Market Good News and Bad News24 Academic Careers
  25. 25. (Source: Monastersky, 2007) Nationwide Trends  More PhD graduates entering non-tenured positions and Postdoc  Difficult to transition from visiting faculty/Postdoc to tenured faculty  PhD students take longer to complete degrees  Grants and fellowships are more competitive  Increased use of adjunct faculty  Difficult to transition from adjunct to full-time faculty  Difficult to transition to a higher level institution  Low and stagnate salaries, particularly for postdoctoral scholars  Overly narrow specializations may hurt employment options25 Academic Careers
  26. 26. Employment & Under-Employment BS/BA Degrees Earned All Full-Time Part-Time (2006) Graduates Employed Employed All Social Sciences 413,500 287,100 64,100 Political + Related 133,400 85,200 21,400 Sciences Sociology/Anthropology 123,000 85,700 23,400 Other Social Sciences 80,000 56,200 13,500 Economics 77,100 60,100 5,900 Source: Academic Careers
  27. 27. Unemployment (pre-Great Recession) BS/BA Degrees Earned Graduates Employed Employment April 2006 Secured % All Social Sciences 413,500 212,700 51.4% Political + Related 133,400 106,500 79.8% Sciences Sociology + 123,000 109,100 88.7% Anthropology Other Social 80,000 69,600 87% Sciences Economics 77,100 65,900 85.5%27 Academic Careers
  28. 28. Statistics Not Revealed  Average period of job hunting (unemployment)  Percentage of chronic long-term unemployment  Employment within preferred field  Employment within preferred occupation  Persistence of part-time employment  Employment by type of university attended28 Academic Careers
  29. 29. National Employment Rates for Ph.D. Social Scientists Employment Trends 2004 2009 PhD: Employment at 71.6% 73.1% Graduation PhD: Postdoctoral 31.9% 35.3% Appointments Source: InfoBrief, 11-305, National Science Foundation29 Academic Careers
  30. 30. Statistics Not Revealed  Doctoral Program Dropout Rate  Academic, Industry & Government Employment Rates  Type of Academic Institutions Hiring Most  Long-Term Unemployment Rate  Out-of-Field Employment Rate  Regional Variations in Employment Rates30 Academic Careers
  31. 31. National Projections for Teaching Occupations  Political Science Professors: +15% (2008-18)  Sociology Professors: +15%  Social Sciences Professors/All Others: +15%  Area/Ethnic/Cultural Studies Professors: +15% Source: Career InfoNet: US Dept. of Labor, BLS31 Academic Careers
  32. 32. Where Sociologists Work Industry % Educational services, public and private 36.9 R&D in social sciences and humanities 36.0 Social advocacy organizations 8.7 R&D in physical, engineering and life sciences 6.1 Local government (excl. education/hospitals) 5.7 State government (excl. education/hospitals) 2.232 Academic Careers
  33. 33. Where Political Scientists Work Industry % Federal government 62.8 R&D in social sciences and humanities 10.4 Educational services, public and private 7.733 Academic Careers
  34. 34. Source: US Census Bureau, IPUMS Data, 1990, 2000 Income Comparisons Note: Mean Income in the thousands Education 1990 2000 % Change Engineering PhD $64.6 $91.1 41.0 Mathematics PhD $58.3 $86.6 48.5 Natural Sciences PhD $56.3 $73.0 29.7 Social Sciences PhD $54.2 $74.6 37.6 Life Sciences PhD $45.6 $62.7 37.5 MD $98.8 $156.4 58.3 Lawyer $76.9 $114.7 49.2 Managers, College+ 2 yrs. $61.3 $84.9 38.5 College Grads, 4 yrs. Only $30.8 $46.9 52.234 Academic Careers
  35. 35. 4: Choosing an Institution The Proper Institutions for Your Career Pathway35 Academic Careers
  36. 36. Professorial Career  Do you wish research to be your focus?  Would you work in federal or industry labs?  Do you prefer a balance of research and teaching?  Do you want to teach primarily?  Would you consider federal agency work?  Would you consider academic and industry employment alternating over your career?36 Academic Careers
  37. 37. (Source: J.C. Hermanowicz, 1998; Merton, 1957; Dannefer, 1984a) Types of Faculty Careers Elites Pluralists Locals High ambition Moderate ambition Less ambition ―uniform moral career‖: Career ―nebulously Teaching career identity strong career identity conceived,‖ flexible Strong hierarchy of ascent No hierarchy of ascent Horizontal mobility Strongly R&D oriented Somewhat R&D oriented Little to no R&D Community of scholars Mixed communities Local community Low institutional Mixed institutional Strong institutional commitment commitments commitments Strong social stratification Moderate social stratification Low social stratification Academic only career Mixed sector career Highly mixed career37 Academic Careers
  38. 38. (Source: J.C. Hermanowicz, 1998) National Research Universities Labs Mostly Elites, Some Pluralists Career Graduates Trajectories State Universities Industry Mostly Pluralists, Some Elites Career Graduates Trajectories Government Comprehensive Universities Mostly Communitarians, Some Pluralists38 Academic Careers
  39. 39. (Source: Dantzig, 2011) Job Search and Hiring Startup Job Search Applying For Positions  Prepare career plan  Submit online  Search online job application postings  Request transcripts  Post CV online  Request reference  Attend annual letters conferences  Prepare for interviews  Post social media  Interviews (LinkedIn, Mendeley, etc.)  Review/respond to offer  Notify referees39 Academic Careers
  40. 40. (Source: Dantzig, 2011) The Academic Interview The Institution Your Faculty Career  Understand institutional  Relate your career goals to: priorities – Position Opening  Faculty policies/benefits – Priorities of School  How your expertise – Type of University contributes to school:  Research abstracts – Complementary  Biographical sketch – Novel  Sample Lecture – Potential Collaborations  Dissertation Presentation – Potential Grant Funding  Research Agenda40 Academic Careers
  41. 41. (Source: Dantzig, 2011) Negotiating Startup Package  Salary  Reduced teaching load in years 1-2  GRA for at least 1 year  Travel costs to annual conferences  Summer salary for first summer  Proper office and office technology  Paid return trip to locate housing  School grant support41 Academic Careers
  42. 42. Weighing Offers  Increasing/Decreasing  Quality of Facilities Institutional Reputation  Research/Grants Support  School Commitment to Your  Geography Expertise Area  Quality of Life in Area  Collaboration Opportunities  Organizational Culture  Quality of Students  Teaching Loads  Level of Grant Funding  TA Support  Level of Seed Grants  Interdisciplinary Research  Spouse Support Support42 Academic Careers
  43. 43. Chief Online Sources  Higher Ed Jobs:  Chronicle of Higher Education:  APPAM: e.aspx?Site=APPAM&WebCode=career43 Academic Careers
  44. 44. Other Sources  Web sites of academic associations  Annual conferences of academic associations  Academic and professional journals  Web sites of professional associations  PPGSA T-Square Site/Career Planning  Your Graduate Studies Director/Adviser  Your Mentor44 Academic Careers
  45. 45. 5: Special Case: Technology Transfer An Illustrated Career Pathway45 Academic Careers
  46. 46. Technology Transfer  Definition of the Field  Key Stakeholders  Occupations Supporting Technology Transfer  Case: University Tech Transfer Manager46 Academic Careers
  47. 47. Technology Transfer Defined Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer.47 Academic Careers
  48. 48. Knowledge Transfer Defined Knowledge transfer in the fields of organizational development and organizational learning is the practical problem of transferring knowledge from one part of the organization to another (or all other) part(s) of the organization. Like Knowledge Management, Knowledge transfer seeks to organize, create, capture or distribute knowledge and ensure its availability for future users. Knowledge transfer recognizes that (1) knowledge resides in organizational members, tools, tasks, and their subnetworks and (2) much knowledge in organizations is tacit or hard to articulate.48 Academic Careers
  49. 49. Knowledge Management Knowledge management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice.49 Academic Careers
  50. 50. Key Players in Technology Transfer Venture Capitalists USDOC Angel SBA/SBIR Investors Research University Economic US Patent Dev. Office Agency Entrepreneurs Corporations50 Academic Careers
  51. 51. Tech Transfer Career Pathways Government Universities R&D Corporations Econ. Dev. Agencies TT Consulting Firms US: SBIR TT: Industrial Liaison Marketing Governmental Chamber Liaison Officers Associate/Officer Associate Relations Liaison US: NSF OSP: Contracting University Relations EDC Bus. Dev. Investment Analyst Officers Officer Associate Associate & Relations Officer US: SBA Dept: Research Investor Relations Municipal ED US Grants & Officers Administrator Liaison Officers Contracts Specialist Research Dev. Marketing Research Regional EDA Business Plan/ US: Patent Officer Director Associate Officers Startup Coach State Commerce Intellectual Property Tech Assessment Commercial RE Business Dev. Officer Manager Analyst Analyst Manager State Technology Incubator Incubator Technology Scout Technology Scout Officer Manager Manager Federal Relations Licensing Associate Patent Attorney Officer Foundations Director, Project Manager Corporate Relations51 Academic Careers
  52. 52. University TT Office  Educates researchers about IP processes.  Assists researchers with IP and patenting.  Assesses market potential of inventions/IP.  Identifies potential industry partners.  Negotiates license agreements.  Forms start-up companies.  Identifies investors.52 Academic Careers
  53. 53. TT Manager’s Responsibilities  Develop university policy.  Develop grant proposals.  Manage post-doctoral researchers and research assistants.  Draft contracts for research.  Manage consulting activities.  Train researchers in research ethics.  Surveying campus-wide ongoing research projects.  Identify IP and patenting opportunities.  Process patenting.  Market IP and patents to markets, investors, entrepreneurs.  Process license agreements.  Support university spinoffs and incubators.53 Academic Careers
  54. 54. References Dantzig, Jonathan A. (2011) Landing an Academic Job: The Process and the Pitfalls. University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign Freeman, Richard B. (2006) ―Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?‖ Innovation Policy and the Economy 6 Golde, Chris M. and Timothy M. Dore. (2001) At Cross Purposes: What the Experiences of Today’s Doctoral Students Reveal about Doctoral Education. Preston, Anne E. (2004) Leaving Science: Occupational Exit from Scientific Careers. NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Hermanowicz, Joseph C. The Stars are Not Enough: Scientists—Their Passions and Professions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.54 Academic Careers
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