Learning Disabilities Class Presentation2Presentation Transcript
Learning Disabilities Lic. Gonzalo Camp
Disabilities and differences
What exactly is a disability?
Disability: a physical or mental/brain problem that has a large and long-term bad effect on the ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities: reading, behavior, speech, mobility (ability to move), hearing, spelling, memory, and math are a few examples.
So, are disabilities really disabilities or a difference in the way we learn?
Some types of SLDs
Dyslexia is simply a fancy word for a learning disability that involves reading.
Other similar terms include Dysgraphia (writing disability) and Dyscalcula (math disability).
Some of the causes
Birth trauma: Sometimes before or during the birth process babies lose blood, are deprived of oxygen, or get chemicals into their blood. When a baby's brain is given certain kinds of chemicals or does not get enough blood or oxygen, permanent brain damage can occur.
Heredity: LD tends to "run" in families. A parent who has difficulty processing information may simply pass this along genetically. This seems to be the most common cause of LD.
Lead poisoning: When young children eat, drink, or breathe anything that contains lead (old paints, car exhaust, old plumbing, etc.), brain damage (and a learning disability) can develop.
Accident: If a person experiences a head injury, brain damage can occur which leads to a learning disability.
Incomplete programming: Research is beginning to suggest that the brain needs to be "programmed" in much the same way as a computer. It is suggested that this "programming" must take place very early in life and involve all of the various forms of information processing. Not enough opportunity to practice processing a certain type of information at an early age, the brain may always struggle with that type of processing.
Dyslexia is an impairment in the brain's ability to translate written images received from the eyes into meaningful language. Also called specific reading disability, dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children.
A learning disability is a condition that produces a gap between someone's ability and his or her performance. Most people with dyslexia are of average or above-average intelligence, but read at levels significantly lower than expected. Other types of learning disabilities include attention difficulties, an inability to perform well at writing skills and an inability to perform well at math skills.
Learning disabilities affect about 5 percent of all school-age children in public schools in the United States. The majority of schoolchildren who receive special education services have deficits in reading, and dyslexia is the most common cause.
Dyslexia occurs in Individuals with normal vision and normal intelligence. Such individuals usually have normal speech but often have difficulty interpreting spoken language and writing.
Dyslexia seems to be caused by a malfunction in certain areas of the brain concerned with language. The condition frequently runs in families.
Treatment may involve a multisensory education program. Emotional support of your child on your part also plays an important role.
Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia
Dyslexia can be difficult to recognize, but some early clues may indicate a problem.
If you have a problem with new words,
and add them slowly
and have difficulty rhyming, you may be at increased risk of dyslexia.
signs and symptoms of dyslexia may become more apparent as children go through school, including:
The inability to recognize words and letters on a printed page
A reading ability level much below the expected level for the age of your child
The word "dyscalculia" means difficulty performing math calculations. In other words, it just means "math difficulty". And specifically, it means a learning disability which affects math. Sometimes confusion arises when we start dealing with the term "dyscalculia" as it relates to "special education services".
When a student's math difficulties are severe enough to meet this criteria, special education services are indicated. On the other hand, "dyscalculia" has no clearly defined criteria. A student with any degree of math difficulty may be considered to have "dyscalculia" by some educational specialists. This frequently occurs when a student receives an educational evaluation outside of the public school system.
Strategies for students with dyscalculia:
Work extra hard to "visualize" math problems. Maybe even draw yourself a picture to help understand the problem.
Take extra time to look at any visual information that may be provided (picture, chart, graph, etc.).
Read the problem out loud and listen very carefully. This allows you to use your auditory skills (which may be a strength).
Ask to see an example.
Ask for or try to think of a real-life situation that would involve this type of problem.
Do math problems on graph paper to keep the numbers in line.
Ask for uncluttered worksheets so that you are not overwhelmed by too much visual information.
Spend extra time memorizing math facts. Use rhythm or music to help memorize
D y sg raphia
"Dysgraphia" is a learning disability resulting from the difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing and graphing. It generally refers to extremely poor handwriting.
Problems arise because "dysgraphia" has no clearly defined criteria. A student with any degree of handwriting difficulty may be labeled "dysgraphic" by some educational specialists, but may or may not need special education services.
Most learning disabled students experience difficulty with handwriting and probably could be considered "dysgraphic". However, the term is seldom used within public schools because of the lack of any generally recognized or measurable criteria.
Students with dysgraphia often have sequencing problems.
Studies indicate that what usually appears to be a perceptual problem (reversing letters/numbers, writing words backwards, writing letters out of order, and very sloppy handwriting) usually seems to be directly related to sequential/rational information processing.
These students often have difficulty with the sequence of letters and words as they write. As a result, the student either needs to slow down in order to write accurately, or experiences extreme difficulty with the "mechanics" of writing (spelling, punctuation, etc.).
They also tend to intermix letters and numbers in formulas. Usually they have difficulty even when they do their work more slowly. And by slowing down or getting "stuck" with the details of writing they often lose the thoughts that they are trying to write about.
Students may exhibit strong verbal but particularly poor writing skills.
Random (or non-existent) punctuation. Spelling errors (sometimes same word spelled differently); reversals; phonic approximations; syllable omissions; errors in common suffixes. Clumsiness and disordering of syntax; an impression of illiteracy. Misinterpretation of questions and questionnaire items. Disordered numbering and written number reversals.
Generally illegible writing (despite appropriate time and attention given the task).
Inconsistencies : mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes, or slant of letters.
Unfinished words or letters, omitted words.
Inconsistent position on page with respect to lines and margins and inconsistent spaces between words and letters.
Cramped or unusual grip, especially holding the writing instrument very close to the paper, or holding thumb over two fingers and writing from the wrist.
Talking to self while writing, or carefully watching the hand that is writing.
Slow or labored copying or writing - even if it is neat and legible
Teach alternative handwriting methods such as "Handwriting Without Tears." <www.hwtears.com/inro.htm>
Writing just one key word or phrase for each paragraph, and then going back later to fill in the details may be effective.
Multisensory techniques should be utilized for teaching both manuscript and cursive writing. The techniques need to be practiced substantially so that the letters are fairly automatic before the student is asked to use these skills to communicate ideas.
Have the students use visual graphic organizers. For example, you can create a mind map so that the main idea is placed in a circle in the center of the page and supporting facts are written on lines coming out of the main circle, similar to the arms of a spider or spokes on a wheel.
Do papers and assignments in a logical step-wise sequence. An easy way to remember these steps is to think of the word POWER .
P - plan your paper
O - organize your thoughts and ideas
W - write your draft
E - edit your work
R - revise your work, producing a final draft
If a student becomes fatigued have them try the following:
* Shake hands fast, but not violently.
* Rub hands together and focus on the feeling of warmth.
* Rub hands on the carpet in circles (or, if wearing clothing with some mild texture, rub hands on thighs, close to knees)
* Use the thumb of the dominant hand to click the top of a ballpoint pen while holding it in that hand. Repeat using the index finger.
* Perform sitting pushups by placing each palm on the chair with fingers facing forward. Students push down on their hands, lifting their body slightly off the chair.
Allow student to tape record important assignments and/or take oral tests.
Prioritize certain task components during a complex activity. For example, students can focus on using descriptive words in one assignment, and in another, focus on using compound sentences.
Reinforce the positive aspects of student's efforts.
Be patient with yourself
Compare and Contrast
Assessing Young Children
Assessing Young Children
Questions Teachers Ask
What is normal development?
Is the child following the normal pattern?
If not, why not?
What do we do about it?
Assessing Young Children
Principles of Developmental Assessment
Lower skills precede higher skills
Skipping developmental stages
Play is a child’s work
Fine Motor Writing Skills Dev Age Description Pre Post 36 Copies Circle 48 Copies Cross 54 Copies Square 54 Copies simple words (cat) 60 Copies Triangle 72 Copies Diamond 72 Copies letters b, d, p, g
Informal Classroom Assessment
A variety of flexible, non-standardized procedures for measuring student performance, achievement and progress.
Informal Assessment Procedures
As teachers we use informal assessment every day in our classrooms when we
Observe student behavior
Find an error pattern in a student paper
Interview a student
Grade student homework
Give a teacher-made test
Use checklists to measure progress
Has many different names
Provides a direct link between
assessment and teaching.
Efficient (fast and easy)
Informal Assessment Time Requirements Reliability Validity In Preparation Low High High In Class Low In Analysis Low
My Favorite Informal Assessments
In my teaching I use many different kinds of checklists as informal measures of student behavior, achievement, performance, progress, and growth.
Checklists of Reading Skills
Diagnostic Checklist of Oral Reading Student _________________ Teacher ______________ Grade Level of Passage _____ Date ______________ Oral Reading Observations Comments 1 2 3 1. Reads expressively 2. Reads clearly (pronunciation) 3. Reads at an appropriate rate 4. Reads for meaning 5. Observes punctuation 6. Not easily frustrated 7. Attempts unfamiliar words 8. Uses morphological skills 9. Uses context clues 10. Displays good comprehension 11. Other notable behaviors (specify)
Diagnostic Checklist of Silent Reading Student ___________________ Teacher ______________ Grade Level of Passage _______ Date ______________ Silent Reading Observations Comments 1 2 3 1. Points to individual words 2. Runs a finger under each line 3. Runs a finger down the page 4. Whispers words 5. Says words aloud 6. Moves head while reading 7. Holds book too close 8. Holds book too far away 9. Reads too slowly 10. Reads too quickly 11. Other notable behaviors (specify)
Diagnostic Checklist of Reading Comprehension Student ___________________ Teacher _____________ Grade Level of Passage _______ Date ________________ Reading Comprehension Observations Comments 1 2 3 1. Answers factual questions about the passage 2. Classifies, categorizes, & summarizes the passage 3. Makes inferences & predictions based on the passage 4. Answers valuative questions about the passage 5. Critically analyzes the passage 6. Other notable behaviors (specify)
Eduardo’s Progress on Words Read Correctly Words Read Correctly Eduardo T. Reading Comp Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
How to Make a Checklist
Checklist of ADHD Behaviors
Checklist of any disorder behaviours
Symptoms of Hyperactivity Behavior Yes No Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat in classroom in situations in which remaining seated is expected Runs about or climbs too much in inappropriate situations Has difficulty playing quietly Is 'on the go' or acts as if 'driven by a motor' Talks too much