Crafting the curriculum


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Crafting the curriculum

  1. 1. Crafting the Curriculum Presented by: Clarisse Guarin Krissia Oredo
  2. 2. Crafting a curriculum follows some designs. Curriculum designs provide clear relationships between and among the different elements of the curriculum: objectives, contents, activities, and evaluation. Considering all of these elements, as a curriculum designer, one has to look into the parameters or dimensions upon which a design can be crafted.
  3. 3. Dimensions of Curriculum Designs  Scope  Sequence  Continuity  Integration  Articulation  Balance
  4. 4. Scope According to Tyler in Ornstein (2004), he defines scope as all the content, topics, learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan. Scope does not only refer to the cognitive content, but also the affective and psychomotor content. The scope of the curriculum can be divided into chunks called units, sub-units, chapters, or sub-chapters.
  5. 5. Sequence Contents and experiences are arranged in hierarchical manner, where the basis can either be logic of the subject matter or on the developmental patterns of growth of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains.
  6. 6. Smith, Stanley, and Shore (1957) introduced four principles for sequence. 1. Simple to complex learning 2. Prerequisite learning 3. Whole to part learning 4. Chronological learning
  7. 7. Posner and Rudnitsky (1994) presented five major principles for organizing content in units, which can also be applied to curriculum. 1. World-related sequence a. Space b. Time c. Physical attributes
  8. 8. 2. Concept-related sequence a. Class relations b. Propositional relations 3. Inquiry-related sequence 4. Learning-related sequence a. Empirical prerequisites b. Familiarity c. Difficulty d. Interest
  9. 9. Continuity Vertical repetition and recurring appearances of the content provide continuity in the curriculum. This process enables the learner to strengthen the permanency of learning and development of skills. Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral curriculum” For learners to develop the ideas, these have to be developed and redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing depth and breadth as the learners advance.
  10. 10. Integration “Everything is integrated and interconnected. Life is a series of emerging themes.” This is the essence of integration in the curriculum design. Organization is drawn from the world themes from real life concerns. Subject matter content or disciplined content lines are erased and isolation is eliminated.
  11. 11. Articulation Can be done either vertically or horizontally. In vertical articulation, contents are arranged from level to level or grade to grade so that the content in a lower level is connected to the next level. Horizontal articulation happens at the same time like social studies in grade six is related to science in grade six.
  12. 12. Balance Equitable assignment of content, time, experiences and other elements to establish balance is needed in curriculum design. Too much or too little of these elements maybe disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping the curriculum “in balance” requires continuous fine tuning and review for its effectiveness and relevance.
  13. 13. Guidelines in Curriculum Design Pointers • Curriculum design committee should involve teachers, parents, administrators and even students. • School’s vision, mission, goals and objectives should be reviewed and used as a bases for curriculum design. • The needs and the interests of the learners, in particular, and the society, in general, should be considered.
  14. 14. • Alternative curriculum design should consider advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, scheduling, class size, facilities and persona; required. • The curriculum design should take into account cognitive, affective, psychomotor, concepts and outcomes.