Norwegian Immigration to America


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The story of immigration from Norway to the United States, primarily focusing on the period of 1825-1925. View the presenter's notes for each slide by clicking the Notes tab below.

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  • Most of us have roots with immigrants that came here at least a few generations ago.\nI’m going to talk about the history of immigration from Norway to the United States, \nprimarily focusing on the period of 1825-1925, as that’s when the majority of immigrants arrived.\n\n
  • Leif Ericson and Vikings reached North America about 1000 (Newfoundland), but their settlements were not permanent.\n\nPictured: Christian Krohg's painting of Leiv Eiriksson discover America, 1893\n\n
  • A few dozen Norwegians were in New Amsterdam (now New York) in the early 1600s.\n\nHans Hansen Bergen, a native of Bergen, Norway, was one of the earliest settlers of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, having immigrated in 1633. \n\n
  • The earliest immigrants came for religious reasons, especially Quakers and Haugeans.\n\nPictured: Haugianerne by Adolph Tidemand, 1852\n\n
  • First ship of solely Norwegians came in 1825, a group of six families who opposed the powerful position of the Norwegian state church and sought religious freedom.\n\nThey set sail from Stavanger, Norway, in an undersized sloop (type of sailboat), the Restaurationen.\n\n54 feet in length and 16 feet in width, the ship was originally constructed 1801 to transport herring and grain, not intended for trans-atlantic voyages.\n\n52 people left Norway, they arrived in America with 53 (a baby was born).\n\nThey arrived in New York after an arduous 14-week journey on October 9, 1825; the local press marveled at the bravery of these Norwegian pilgrims. \n\n\n
  • Replica of Restauration, in progress, work started in 2007.\n\nLaunched at Finnøy on April 15, 2010, and christened in the harbor of Stavanger on June 16, 2010.\n
  • Local Quakers helped the destitute immigrants from Restaurationen.\n\nThey settled in Kendall, New York (near Rochester), the first Norwegian settlement in America.\n\n(the map shows a route on current roads, not their actual route)\n\nOf that group, six families left Kendall with Cleng Peerson and founded Fox River Settlement southwest of Chicago. They purchased land at the standard government price of $1.25/acre. Many moved on to Illinois and Wisconsin.\n\nMore immigrants: the ships Den Norske Klippe and Norden departed in 1836, sailed from Stavenger and most of those people went to the Fox River settlement.\n\nAfter that, ships departed annually.\n\n
  • Starting in 1815, the population of Norway grew at a very rapid rate. The mortality rate dropped, so more children reached maturity. From 1810 to 1865, the population nearly doubled.\n\nNot enough jobs to go around. Production in the agriculture, fishing, shipping, and lumber industries increased greatly, but it wasn't enough to keep everyone above a minimum subsistence level. \n\nThis was a main reason by the increase in immigration to the United States.\n\n
  • The Homestead Act encouraged a lot of Norwegians to come to the United States with the promise of fertile, flat land – pretty much anyone could get 160 acres for free.\n\nThe Homestead Act was actually a set of 3 laws, the first passed in 1862.\n\nThe law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for the deed. \n\nRequirements to file an application:\n21 or older, or head of a family\nnever taken up arms against the U.S. Government\n\nRequirements to file for deed:\nlive on land for five years\nshow evidence of having made improvements\n\n
  • Communications back home from family members, former neighbors, and acquaintances in America were the most common source of information about the new land. New immigrants pressured others to join them.\n\nOle Rynning traveled to U.S. in1838 and later published a book, “True Account of America for the Information and Help of Peasant and Commoner” (pictured).\n\nThis energized Norwegian immigration. The book was an idealized account of life here, and it sparked an interest in emigration among impoverished Norwegian farmers. It was the first comprehensive account of its type: not as a journal of his travels, but as a helpful question-and-answer dialog to address the fears of the prospective emigrant.\n\nThis is why many Norwegians went to American between the 1830s and 1860s.\n\n\n\n
  • Between 1825 and 1925, more than 800,000 Norwegians came to North America. About 1/3 of Norway's population emigrated; no country other than Ireland contributed a larger percentage of its population to America.\n\nPopulation continued to increase in Norway over that time period, so Norway didn't get smaller.\n\n1865 – end of civil war – mass immigration lasted for 8 years (100,000)\n1880-1893 - 2nd wave - travel was easier.\n\nPrior to 1880, the majority of immigrants migrated with their families intending to find a permanent home in America. After 1880, immigrants were younger, educated, moving without family.\n\nPeak was 28,804 in 1882\n\nOf Norwegians coming to North America, the majority of them went to U.S., but others to Canada.\n
  • Immigrants were mostly farmers; most from the inner fjord districts of western Norway and the central mountain districts. They sold their small land holdings to finance their trip.\n\nOthers were younger sons of independent farmers who were not going to inherit land.\n\nIn the 1850s and later, farmers for hire and members of the lower classes in rural society joined the movement overseas. \n\nPictured: Farm in western Norway, 1950s\n\n
  • In the 1840s, the most important ports of departure were Kristiania (Oslo), Bergen and Stavanger.\n\nOthers emigrants went via Gothenburg, Sweden, or Le Havre, France.\n\nThe voyage was long - 2 months or more, depending on weather and wind. Strenuous journey, unsanitary conditions, illness, often several deaths on board.\n\nPictured: Bergen port in the 1860s.\n
  • Later in the 1800s, instead of taking ships directly from Norway, immigrants would take a ship from Norway to the east coast of England, then overland to Liverpool on the west coast, then trans-atlantic ship to the United States.\n\nPictured: The Beatles wave to fans after arriving at Kennedy Airport. February 1964.\n\nPlease note that the Beatles were not alive during the 1800s. They were also probably not Norwegian.\n\n
  • Erie Canal was completed in 1825. 363 miles long, connecting Albany to Buffalo.\n\nTravel now went like this (all via water):\nfrom New York City - take the Hudson River to Albany\nthen Erie Canal to Buffalo\nthen Great Lakes to cities like Chicago and Milwaukee\n\nAt this time, almost all immigrants were arriving via New York. The canal cut travel time to the midwest by almost 70 percent and transportation costs by 90 percent.\n\nPictured: A stone aqueduct of the Erie Canal crosses the Mohawk River in Rexford, New York (early years of the canal).\n\n\n
  • In 1849, the repeal of British Navigation Acts permitted Norwegian ships to transport emigrants directly from Norway to Quebec and then lumber from there back to Great Britain. It was now a more profitable route than Norway to New York, so ship owners preferred this route.\n\nBetween 1850 and 1865 most immigrants went by Norwegian sailing ships to Quebec. Then, took Great Lakes ships from Quebec to Lake Michigan – Milwaukee or Chicago. Immigrants would then travel by oxcart to southern Wisconsin.\n\nPictured: Port of Quebec – about 1920s-1930s\n\n\n
  • First railroads in U.S. started operating in 1826. In the 1850s rail travel became an option to replace the canals or overland travel.\n\nFrom the 1850s it was possible to travel from New York to Chicago by train and from 1856 directly from Quebec to Detroit. \n\nThis meant the former week-long ox-cart trip from Lake Michigan to settlements in Iowa turned into a 10-hour train trip.\n\nPictured: Wood-burning locomotive in 1860s, Ontario\n\n\n
  • Late 1860s – steamships replaced sailing ships for emigration. This revolution made mass emigration possible. They were much faster than sailing ships. Steamship lines offered regular departures and arrivals. You could purchase a ticket, meals included.\n\nPictured: Danish ocean liner SS Norge, built in 1881\n\n
  • Pictured: Emigrants at Larsens Plads, painting by Edvard Petersen from 1890\n(Copenhagen)\n\n\n
  • First half of 1800s, most immigrants arriving in NYC landed at docks on east side of the tip of Manhattan.\n\nThen in 1855, Castle Clinton, which is a sandstone fort in what is now Battery Park on southern tip of Manhattan, turned into Emigrant Landing Depot, NY state's immigrant processing facility (the first in the country). More than 8 million immigrants arrived from 1855 to 1890.\n\n
  • In 1890, federal government took over processing of immigrants.\n\nCongress appropriated $75,000 and Ellis island was opened in 1892.\n\nThe island was originally 3 acres, increased eventually to 27.5 acres using landfill from ships' ballast and from construction of NYC subway tunnels.\n\nNot all immigrants went through Ellis Island. If you were traveling first or second class (i.e., had money), you were quickly examined on board ship by a doctor and immigration officer, and could land without further ado.\n\nThird class passengers went to Ellis Island. This is steerage, below water line. Passengers stayed in vast dormitories without windows and little ventilation or lighting. \n\n
  • At Ellis Island, the arrivals first underwent a medical examination. Contagious diseases like tuberculosis meant automatic expulsion. Officials made chalk marks on clothing to mark if you were contagious. Some immigrants wiped off the chalk or turned their clothing inside out to hide it.\n\nIf the immigrant passed the medical exam, he was questioned by an inspector and an interpreter. The inspector had 2 minutes to decide whether the emigrant had a right to enter the United States. He asked 29 questions, including name, occupation, and amount of money carried. They wanted to make sure immigrants could support themselves; they were expected to have $18-25.\n\nOnly 2% of emigrants were turned away.\n\nThe last person to pass through Ellis Island was a Norwegian merchant seaman by the name of Arne Peterssen in 1954.\n\nPictured: Ellis Island 1904.\n
  • The earliest Norwegian settlements were in Pennsylvania and Illinois. From Illinois, settlers went northwest into Wisconsin.\n\n1840s-1850s, Wisconsin was the main region of Norwegian settlements, remained so until the Civil War in the mid 1860s.\n\n1850s, Norwegians moved into Iowa, Minnesota.\n\n1870, the Scandinavians had overtaken the Germans to become the largest foreign-born element in Minnesota’s population. \n\n1870s, the moved further into the Dakotas\n\nby 1910, 80% of Norwegian-Americans lived in upper midwest.\n\nLater waves to west coast, particularly the Puget Sound area of Washington; also Oregon, and Utah (through missionary efforts by Mormons). On the west coast, Norwegians worked as fishermen or in the forest industry.\n\nSmaller settlements in Brooklyn, NY; Alaska; Texas.\n\n
  • Norwegians in America were deeply attached to farming. They were the most rural of all the major immigrant groups. \n\nIn 1900, about half of Norwegian-born people who were the breadwinners for their families were either farm owners or farm workers.\n\nFarming in America was very different than farming in Norway, but the Norwegian farmers did well. The grew crops such as wheat and corn, raised cattle and hogs.\n\nSome set up repair shops and factories for farm machinery and implements. \n\nPictured: Farm building at Little Norway, Wisconsin\n\n
  • Typical farm house.\n\nPictured: Ole Johnson's house in Round Valley, Nebraska, 1879\n\n
  • Many immigrants were very young adults, and they tried to find a support structure in small towns. Settlements were often people from same valley, fjord, or parish in Norway.\n\nMany Norwegian immigrants chose to live in Norwegian communities that were segregated from other ethnic groups to avoid prejudice; because they received a condescending attitude from other Americans.\n\nIsolated communities also allowed them to preserve traditions.\n\nPictured: what a small town house might look like. This is Noris Miller House at Vesterheim, built in Decorah in 1855-56 and restored to pre-Civil War appearance.\n\n
  • In 1900, only a quarter of Norwegian-born people in the United States lived in big cities of 25,000 or more. Most of them were in Chicago, New York, or the Twin Cities (Minneapolis/St. Paul).\n\nIn Chicago, by 1920 there were 47,000 first and second generation Norwegians. This then constituted the third largest "Norwegian city" in the world, after Oslo and Bergen. \n\nIn urban areas, there was a Scandinavian melting pot with Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes forming one community. Intermarriage occurred among Scandinavians, even when they didn’t mix with other ethnic groups\n\nMost Norwegian immigrants left New York right away. But in the late 1800s, Brooklyn emerged as the Norwegian center of the East Coast. Between 1890-1910, the number of Norwegians doubled to 15,000. By 1930, there were up to 63,000 Norwegian-Americans – 60% born in Norway – surpassing Chicago as the city having the most Norwegians, and taking its place as the third largest Norwegian city.\n\nIn the 1950s when people all over started moving to the suburbs, so did the Norwegians, and the Norwegian Brooklyn died out.\n\nPictured: Little Italy in New York, ca. 1900. Norwegian areas would have looked similar.\n\n\n
  • Many Norwegians found work in the building trades and construction. Some became famous for their work on skyscrapers, bridges, tunnels and subways. Norwegians Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle were structural engineers who designed the Woolworth building in New York. \n\nPictured: Woolworth Building\n\n
  • Wagonmaker was another common occupation.\n\nPictured: Peterson Wagon Shop (1880) at Old World Wisconsin was built by a Norwegian. Note the exterior ramp to bring wagons inside.\n\n
  • Some Norwegians worked as mill workers.\n\nPictured: Young immigrants at a Fall River, Mass., mill in 1912\n\n\n
  • In Chicago, Norwegians played a significant part in shipping in the Great Lakes as seamen, captains and shipbuilders. \n\nPictured: Atlantic coast (Maine or New Brunswick), 1800s\n\n
  • Most women who had outside jobs were in domestic occupations like personal servants. Some worked in woman-only professionals as seamstresses and dressmakers.\n\nPictured: seamstresses, 1930s in Minnesota\n\n
  • Typical Clothes, ca. 1856-1900.\n\nNote that people likely dressed up for photos because it was not a common occurrence. So this is not their everyday dress.\n\n
  • Typical Clothes, ca. 1856-1900.\n
  • Typical Clothes, ca. 1856-1900.\n
  • Wedding, ca. 1880s.\n\nIngebjørg Olene Askevold and Bernt Askevold\n
  • Two Major Norwegian language newspapers:\n\n1. Decorah Posten, founded in 1874, published until 1972. Weekly paper in Decorah, Iowa, which featured news from Norway and a cartoon series that highlighted the foibles of the Norwegian immigrants struggling to make a home in a new land.\n\n2. Skandinaven - published in Chicago from 1866 until 1941.\n\nIn the early 1900s, over one million Americans spoke Norwegian as their primary language. More than 3,000 Lutheran churches in the Upper Midwest used Norwegian as their sole language. Over 600,000 homes received at least one Norwegian newspaper in 1910.\n\nUse of the Norwegian language declined in the 1920s and 1930s, due in large part to the rise of nationalism among Americans during and after WWI.\n\nDuring this period, readership of Norwegian-language publications fell. Norwegian Lutheran churches began to hold their services in English. The younger generation of Norwegian Americans was encouraged to speak English rather than Norwegian. \n\n
  • Most Norwegian immigrants during this time were members of the Church of Norway, an evangelical Lutheran church established by the Constitution of Norway.\n\nAlthough some immigrants thought their congregations should follow those of their homeland, others wanted to break with old-world traditions.\n\nOne key difference is the pastor's authority was limited. In Norway, since it was a state church, ministers were appointed and paid by the government.\n\nIn America, members of the congregation had more influence over decisions, plus pastors tended to be young and inexperienced, so they were not as assertive.\n\nThe pastor often needed to prove to the congregation that he was not in it for power or riches, but rather to serve his congregation.\n\nPictured: Hauge Log Church, Mt. Horeb, WI. First Norwegian Lutheran Church constructed in western Wisconsin\n\n
  • The church became a means of social network, a gathering place. And Norwegian-Americans became more devout than they would have been back in the old country.\n\nWhile Norway is one of the most secular countries in the world, Norwegian-Americans are one of the most religious ethnic groups in the United States. \n\nSome congregations tried to maintain ties to Church of Norway, but the church ignored immigrants, so they formed their own synods, 14 between 1846 and 1900. In 1917, most factions got together to form the Norwegian Lutheran Church in America. This was one of the church bodies that formed the American Lutheran Church in 1960, and later became the ELCA in 1988.\n\nPictured: Sheldahl First Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sheldahl, Iowa, built 1883\n\n
  • Two Norwegian Lutheran churches in the United States continue to use Norwegian as a primary liturgical language, Mindekirken in Minneapolis and Minnekirken in Chicago.\n\nMindekirken (pictured) was formed in 1922 by the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America in response to the rapid abandonment of Norwegian language among Norwegian Lutheran churches at that time.\n\n
  • Schools were very important to immigrants.\n\nThe first public school in U.S. was in Boston in 1821. By the end of the 1800s, public schools were more common than private, but were not as common in rural areas.\n\nPictured: Raspberry Bay School, in Bayfield Co., Wisconsin (remote northern tip off of Lake Superior), a one-room schoolhouse built in 1896 by three Scandinavian families. The families were determined to see their local children educated, so they pooled their resources to build and manage the school.\n\n\n
  • Colleges were also founded by immigrants and people of Norwegian background, all Lutheran.\n\nLuther College in Decorah, IA, was the oldest Norwegian college in America.\n\nSome Norwegian Lutheran colleges still offer Norwegian as a major; other universities offer it as part of Germanic studies.\n\nPictured: Steensland Library, St. Olaf College\n
  • Relative prosperity after about 1900 allowed immigrants to look beyond their immediate social circle to interact with other Norwegian-Americans.\n\nAt the same time, events in Norway, where the country freed itself from Swedish control in 1905, led to a proudness of being “Norwegian American” and immigrants here united to preserve cultural bonds.\n\nThey formed organizations such as singing societies, library and debate groups, athletic clubs, Temperance lodges, sports clubs, folk dance groups, religious societies, and political and trade unions.\n\nSons of Norway was established in 1895.\n\nPictured: Sons of Norway HQ in Minneapolis.\n\n
  • Pictured: Sons of Norway Mandt Lodge 314, Stoughton, WI\n\n
  • Bygdelag - a group based on regional affiliation.\n\nThe first bygdelag was created out of a reunion of immigrants from Valdres, which took place on June 25, 1899, in Minneapolis, with about 800 people. It was so successful, they started annual meetings, becoming more formal after a few years.\n\nIt took a few years to catch on. By 1913 all major regions of Norway had established groups, 31 in all.\n\nMeetings had speech making, storytelling, community singing, folk performers, demos of folk dances, a religious devotion or church service, an exhibition of arts and crafts, traditional dishes in a banquet, and lots of informal fellowship. They typically lasted 1-3 days.\n\nPictured: Gudbrandsdal Lag at Fergus Falls, Minnesota in 1920\n\n\n\n
  • To preserve Norwegian-American culture, several museums were founded.\n\nPictured: Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum, Decorah, IA. It was founded in 1877 as the Norwegian-American Historic Museum, as part of Luther College.\n\nThe collection contains over 24,000 artifacts reflecting the experience of Norwegian-Americans, particularly in the Upper Midwest. The museum compound consists of 16 buildings, including a restored stone mill, a Norwegian Lutheran church, and several houses. \n\nThe name Vesterheim means “Western Home”\n\n\n\n\n
  • Another museum is the Nordic Heritage Museum in Seattle, located in the Norwegian-American neighborhood of Ballard.\n\nFounded in 1980, the museum is dedicated to the heritage of Seattle's Nordic immigrants, i.e. Danish, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish Americans.\n
  • Pictured: Little Norway, a living history museum in Blue Mounds, Wisconsin. Read about it in the June lodge newsletter.\n\nOriginally a farm of 40 acres in the 1850s, then it passed through a couple owners.\n\nIt has been open as a museum since 1937, and owned by the same family since then. It’s the oldest privately-owned museum in the US, but is closing in October 2012.\n\n\n
  • Scandinavian Heritage Park, Minot, ND.\n\nPark with remembrances and replicas from each of the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, as well as Finland and Iceland.\n\nPictured: Replica stave church and 25-foot tall Swedish Dala horse\n
  • An Ole & Lena joke:\n\nThe eye doctor asked Ole, “Have your eyes ever been checked?” “No,” said Ole, “they've already been blue.”\n\n\n
  • We think of immigration as a one-way street, but it’s not.\n\nBetween 1900-1930, about a quarter of European immigrants returned home permanently. For Norwegians, Swedes and Danes together the number was lower, about 15.4 percent. \n\nMost of the Norwegians who went home had achieved their goals in the U.S, and went back and put their savings into farming, buying new machines, land, some even investing in local businesses (the same as many immigrants do now). Some of them, after returning to Norway, complained that Norwegian farming was fifty years behind, and tried to move agriculture ahead. \n\nAnother common reason for return was homesickness. \n\nOthers went home because they were rejecting the United States, particularly those returning to Norway in the years following the First World War, when native-born Americans scorned anyone who was not 100% American.\n\n
  • After WWII, economic growth and prosperity in Norway, along with a new national quota system the U.S. implemented in the 1960s, reduced migration from Norway. \n\nLess than 50,000 Norwegians emigrated to the United States between 1946 and 1978. \n\nToday, Norway is a country that people immigrate to, instead of leaving. In 2007, 8.9% of the population of Norway was immigrants. Among first generation immigrants, Swedes are largest ethnic group. People from global south countries (third world) are close to 1/3 of all immigrants.\n\nOslo has the largest contingent of immigrant residents, followed by Bergen, Stavanger, Bærum and Trondheim.\n\n\n
  • Currently, there are more than 4.6 million Norwegian-Americans. This is 1.5% of the population of the United States.\n\nIn case you're curious: Germans are the most with 16.5%, then Irish with 12%. The Swedish are slightly less than Norwegians with 4.3 million (1.4%).\n\n55% of Norwegian-Americans live in Midwest, 21% live in the Pacific states (CA, OR, WA). The largest number in Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, Washington, and North Dakota.\n\nThere are more people of Norwegian ancestry in the U.S. than in Norway.\n\nIn 2000, only 55,475 Americans spoke Norwegian at home.\n\n
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  • Images listed on this page are via Creative Commons. All other images in the presentation are public domain.\n\nDerek Jensen\n\n\nRanden Pederson\n\n\nEfarestv \n\n\nPeter Gorman\n\n\nCaleb Williams\n\n\nDavid Hunter\n\n\nShihmei Barger\n\n\nBobak Ha'Eri\n\n\nKsteinnes\n\n\nJonathunder\n\n\nRichie Diesterheft\n\n\nTerry Christian \n\n\nJonathunder\n\n\nMat783\n\n\nJonathunder\n\n
  • Norwegian Immigration to America

    1. 1. Where We Came From Norwegian Immigration to America Clarissa Peterson June 15, 2012
    2. 2. Map data ©2012 Google
    3. 3. Population of Norway
    4. 4. Norwegian Immigrant Arrivals by Year
    5. 5. Where We Are TM GENERAL REFERENCE C A N A D A CE TIC AL AN O LAN AS er KA Seatt Riv AT le Olym WA S Spokan Lake of the pia HING e Woods TO N R 90 15 H AW Portla i A 95 nd C o lu our PA I I O m bia Missoula iss River NE CIF La k e S M A I Bangor IC O Salem M MON Grand Forks upe CEAN TA N A NO RT H DA KOTA r i or Helena C Butte s ta Euge ne 94 Fargo Duluth Augu 84 Bismarck M elier ORE Montp K nd GON Billings MINNESOTA I La Burlin gton Portla T MON G 5 VER E C Y 75 P S H IR ke 35 87 HAM H Boise rd NEW Conco TS Hu IG I DA H Minneapolis R U S ET O Green Bay ri o n t a Syracuse M AS S AC H La k e Michigan ron SO UT H DA KOTA 91 oston A St Paul 94 ke O WI SC ON SIN43 La YO R Klbany B ence N Provid E Rapid City Pierre NEW A eld uffalo pringfi S Pocatello W YO M IN Sioux Falls Grand B S rd LAN D 90 Rapids Hartfo D E IS A G N Milwaukee ton R HO Casper ie Scran T Madison Lansing Detroit Er UT M E C T IC T ke ork C O N N M 80 25 Sioux City Cedar La N IA 80 New Y Great IOW A Rapids Chicago Toledo Cleveland SY LVA Trento n P E N N Harrisburg O 29 EY Reno G R Salt J E RS E A Salt Lake Cheyenne NE BR AS KA NEW N E VA T Lake Des Moines Wayne rgh lphia San Carso DA City U Omaha Fort Pittsbu Philade n City Provo O H IO 80 Fran re Sacra Peoria Baltimo lis Dover E L AWA R E R iv e r 65 cisco mento Fort Collins Oakla nd UTA H Lincoln IL LI NO IS IN D IA N A 70 Columbus Annapo D P A C gton N San J Denver 35 ose Springfield Indianapolis W E ST Washin LAND A N DC C ALIF Cincinnati IA M A RY ORN 70 V IR G IN 95 T B A 55 IA Kansas City Kansas City S I NIA C O LO R A D O n V I R G I hmond N Fresn Topeka MIS SO UR I St Louis Frankfort Charlesto Beach io o Virginia A Oh Ric O C E Evansville Louisville Lexingto n N Pueblo KANS AS Jefferson City Norfolk I F I P 81 A 5 Las Veg 15 Ark 85 KENTUCKY I as a Wichita I r H Baker sfield Rive oro GreensbRaleigh L ns Springfield C N as 44 on-Sale m ille A INA Nashville Knoxv L Winst C A RO L C A Los A N O R T Hharlotte 40 ngele R Tulsa EE A S Flagstaff NESS River s 40 TE N San Be C I C 40 rnardin Santa Fe OKLA HOM A P o do ton I ARIZO P Greenville Wilming O C NA Albuquerque Amarillo Oklahoma City Fort Smith Memphis 65 ora 10 A olumbia San D N ARK ANS AS C N T Co l iego N E W M E X IC S O UT H ippi Phoenix O 27 Little Rock 59 IN A Atlanta C A RO L S Red Birmingham n Charlesto Mississ E A 55 R G IA B A M A G E O Macon 25 30 Roswell Lubbock 95 L A Tucson ALA Fort Worth MISSISSIPPI 85 Columbus Meridian Savannah N Dallas Shrevep ort ery El Paso 20 Montgom A T TE XA S Ri Jackson 75 65 ve lle 59 Jacksonvi r 45 Tallahassee 10 Biloxi Mo bile ARCTIC OCE 10 LOU ISIA NA HAWAII AN Austin Baton Rouge Rio Honolulu Houston New Orleans PA C RU Orlando IF SS IA San Antonio IC B ROOKS Tampa 95 G ra RANGE M OC 35 Hilo A F L O R ID EA 370 100 mi nd N E MEXIC O e ALASKA R Lake obee T F OF X Okeech0 100 km on Fairbanks UL H Miami E I C G A k ASK Yu B C AL NGE A A R A H N Anchorage O A A BE Albers equal area projection M D RIN AS A G 0 100 200 300 mi SE A GULF OF ALA Juneau 0 100 200 300 km PA SK CIF 0 200 mi A IC OCE AN 0 200 km CUBA U.S. Department of the Interior The National Atlas of the United States of AmericaO R U.S. Geological Survey genref1.pdf INTERIOR-GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, RESTON, VIRGINIA-2003
    6. 6. Thank You
    7. 7. Photo Credits via Creative CommonsDerek Jensen Randen Pederson EfarestvPeter Gorman Caleb Williams David HunterShihmei Barger Bobak HaEri KsteinnesJonathunder Richie Diesterheft Terry ChristianJonathunder Mat783 Jonathunder