Half-life and Nuclear Reaction


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Half-life and Nuclear Reaction

  1. 1. Hajer Mahmood Science 10 Honors Block C Mr. Horton May 12th, 2014 Half-life and Nuclear Reactions
  2. 2. Half-life
  3. 3. Half-Life Half-life is the time it took for radioactivity of a specific isotope to fall into half its original value. Decay Curve Half-life can be demonstrated by a decay curve. This is a curved line that shows you the rate of the decay. Radiocarbon Dating Radiocarbon dating is when you find the age of an element by the amount of carbon-14 that is left inside of the element. Carbon-14 and carbon-12 is in every plant or animal. They are equal when the organism is alive, nut once it dies carbon-14 decrease which differs the ratio. Common Isotope Like everyone, including The Hulk, we were “made” by our parents. Like isotopes there are parent isotopes and daughter isotopes. The isotope goes through radioactive decay (parent isotope) which results in a stable product of radioactive decay (daughter isotope)
  4. 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhOtKurHayo
  5. 5. Show what you know • Carbon-12 is what we use to determine the age of an element? True or False • The parent isotope produces an unstable daughter isotope. True or False • Half-life is: I} The final moments of an element II} The amount of time it took radioactivity to half the original value of a specific isotope III} Shown by a decay curve a) I only b) I and III only c) II and III only
  6. 6. Nuclear Reactions
  7. 7. Nuclear Fission This is the splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei, subatomic particles and energy. Nuclear Fission is the nuclear energy that is used for power generation, because fission gives off a lot of energy. Heavier nuclei=more unstable, because of the repulsive forces between protons. To fix this problem atoms who have heavy nuclei can split into atoms with lighter nuclei. Nuclear Fusion This is when two low mass nuclei join together to make a bigger nucleus. This happens in the core of Sun. (high pressure and high temperate force isotopes of hydrogen to collide with great force)
  8. 8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU6y1XIADdg
  9. 9. Nuclear Reaction When an atom’s nucleus changes either by gaining or releasing particles or energy it is a nuclear reaction. It can release all three types of subatomic particles, and also gamma rays. Small change in mass=large change in energy Nuclear reaction happens when bombarding a nucleus with alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays Induced means when a scientist makes a nucleus unstable and undergo a nuclear reaction. Subatomic Particle Symbols (protons) (neutrons) (electrons) Rules for Writing Nuclear Equations • The sum of the mass numbers on each side of the equation stays • The sum of charges (shown by atomic numbers) on each side of the equation stays the same
  10. 10. Chain Reactions It is the ongoing process in where one reaction initiates the next reaction. Figure 7.21). The amount of fissions as well as the energy released will increase largely and it can cause a violent nuclear explosion.
  11. 11. Show what you know • Name at least two differences between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.