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Router configuration

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  • 1. Router Configuration
  • 2. CISCO 2500 series router
  • 3. • A router is a special type of computer. It has thesame basic components as a standard desktopPC. It has a CPU, memory, a system bus, andvarious input/output interfaces.
  • 4. Router Components: RAMRAM has the following characteristics and functions:• Stores routing tables• Holds ARP cache• Holds fast-switching cache• Performs packet buffering as shared RAM• Maintains packet-hold queues• Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of arouter while the router is powered on• Loses content when a router is powered down orrestarted
  • 5. Router Components: NVRAMNVRAM has the following characteristicsand functions:• Provides storage for the startupconfiguration file• Retains content when a router is powereddown or restarted
  • 6. Router Components: Flash memoryFlash memory has the following characteristicsand functions:• Holds the IOS image• Allows software to be updated without removingand replacing chips on the processor• Retains content when a router is powered downor restarted• Can store multiple versions of IOS software• Is a type of electrically erasable programmableread-only memory (EEPROM)
  • 7. Router Components: ROMROM has the following characteristics andfunctions:• Maintains instructions for power-on selftest (POST) diagnostics• Stores bootstrap program and basicoperating system software• Requires replacing pluggable chips on themotherboard for software upgrades
  • 8. Router Components: InterfacesInterfaces have the following characteristicsand functions:• Connect routers to a network for packetentry and exit• Can be on the motherboard or on aseparate module
  • 9. Console port connections
  • 10. Router Configuration
  • 11. Cisco IOS Software• Basic routing andswitching functions• Reliable and secureaccess to networkedresources• Network scalabilityRouter> show version…<output omitted>…cisco 2620 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x102) with 59392K/6144Kbytes of memoryRouter>show flash
  • 12. Router# configure terminalRouter(config)#• Type exit or Ctrl-Z to returnRouter(config)#hostname TokyoTokyo(config)#Router(config)#line console 0Router(config-line)#loginRouter(config-line)#password <password >
  • 13. show commands• show ? – any time for help with commands type ?• Router# show interfaces serial 0/1• show clock - Shows the time set in the router• show hosts - Displays a cached list of host names andaddresses• show users - Displays all users who are connected to therouter• show history - Displays a history of commands• show flash - information about flash memory and IOSfiles• show version - currently loaded software version andhardware• show protocols - status of configured Layer 3 protocols• show startup-config - saved configuration located inNVRAM• show running-config
  • 14. Configuring interfaces• Router(config)#interface serial 0/0• Router(config-if)# ip address <ip address > <netmask >• Router(config)#interface serial 0/0• Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000• Router(config-if)#no shutdown• Router#copy running-config startup-config• Router#erase startup-config
  • 15. Routing and Routing Protocols• dynamic routing,• static routing– ip route command to manually configure a staticroute.– administrative distance is an optional parameter thatindicates the reliability of a route.– waycross(config)# ip route 172.16.3.0 255.255.255.0172.16.4.1 130– Route can be configure by outgoing interface or nexthop ip address.– default route is given by ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0[next-hop-address | outgoing interface ]
  • 16. Routing and Routing Protocols
  • 17. Dynamic RoutingTwo types of dynamic routing:• Distance vector• Link-staterouting protocols:• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)• Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)• Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)• Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)routed protocols :• Internet Protocol (IP)• Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)• Autonomous systems - 16-bit identification number– Routing protocols, e.g. Cisco IGRP, require assignment of a unique AS
  • 18. Dynamic Routing
  • 19. Configuring Dynamic Routing• BHM(config) #router rip – Selects RIP as the routingprotocol• BHM(config-router) #network 10.0.0.0 – Specifies adirectly connected network• BHM(config-router) # network 192.168.13.0 – Specifiesa directly connected network• RIP was originally specified in RFC 1058 :– It is a distance vector routing protocol.– Hop count is used as the metric for path selection.– If the hop count is greater than 15, the packet is discarded.– Routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds, by default.– Load balancing among multiple equidistance path
  • 20. Troubleshooting• ABC#show ip protocols• ABC#show ip route• ABC#show interface interface• ABC#show ip interface interface• ABC#show running-config• show ip rip database• show ip protocols {summary}• debug ip rip {events}• ip interface brief
  • 21. IGRP• IGRP uses the following metrics:– Bandwidth – The lowest bandwidth value inthe path– Delay – The cumulative interface delay alongthe path– Reliability – The reliability on the link towardthe destination as determined by theexchange of keepalives– Load – The load
  • 22. • RouterA(config) #router igrp as-number
  • 23. More on Routing…• OSPF and EIGRP• EGP and IGP• Switching• VLAN• Access Control List (ACL)
  • 24. OSPF• OSPF is a nonproprietary link-state routingprotocol.– It is a link-state routing protocol.– It is an open standard routing protocol described inRFC 2328.– The SPF algorithm is used to calculate the lowestcost to a destination.– Routing updates are flooded as topology changesoccur.# router ospf process-id# network net-address wildcard-mask area area-id
  • 25. EIGRP• EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary enhanced distance vectorrouting protocol.– It is an enhanced distance vector routing protocol.– It uses unequal cost load balancing.– It uses a combination of distance vector and link-state features(hybrid).– It uses Diffused Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate theshortest path.– Routing updates are multicast using 224.0.0.10 triggered bytopology changes. Max hop 255RA(config-router)# router eigrp autonomous-system-numberRA(config-router)# network network-number
  • 26. BGP• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is anexterior routing protocol.– It is a distance vector exterior routing protocol.– It is used between ISPs or ISPs and clients.– It is used to route Internet traffic betweenautonomous systems.