FLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPOREFLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPORE
HISTORY OF SINGAPORE
● It lies off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and is 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the
equator. Made up of the lozenge-shaped main island (widely known as Singapore Island but also
as Pulau Ujong, its native Malay name) and over 60 much smaller islets.
● Singapore is one of the world's leading commercial hubs, with the fourth-biggest financial
centre and one of the five busiest ports.
● The earliest known settlement on Singapore was in the second century AD. It was an outpost of
the Sumatran Srivijaya empire, named Temasek ('sea town'). As part of the Sri Vijaya Empire,
Singapore was invaded by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire in
the 11th century.Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, it was part of the Johor Sultanate. In
1613, Portuguese raiders burnt down the settlement and the island sank into obscurity for the
next two centuries.
● n 1819, Thomas Stamford Raffles arrived and signed a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor
on behalf of the British East India Company to develop the southern part of Singapore as a
British trading post. In 1824, the entire island became a British possession under a further treaty
with the Sultan and the Temenggong. In 1826, it became part of the Straits Settlements,
under the jurisdiction of British India. Singapore became the capital of the Straits Settlements in
1836. Before Raffles arrived, there were around 1,000 people living in Singapore, mostly
indigenous Malay community, and 20-30 Chinese. By 1860, the population exceeded
80,000, with over half of the population being Chinese.
HISTORY OF SINGAPORE
● By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000, with over half of the population being Chinese. Many
immigrants came to work at rubber plantations; and, after the 1870s, the island became a global
centre for rubber exports.
● A cheering crowd welcome the return of British forces, 1945
● During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded British Malaya, culminating in the
Battle of Singapore. The British were defeated, and surrendered on 15 February 1942. British
Prime Minister Winston Churchill called this "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in
British history". The Sook Ching massacre of ethnic Chinese after the fall of Singapore
claimed between 5,000 and 25,000 lives. The Japanese occupied Singapore until the British
repossessed it in September 1945, after the Surrender of Japan.
● During the May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party won a landslide victory. Singapore
had become an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth, with Lee Kuan Yew as
the first Prime Minister. Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first
Yang di-Pertuan Negara ("Head of State"), and was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak who in 1965
became the first President of Singapore. During the 1950s Communists, mostly supported
by the Chinese-speaking group, with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools, carried
out an armed struggle against the state, resulting in the Malayan Emergency and later, the
Communist Insurgency War. The 1954 National Service Riots, Chinese middle schools riots and
Hock Lee bus riots in Singapore were all linked to the Communists.
● Singapore consists of 63 islands, including
the main island, widely known as Singapore
Island but also as Pulau Ujong.There are two
man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia:
the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north,
and the Tuas Second Link in the west.
Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and
Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's
smaller islands. The highest natural point is
Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).
● There are ongoing land reclamation projects,
which have increased Singapore's land area
from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to
716.1 km2 (276.5 sq mi) today; it may
grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030.
 Some projects involve merging smaller
islands through land reclamation to form
larger, more functional islands, as with
Jurong Island. 5% of Singapore's land is
set aside as nature reserves. Urbanisation
has eliminated most primary rainforest on the
main island, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve
being the only significant remaining forest.
 There are only about 250 acres (101 ha)
of farmland remaining in Singapore.
● Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af )
with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and
pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall.
Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95
°F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the
morning and 73% in the afternoon.April and May are the
hottest months, with the wetter monsoon season from
November to January.From July to October, there is often
haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia.
Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving
time, it follows time zone GMT+8, one hour ahead of its
● Pre-independence economy
Before independence in 1965, Singapore was the capital of the British Straits Settlements, a Crown
Colony. It was also the main British naval base in East Asia. Because of its status as the main
British naval base in the region, as well as hosting the largest dry dock in the world at that time in
the form of the Singapore Naval Base, it was described in the press as the 'Gibraltar of the East'.
 The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 caused global trade to boom, and Singapore became a
major world trade node, and the Port of Singapore became one of the largest and busiest ports in
the world. Before independence in 1965, Singapore had a GDP per capita of $511, then the
third-highest in East Asia. After independence, foreign direct investment and a state-led drive
for industrialisation based on plans by Goh Keng Swee and Albert Winsemius created a modern
● Modern-day economy
Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade.
Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian
Tigers. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest, most innovative, most
competitive, and most business-friendly. The 2011 Index of Economic Freedom ranks
Singapore as the second freest economy in the world, behind Hong Kong. According to the
Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt
countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.
Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world. The country has
the highest trade-to-GDP ratio in the world at 407.9 percent, signifying the importance of trade to
its economy. The country is currently the only Asian country to have AAA credit ratings from all
three major credit rating agencies; Standard & Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch. Singapore
attracts a large amount of foreign direct investment as a result of its location, corruption-free
environment, skilled workforce, low tax rates and advanced infrastructure. There are more than
7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There
are also 1,500 companies from China and 1,500 from India. Foreign firms are found in almost all
sectors of the economy. Singapore is also the second-largest foreign investor in India.
Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans. Over ten
free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions.
In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the
wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income, a full tax exemption on income that is
generated outside of Singapore and legislation that means that capital gains are also tax exempt.
Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy, with an estimated personal wealth worth AU$835 million,
and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals
who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012). Singapore ranked fifth
place on the Tax Justice Network's 2013 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's top tax havens,
scoring narrowly ahead of the United States.
-The Singaporean economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in
manufacturing, which constituted 27.2% of GDP in 2010 and includes significant electronics,
petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006
Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output. Despite its small size,
Singapore has a diversified economy, a strategy that the government considers vital for growth and
-Tourism also forms a large part of the economy, and 10.2 million tourists visited the country in
2007. To attract more tourists, in 2005 the government legalised gambling and allowed two
casino resorts (called Integrated Resorts) to be developed. Singapore is promoting itself as a
medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year, and Singapore
medical services aim to serve one million foreign patients annually by 2012 and generate USD 3
billion in revenue. Singapore is an education hub, and many foreign students study in
Singapore. Singapore hosted over 80,000 international students in 2006. More than 5,000
Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway every morning with hopes of receiving a
better education in Singapore. In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were
international students. The students were mainly from ASEAN, China and India.
-Singapore is a world leader in several economic areas: The country is the world's fourth leading
financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, one of the world's top
three oil-refining centres, the world's largest oil-rig producer, and a major ship-repairer.
The port is one of the five busiest ports in the world. The World Bank has named Singapore as
the easiest place in the world to do business and ranks Singapore the world's top logistics hub.
 It is also the world's fourth largest foreign-exchange trading centre after London, New York and
● As of 2012, the population of Singapore is 5.312 million people, of whom 3.285 million (62%) are
citizens while the rest (38%) are permanent residents or foreign workers/students. Twenty-three
percent of Singaporean citizens were born outside Singapore (i.e. foreign born citizens). There are
half a million permanent residents in Singapore in 2012. The resident population does not take into
account the 11 million transient visitors who visit Singapore annually.
The median age of Singaporeans is 37 years old and the average household size is 3.5 persons.
Due to scarcity of land, four out of five Singaporeans live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing
apartments known as Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats, after the board responsible for
public housing in the country. Live-in domestic helpers are quite common in Singapore and
there are nearly 200,000 domestic helpers there.
The total fertility rate is estimated to be .79 children per woman in 2013, the lowest in the world and
well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population. To overcome this problem, the Singapore
government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades.
The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining. Singapore
traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The
Singaporean unemployment rate has not exceeded 4% in the past decade, hitting a high of 3%
during the 2009 global financial crisis and falling to 1.9% in 2011.
Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population
declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is
Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a
religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased
between 2000 and 2010 by about 3% each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other
faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.
There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in
Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and
are of the Mahayana tradition. Chinese Mahayana is the most predominant form of Buddhism
in Singapore, with missionaries coming into the country from Taiwan and China for several
decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the
people (not only the Chinese) in the past decade. Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist
organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent.
Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.
Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. English is the
common language of the nation and is the language of business, government, and the medium of
instruction in schools. Public bodies in Singapore conduct their businesses in English,
and official documents written in a non-English official language such as Chinese, Malay or Tamil
typically have to be translated into English to be accepted for submission. The Constitution of
Singapore and all laws are written in English, and translators are required if one wishes to
address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English. However, English is
the native tongue for only one-third of all Singaporeans, with roughly a third of all Singaporean
Chinese, a quarter of all Singaporean Malays and half of all Singaporean Indians speaking it as
their native tongue. Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English.
Many, but not all, Singaporeans are bilingual in English and another official language, with vastly
varying degrees of fluency. The official languages ranked in terms of literacy amongst
Singaporeans are English (80% literacy), Mandarin Chinese (65% literacy), Malay (17% literacy),
and Tamil (4% literacy). Singapore English is based on British English, and forms of
English spoken in Singapore range from "Standard Singapore English" to a pidgin known as
"Singlish". Singlish is heavily discouraged by the government.
Chinese is the language that is spoken as the native tongue by the greatest number of
Singaporeans, half of them. Singaporean Mandarin is the most common version of Chinese in
the country, with 1.2 million using it as their home language. Nearly half a million speak other
Chinese dialects, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the
use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin and English.
● Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even with a health expenditure relatively low
for developed countries.The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as
6th overall in the world in its World Health Report. In general, Singapore has the lowest infant
mortality rate in the world for the past two decades.Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males
and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy. Almost the whole
population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual
deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. Adult obesity is below
The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three
components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford
healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory health savings scheme covering about 85% of the population,
and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance scheme. Public hospitals in Singapore
have autonomy in their management decisions, and compete for patients. A subsidy scheme exists
for those on low income. In 2008, 31.9% of healthcare was funded by the government. It
accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.
Languages, religions, and culturesLanguages, religions, and cultures
Singapore is a very diverse and young country. It has many languages, religions, and cultures for a
country its size. Due to the many languages and cultures in the country, there is no single set
of culturally acceptable behaviours.
● When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most of the newly minted
Singaporean citizens were uneducated labourers from Malaysia, China and India. Many of them
were transient labourers who were seeking to make some money in Singapore and they had no
intention of staying for good. A sizeable minority of middle-class, local-born people, known as the
Peranakans, also existed. With the exception of the Peranakans (descendants of late 15th and
16th-century Chinese immigrants) who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers'
loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After
independence, the process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture began.
Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes would therefore be influenced by, among many other
things, his or her home language and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native
language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese languages as their
native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking
Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture.
Those who speak Indian languages as their native language would probably lean toward Indian
Attitudes and beliefs
Singapore, as a country, in general is conservative socially, but some liberalisation has occurred.
 At the national level, meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability, is heavily
Racial and religious harmony is regarded by the government as a crucial part of Singapore's
success and played a part in building a Singaporean identity. Singapore has a reputation as a
nanny state. The national flower of Singapore is the Vanda Miss Joaquim. Many national
symbols such as the National Coat of Arms and the Lion Head symbol make use of the lion, as
Singapore is known as the 'Lion City'. Public holidays in Singapore cover major Chinese, Western,
Malay and Indian festivals.
Singaporean employees work an average of around 45 hours weekly, relatively long compared to
many other nations. Three in four Singaporean employees surveyed stated that they take pride in
doing their work well, and that doing so helps their self-confidence.
Dining, along with shopping, is said to be the country's national pastime.The focus on food has led
countries like Australia to attract Singaporean tourists with food-based itineraries. The
diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country, and the variety of food representing
different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism.The "national
fruit" of Singapore is the durian.
In popular culture, food items belong to a particular ethnicity, with Chinese, Malay, and Indian food
clearly defined. However, the diversity of cuisine has been increased further by the "hybridisation"
of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan style, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine).
● Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in
particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between
the East and West".One highlight was the construction of Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, a
performing arts centre opened in October 2002.The national orchestra, Singapore Symphony
Orchestra, plays at the Esplanade. The annual Singapore Arts Festival is organised by the National
Arts Council. The stand-up comedy scene has been growing, with a weekly open mic. Singapore
hosted the 2009 Genee International Ballet Competition, a classical ballet competition promoted by
London's Royal Academy of Dance.
Sport and recreation
● Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton.
Most Singaporeans live in public residential areas (known as "HDB flats", as mentioned above)
near amenities such as public swimming pools, outdoor basketball courts and indoor sport
complexes. Water sports are popular, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is
another popular recreational sport. The Southern island of Pulau Hantu, particularly, is known for its
rich coral reefs.
● Singapore's football (soccer) league, the S-League, formed in 199 currently comprises 12 clubs
including foreign teams. The Singapore Slingers, formerly in the Australian National Basketball
League, is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League, founded in October 2009.
● Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand
Prix, in 2008. The race takes place on the Marina Bay Street Circuit and was the inaugural F1 night
race and the first F1 street race in Asia. The Singapore Grand Prix will remain on the F1
calendar through at least 2017, after race organisers signed a contract extension with Formula One
Group on the eve of the 2012 event.
● Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts multiple weekly meetings and many
important local and international races, notably the prestigious Singapore Airlines International
● Singapore also hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.
Victorious Japanese troops
marching through Singapore City
after British capitulation
at the Battle of Singapore
A cheering crowd
the return of
British forces, 1945
Singapore's Parliament House. The Old Supreme Court Building
A scene in a street market
Singapore, during the
Chinese New Year holidays.
Sultan Mosque in Singapore
Thaipusam is a Hindu festival
Singapore's Tamil community
The durian-shaped Esplanade,
entre, stands out in front of the
Marina Square area.
THANK YOU FOR LISTENINGTHANK YOU FOR LISTENING
Prepared By: Clarence AsperaPrepared By: Clarence Aspera
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