WETUWE
SINGAPORE
Lion city
FLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPOREFLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPORE
HISTORY OF SINGAPORE
● It lies off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and is 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the
equa...
HISTORY OF SINGAPORE
● By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000, with over half of the population being Chinese. Many
immig...
GEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHY
● Singapore consists of 63 islands, including
the main island, widely known as Singapore
Island but als...
CLIMATECLIMATE
● Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af )
with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperatur...
Economy
● Pre-independence economy
Before independence in 1965, Singapore was the capital of the British Straits Settlemen...
Economy
Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world. The country has
the highest tra...
Sectors
-The Singaporean economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in
manufacturing,[79] ...
Demographics
● As of 2012, the population of Singapore is 5.312 million people, of whom 3.285 million (62%) are
citizens w...
Religion
Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population
declaring themse...
Languages
Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil.[159] English is the
common language ...
Health
● Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even with a health expenditure relatively low
for develope...
Culture
●
Languages, religions, and culturesLanguages, religions, and cultures
Singapore is a very diverse and young count...
Attitudes and beliefs
Singapore, as a country, in general is conservative socially, but some liberalisation has occurred.
...
Cuisine
Dining, along with shopping, is said to be the country's national pastime.The focus on food has led
countries like...
Arts
● Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in
particular the pe...
Sport and recreation
● Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton...
Victorious Japanese troops
marching through Singapore City
after British capitulation
at the Battle of Singapore
A cheerin...
A scene in a street market
in Chinatown,
Singapore, during the
Chinese New Year holidays.
Sultan Mosque in Singapore
Thaip...
THANK YOU FOR LISTENINGTHANK YOU FOR LISTENING
Prepared By: Clarence AsperaPrepared By: Clarence Aspera
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singapore

  1. 1. WETUWE SINGAPORE Lion city
  2. 2. FLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPOREFLAG AND MAP OF SINGAPORE
  3. 3. HISTORY OF SINGAPORE ● It lies off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and is 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. Made up of the lozenge-shaped main island (widely known as Singapore Island but also as Pulau Ujong, its native Malay name) and over 60 much smaller islets. ● Singapore is one of the world's leading commercial hubs, with the fourth-biggest financial centre and one of the five busiest ports. ● The earliest known settlement on Singapore was in the second century AD. It was an outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya empire, named Temasek ('sea town'). As part of the Sri Vijaya Empire, Singapore was invaded by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire in the 11th century.Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, it was part of the Johor Sultanate. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burnt down the settlement and the island sank into obscurity for the next two centuries. ● n 1819, Thomas Stamford Raffles arrived and signed a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor on behalf of the British East India Company to develop the southern part of Singapore as a British trading post. In 1824, the entire island became a British possession under a further treaty with the Sultan and the Temenggong.[16] In 1826, it became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India. Singapore became the capital of the Straits Settlements in 1836.[17] Before Raffles arrived, there were around 1,000 people living in Singapore, mostly indigenous Malay community, and 20-30 Chinese.[18] By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000, with over half of the population being Chinese. ●
  4. 4. HISTORY OF SINGAPORE ● By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000, with over half of the population being Chinese. Many immigrants came to work at rubber plantations; and, after the 1870s, the island became a global centre for rubber exports. ● A cheering crowd welcome the return of British forces, 1945 ● During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded British Malaya, culminating in the Battle of Singapore. The British were defeated, and surrendered on 15 February 1942. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called this "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history".[19] The Sook Ching massacre of ethnic Chinese after the fall of Singapore claimed between 5,000 and 25,000 lives.[20] The Japanese occupied Singapore until the British repossessed it in September 1945, after the Surrender of Japan. ● During the May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party won a landslide victory. Singapore had become an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth, with Lee Kuan Yew as the first Prime Minister. Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara ("Head of State"), and was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak who in 1965 became the first President of Singapore.[24] During the 1950s Communists, mostly supported by the Chinese-speaking group, with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools, carried out an armed struggle against the state, resulting in the Malayan Emergency and later, the Communist Insurgency War. The 1954 National Service Riots, Chinese middle schools riots and Hock Lee bus riots in Singapore were all linked to the Communists.
  5. 5. GEOGRAPHYGEOGRAPHY ● Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, widely known as Singapore Island but also as Pulau Ujong.There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft). ● There are ongoing land reclamation projects, which have increased Singapore's land area from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 716.1 km2 (276.5 sq mi) today;[4] it may grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030. [48] Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as with Jurong Island.[49] 5% of Singapore's land is set aside as nature reserves. Urbanisation has eliminated most primary rainforest on the main island, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve being the only significant remaining forest. [49] There are only about 250 acres (101 ha) of farmland remaining in Singapore. ●
  6. 6. CLIMATECLIMATE ● Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af ) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95 °F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon.April and May are the hottest months, with the wetter monsoon season from November to January.From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia. Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time, it follows time zone GMT+8, one hour ahead of its geographical location.
  7. 7. Economy ● Pre-independence economy Before independence in 1965, Singapore was the capital of the British Straits Settlements, a Crown Colony. It was also the main British naval base in East Asia.[57] Because of its status as the main British naval base in the region, as well as hosting the largest dry dock in the world at that time in the form of the Singapore Naval Base, it was described in the press as the 'Gibraltar of the East'. [58] The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 caused global trade to boom, and Singapore became a major world trade node, and the Port of Singapore became one of the largest and busiest ports in the world.[59] Before independence in 1965, Singapore had a GDP per capita of $511, then the third-highest in East Asia.[60] After independence, foreign direct investment and a state-led drive for industrialisation based on plans by Goh Keng Swee and Albert Winsemius created a modern economy. ● Modern-day economy Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest,[63] most innovative,[64] most competitive,[65] and most business-friendly.[66] The 2011 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Singapore as the second freest economy in the world, behind Hong Kong. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.
  8. 8. Economy Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world. The country has the highest trade-to-GDP ratio in the world at 407.9 percent, signifying the importance of trade to its economy. The country is currently the only Asian country to have AAA credit ratings from all three major credit rating agencies; Standard & Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch.[67][68] Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign direct investment as a result of its location, corruption-free environment, skilled workforce, low tax rates and advanced infrastructure. There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There are also 1,500 companies from China and 1,500 from India. Foreign firms are found in almost all sectors of the economy.[6] Singapore is also the second-largest foreign investor in India.[69] Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.[70] Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions. In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income, a full tax exemption on income that is generated outside of Singapore and legislation that means that capital gains are also tax exempt. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy, with an estimated personal wealth worth AU$835 million, and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).[77] Singapore ranked fifth place on the Tax Justice Network's 2013 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's top tax havens, scoring narrowly ahead of the United States.
  9. 9. Sectors -The Singaporean economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in manufacturing,[79] which constituted 27.2% of GDP in 2010[6] and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006 Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.[80] Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversified economy, a strategy that the government considers vital for growth and stability. -Tourism also forms a large part of the economy, and 10.2 million tourists visited the country in 2007.[82] To attract more tourists, in 2005 the government legalised gambling and allowed two casino resorts (called Integrated Resorts) to be developed.[83] Singapore is promoting itself as a medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year, and Singapore medical services aim to serve one million foreign patients annually by 2012 and generate USD 3 billion in revenue.[84] Singapore is an education hub, and many foreign students study in Singapore. Singapore hosted over 80,000 international students in 2006.[85] More than 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway every morning with hopes of receiving a better education in Singapore.[86] In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students. The students were mainly from ASEAN, China and India. -Singapore is a world leader in several economic areas: The country is the world's fourth leading financial centre,[88] the world's second-biggest casino gambling market,[89] one of the world's top three oil-refining centres, the world's largest oil-rig producer, and a major ship-repairer.[90][91][92] The port is one of the five busiest ports in the world.[89] The World Bank has named Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business[89] and ranks Singapore the world's top logistics hub. [93] It is also the world's fourth largest foreign-exchange trading centre after London, New York and Tokyo.
  10. 10. Demographics ● As of 2012, the population of Singapore is 5.312 million people, of whom 3.285 million (62%) are citizens while the rest (38%) are permanent residents or foreign workers/students. Twenty-three percent of Singaporean citizens were born outside Singapore (i.e. foreign born citizens). There are half a million permanent residents in Singapore in 2012. The resident population does not take into account the 11 million transient visitors who visit Singapore annually. The median age of Singaporeans is 37 years old and the average household size is 3.5 persons. Due to scarcity of land, four out of five Singaporeans live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments known as Housing and Development Board (HDB) flats, after the board responsible for public housing in the country.[140] Live-in domestic helpers are quite common in Singapore and there are nearly 200,000 domestic helpers there. The total fertility rate is estimated to be .79 children per woman in 2013, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.[144] To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining.[145] Singapore traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The Singaporean unemployment rate has not exceeded 4% in the past decade, hitting a high of 3% during the 2009 global financial crisis and falling to 1.9% in 2011.
  11. 11. Religion Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3% each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population. There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition.[156] Chinese Mahayana is the most predominant form of Buddhism in Singapore, with missionaries coming into the country from Taiwan and China for several decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the people (not only the Chinese) in the past decade. Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.
  12. 12. Languages Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil.[159] English is the common language of the nation and is the language of business, government, and the medium of instruction in schools.[160][161] Public bodies in Singapore conduct their businesses in English, and official documents written in a non-English official language such as Chinese, Malay or Tamil typically have to be translated into English to be accepted for submission. The Constitution of Singapore and all laws are written in English,[162] and translators are required if one wishes to address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English.[163][164] However, English is the native tongue for only one-third of all Singaporeans, with roughly a third of all Singaporean Chinese, a quarter of all Singaporean Malays and half of all Singaporean Indians speaking it as their native tongue. Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English. Many, but not all, Singaporeans are bilingual in English and another official language, with vastly varying degrees of fluency. The official languages ranked in terms of literacy amongst Singaporeans are English (80% literacy), Mandarin Chinese (65% literacy), Malay (17% literacy), and Tamil (4% literacy).[154][166] Singapore English is based on British English,[167] and forms of English spoken in Singapore range from "Standard Singapore English" to a pidgin known as "Singlish". Singlish is heavily discouraged by the government.[168] Chinese is the language that is spoken as the native tongue by the greatest number of Singaporeans, half of them.[158] Singaporean Mandarin is the most common version of Chinese in the country,[169] with 1.2 million using it as their home language. Nearly half a million speak other Chinese dialects, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin and English.
  13. 13. Health ● Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even with a health expenditure relatively low for developed countries.The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report. In general, Singapore has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world for the past two decades.Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. Adult obesity is below 10%. The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory health savings scheme covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance scheme.[195] Public hospitals in Singapore have autonomy in their management decisions, and compete for patients. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.[198] In 2008, 31.9% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.
  14. 14. Culture ● Languages, religions, and culturesLanguages, religions, and cultures Singapore is a very diverse and young country. It has many languages, religions, and cultures for a country its size.[202] Due to the many languages and cultures in the country, there is no single set of culturally acceptable behaviours. ● When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most of the newly minted Singaporean citizens were uneducated labourers from Malaysia, China and India. Many of them were transient labourers who were seeking to make some money in Singapore and they had no intention of staying for good. A sizeable minority of middle-class, local-born people, known as the Peranakans, also existed. With the exception of the Peranakans (descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants) who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India.[203][204] After independence, the process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture began. Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes would therefore be influenced by, among many other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese languages as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. Those who speak Indian languages as their native language would probably lean toward Indian culture.
  15. 15. Attitudes and beliefs Singapore, as a country, in general is conservative socially, but some liberalisation has occurred. [208] At the national level, meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability, is heavily emphasised. Racial and religious harmony is regarded by the government as a crucial part of Singapore's success and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.[210] Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state.[211][212] The national flower of Singapore is the Vanda Miss Joaquim. Many national symbols such as the National Coat of Arms and the Lion Head symbol make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the 'Lion City'. Public holidays in Singapore cover major Chinese, Western, Malay and Indian festivals. Singaporean employees work an average of around 45 hours weekly, relatively long compared to many other nations. Three in four Singaporean employees surveyed stated that they take pride in doing their work well, and that doing so helps their self-confidence.
  16. 16. Cuisine Dining, along with shopping, is said to be the country's national pastime.The focus on food has led countries like Australia to attract Singaporean tourists with food-based itineraries.[216] The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country, and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism.The "national fruit" of Singapore is the durian. In popular culture, food items belong to a particular ethnicity, with Chinese, Malay, and Indian food clearly defined. However, the diversity of cuisine has been increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan style, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine).
  17. 17. Arts ● Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".One highlight was the construction of Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, a performing arts centre opened in October 2002.The national orchestra, Singapore Symphony Orchestra, plays at the Esplanade. The annual Singapore Arts Festival is organised by the National Arts Council. The stand-up comedy scene has been growing, with a weekly open mic. Singapore hosted the 2009 Genee International Ballet Competition, a classical ballet competition promoted by London's Royal Academy of Dance.
  18. 18. Sport and recreation ● Popular sports include football, basketball, cricket, swimming, sailing, table tennis and badminton. Most Singaporeans live in public residential areas (known as "HDB flats", as mentioned above) near amenities such as public swimming pools, outdoor basketball courts and indoor sport complexes. Water sports are popular, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is another popular recreational sport. The Southern island of Pulau Hantu, particularly, is known for its rich coral reefs. ● Singapore's football (soccer) league, the S-League, formed in 199 currently comprises 12 clubs including foreign teams.[226] The Singapore Slingers, formerly in the Australian National Basketball League, is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League, founded in October 2009. ● Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand Prix, in 2008. The race takes place on the Marina Bay Street Circuit and was the inaugural F1 night race[228] and the first F1 street race in Asia.[229] The Singapore Grand Prix will remain on the F1 calendar through at least 2017, after race organisers signed a contract extension with Formula One Group on the eve of the 2012 event. ● Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts multiple weekly meetings and many important local and international races, notably the prestigious Singapore Airlines International Cup. ● Singapore also hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.
  19. 19. Victorious Japanese troops marching through Singapore City after British capitulation at the Battle of Singapore A cheering crowd welcome the return of British forces, 1945 Singapore's Parliament House. The Old Supreme Court Building
  20. 20. A scene in a street market in Chinatown, Singapore, during the Chinese New Year holidays. Sultan Mosque in Singapore Thaipusam is a Hindu festival celebrated by Singapore's Tamil community The durian-shaped Esplanade, performing arts entre, stands out in front of the Marina Square area.
  21. 21. THANK YOU FOR LISTENINGTHANK YOU FOR LISTENING Prepared By: Clarence AsperaPrepared By: Clarence Aspera
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