This presentation has been design to show you how the theories of cognition can help you become an effective teacher. As a group we have all considered the information that we consider to be a strong influence over the quality of teaching we will offer.
Before we look at effective teaching we need to understand exactly what cognition is. According to Eggan and Kauchak (2009), cognition is the way our brain processes, perceives and retains information.
Jean Piaget research elaborates his findings about experience, maturation and learning. One important factor Piaget speaks of is equilibrium which is where people use ideas or schemes to relate to new knowledge to existing knowledge in order to understand this new information. More information can be found at the website listed at the bottom of the screen. More info from http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2000/Piaget/stages.htm#sensory%20motor
Piaget continued his research to develop ideas that support his findings on experience, maturation and learning. If as teachers we understand Piaget’s theory we will prepare lessons that promote learning experiences in order for our students to develop in their maturity and learning. If a student can relate something to an object or a lesson they bring previous experience in to help understand the new information. This could a lesson trying to explain telling the truth to younger students, using well if i told you all I brought you in a present but you had to work really hard to get it and you all worked hard. Then later I said nar I was just joking, how would you feel? Disappointed and so on, every child will have an experience that someone has promised something and felt let down or excited depending on the outcome. Also developing lesson with this in mind helps students to remain at equilibrium. They achieve some form of understanding through what they already know.
Lev Vygotsky’s theory explains how people can learn better having social interactions. This included his findings on zone of proximal development and scaffolding. Zone of proximal development is a range of tasks that individuals cannot yet do alone but can be when assisted by others. (Eggan & Kauchak, 2009). Scaffolding is the assistance that helps achieve these tasks. (Eggan & Kauchak, 2009)
Think about this question as you put Vygotsky into focus....... When you first take the training wheels off a bike can the child ride on their own straight away? No generally they cannot. Its what you do next that explains scaffolding. You generally hold the bike until the child get their balance and confidence, this is scaffolding.
Having students work together helps your class develop skill and a greater knowledge base. This sharing of ideas gently guide thinking to allow different points of view and trigger the consideration of a topic. As an effective teacher you need to encourage this type of interaction as the ideas student may receive from you may contradict what they think and listening to you before this interaction may result in them not pursuing the true answers. Effective teaching is what strategies you take into the classroom anyone can go in a teach but not everyone will have the skill to effectively teach.
The first photo shown on the previous slide show two children being lead and taught by the older one in front. The younger children will enjoy and learn more being with an older child than they would on their own. They experience what another person thinks.
The are many programmes around that can help teachers and offer a different form of delivery to lessons. One world known programme is “The Sound Way” programme written and presented by Craig Henderson. He uses many of the theories behind cognition, including interactive lesson that have at look, listen, say and do strategy.
Henderson’s success has been be documented fully and can be found at www.thesound way.com.au it is also in use in many schools. This is an example of how using different teaching strategies can be beneficial and effective for teachers and student.
If you want to be an effective teacher you are half way there. The qualities you need for teaching covers more than just the way students learn, you will notice that it goes across every aspect of teaching, professionalism, behaviour and classroom management, inclusive teaching and many more.
Being an effective teacher means that you will employ many strategies for different reasons that will come together to promote the learning of your students. For example if you praise your students work they will try their best to complete their work well, this in turn will help you know where your students are having trouble and adapt the lesson to help them, know that their difficulty is genuine.
We see here looking at the summary that to be an effective teacher using the ideas of known theorist can be a real asset to teaching and should not be dismissed.
To be an effective teacher you need to research these ideas and theories yourself we have used the above sites and books. We recommend them to you as a starting point. Thank you for taking the time to watch this presentation.
Cognition And Effective Teaching Upload Version
Cognition and Effective Teaching. <ul><li>Clare Smith, Genevieve Smith, Robert Sonneveld, Jenny Sonter and Michelle Suckling. </li></ul>
Cognition <ul><li>Cognition relates to how someone learns, perceives and gains knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a mental process that we all possess </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on our life experiences, social interactions and our desire to understand new things </li></ul><ul><li>(Eggen & Kauchak, 2009) </li></ul>
Jean Piaget’s Theory Can Help..... <ul><li>(Ackerman, 2009) </li></ul>Jean Piaget researched his ideas relating to education. He discovered that learners develop depending on their experience, maturation and learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009; Flinders University, n.d. ).
What Does That Mean to Us and Our Teaching? The pursuit of becoming an effective teacher needs the recognition of theorists like Piaget. Strategies that can support Piaget’s ideas of experience, maturation and learning will be ideal in becoming an effective teacher. This will help our students learn (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009).
Lev Vygotsky believed that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development (Learning Theory, 2008). Lev Vygotsky (Jacobsen, 2006-7)
In The Classroom. <ul><li>Guiding students in their learning will help them reach their potential and develop new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing this scaffolding with the student’s peers can introduce scaffolding without direct instruction. They learn together. </li></ul>
Let’s look Again..... <ul><li>The first photo shown on the previous slide show two children being lead and taught by the older one in front. The younger children will enjoy and learn more being with an older child than they would on their own. They experience what another person thinks, which in turn will guide their learning (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009) </li></ul>
Encouraging Learning <ul><li>Craig Henderson has created a program called “The Sound Way,” This is a programme that teaches students reading, writing and spelling (The Sound Way, n.d.). </li></ul>
The Perfect Example <ul><li>Henderson has presented “The Sound Way” all over the world and it has been a successful learning tool. </li></ul><ul><li>We can learn by Henderson’s example as there is evidence to support his success. Effective teaching can mean sharing our ideas with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>(The Sound Way, n.d.) </li></ul>
Teaching Effectively <ul><li>The difference between being an effective teacher and a teacher is the way you promote learning in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a class who engage in their learning is something that every teacher wants. If we were to make this happen, we increase our chances of reaching our goal of becoming an effective teacher. </li></ul>
Teaching Effectively <ul><li>Having lessons age appropriate will assist students to be motivated and help them feel more inclined to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining classroom management will be a large factor to whether you will be an effective teacher. This is vital to the cognitive learning theory (Eggen & Kauchak, 2009) </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Believes that our experiences, maturity and development provides the gateway to productive learning </li></ul><ul><li>He believes that children go through stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>He promotes age appropriate learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Believes that learning is established through social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated this by introducing scaffolding, which is assisting students to learn new things with support to reach the outcomes they cannot reach on their own </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Ackerman, Z. (2009). Yesterday is already gone [Piaget Photo]. Retrieved 15 July, 2009, from http://zarahackerman.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/main_piaget.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Eggen, P. & Kauckak, D. (2009). Educational Psychology- Windows on Classrooms (8th Ed). Pearson Education. New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Flinder’s University. (n.d.). Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Retrieved 20 June, 2009, from http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2000/Piaget/stages.htm#sensory%20motor </li></ul>
<ul><li>Jacobsen, M.K. (2006-7). Pedagogikkmappe for Marthe Kristine Jacobsen. Retrieved 20 July, 2009, from http://student.hive.no/mjacobse/ped/vygotsky.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories. (2009). So cial Development Theory (Vygotsky) Retrieved July 15th, 2009, from http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html </li></ul><ul><li>The Sound Way. (n.d.). FAQs. Retrieved 25 July, 2009, from http://www.thesoundway.com.au/faqs/faqs.html </li></ul><ul><li>Special thanks goes to Kristie Roberts for the usage of her family photos to make this presentation. </li></ul>