Cooperation and implicature

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Coopetarion and implicature by Spolsky

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Cooperation and implicature

  1. 1. Cooperation and implicature:Cooperation and implicature: We usually assumed that speakers andWe usually assumed that speakers and listeners involved in a conversation arelisteners involved in a conversation are generally cooperating with each other.generally cooperating with each other. The sense of cooperation is simply one inThe sense of cooperation is simply one in which people having a conversation arewhich people having a conversation are normally saying the truth.normally saying the truth.
  2. 2. We have the general idea that peopleWe have the general idea that people involved in a conversation will cooperateinvolved in a conversation will cooperate with each other.with each other. Role play:Role play:
  3. 3. Tautologies:Tautologies: An apparently meaningless expression inAn apparently meaningless expression in which one word is defined as itself. Itwhich one word is defined as itself. It seems it doesn’t have communicativeseems it doesn’t have communicative value since it expresses somethingvalue since it expresses something completely obvious. The speaker intendscompletely obvious. The speaker intends to communicate something, and it is moreto communicate something, and it is more than just what the word means.than just what the word means.
  4. 4. Implicature:Implicature: A meaning that has to be assumed in orderA meaning that has to be assumed in order to maintain the cooperative principle.to maintain the cooperative principle. People involve in a conversation willPeople involve in a conversation will cooperate with each other.cooperate with each other.
  5. 5. Cooperative principleCooperative principle • It is a basic assumption in conversationIt is a basic assumption in conversation that each participant will attempt tothat each participant will attempt to contribute appropriately, at the requiredcontribute appropriately, at the required time, to the current exchange of talk.time, to the current exchange of talk. • Maxims: quantity, quality, relation,Maxims: quantity, quality, relation, manner.manner.
  6. 6. Quantity:Quantity: Make your contribution as informative asMake your contribution as informative as is required. One of the maxims in whichis required. One of the maxims in which the speaker has to be neither more or lessthe speaker has to be neither more or less informative than is necessary.informative than is necessary.
  7. 7. Quality:Quality: Try to make your contribution one that isTry to make your contribution one that is true. One of the maxims, in which thetrue. One of the maxims, in which the speaker has to be truthful.speaker has to be truthful.
  8. 8. Relation:Relation: Be relevant. One of the maxims in which theBe relevant. One of the maxims in which the speaker has to be relevant.speaker has to be relevant. ( relating to the thing that is being( relating to the thing that is being discussed).discussed).
  9. 9. Manner:Manner: One of the maxims in which the speakerOne of the maxims in which the speaker has to be clear, brief, and orderly.has to be clear, brief, and orderly.
  10. 10. Hedges:Hedges: ““cautious notes” Expressions that we usecautious notes” Expressions that we use to indicate that what we are saying mayto indicate that what we are saying may not be totally accurate.not be totally accurate.

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