pictorial-history OF THE GREAT WAR-1846


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pictorial-history OF THE GREAT WAR-1846

  2. 2. <Sx oCIBRIS J. S. MART, M.D.No..
  3. 3. presented to Xtbran? of tbeIHntveraftp of Toronto bi Mrs* J.S. Hart
  4. 4. David Lloyd George. Great Britains foremost Statesman and War Premier
  6. 6. DEDICATIONTo Righteousness, The Foundation of Peace;To Freedom, The Spirit of Peace;To Democracy, The Dwelling of Peace; and to all Brave Men of whatever Clime or Creed, Who for these things fought and suffered even unto death.
  7. 7. FOREWORD The need of a popular History of the Great War, which should be at onceauthoritative and free from bias and weak sentimentalism, is felt by all. This vol-ume is designed to fill this need. It attempts toencompass the causes of the great conflict, the chief happeningsof military and political importance during the bloodiest fifty-one months of theworlds history, and their results and their effects upon the nations involved. Anearnest endeavor has been made to take the reader through the most importantphases. The limitation of this work to one volume makes the giving of exhaustivedetails of every incident, every battle, every siege, every advance or retreat, animpossibility. But in this very limitation lies the books greatest value. To please a tactician, chapters might be devoted to the battles along the Marne,the Somme, the Yser, at Cambrai, or to the struggle before Verdun or to the Rus-sian campaigns. But for the reader who seeks a straightforward, circumstantialnarrative of the great war, without its chief events being clouded and obscured by amultiplicity of subsidiary details, this book has been written. Devotion of time to research by the very best authors and critics has beengiven that its facts may be clearly and accurately presented. It contains no state-ments based on rumors, no accounts taken from unauthoritative sources. The New World undoubtedly was a great determining factor in the overthrowand crushing of junkerism, and for that reason this volume should be of the great-est interest to the peoples of Canada and the United States. Over two and one-half million sons of North America crossed to France. Their concentration andtransportation was one of the greatest military feats in history. Canada, as a partof the British Empire, naturally became involved first. Her record of service willfill every patriot with a feeling of pride and inspiration. The active share in thewar by the United States, though it covered only a little over a year and a half, isthe nations most glorious achievement. With mind, painstaking effort has been made to do the fullest justice to this inall in recounting the parts played by these nations during the months of their unself-ish crusade against autocracy and militarism. Entertaining visualization of the war is best attained through photographs.Consequently this book has been profusely illustrated with hundreds of scenes offi-cially photographed during the long period of campaigning on all the great fronts.These in themselves tell the narrative in a convincing manner. In securing thesepictures, the most skilled men attached to the fighting forces were employed. Manywere taken by men who risked death for a "close-up". In preparing this instructive, inspiring and entertaining history, no vital epi-sode of the war has been overlooked. The narrative is complete from the demolitionof Liege to the restoration of Peace. It is hoped that it will do full justice to thesacrifice, courage, steadfastness in the face of great difficulties, of the tireless andvalorous fighting men of the British Empire, France, Italy, Belgium, Serbia andthe United States. H. H. H.
  8. 8. la V C O rt a .2 rt >, ex C O .1 " s s " 20 o"3 2 5 fl bo rt c js o * ~ aU v>. cTD cfl in S C o c"u O O CO
  11. 11. Pictorial History of The Great War The Red Trail of Prussia CHAPTER I PRUSSIA UNSCRUPULOUS IN EARLY HISTORY BISMARCK THE EMPIRE BUILDER GERMANY VICTORIOUS OVER FRANCE IN 1870 HARSH KST TERMS IN HISTORY PRUSSIA PREPARED CAREFULLY FOR ALL WARS MIDDLE EUROPE EMPIRE PRUSSIAN AMBITION About two centuries and a half ago the Meantime the sway of the PrussianMark of Brandenburg, formerly known dynasty extended in all directions. Swed-as the Nordmark, came under the sway of ish Pomerania, Silesia and the Posen andFrederick William the Great Elector. West Prussian provinces of Poland were That was the beginning of Prussia as added in the period from 1720 to 1795.an ambitious, aggressive and unscrupu- The fortunes of war fluctuated, it is true;lous state. Prussian arms were not always success- The first act of Frederick William was ful. Napoleon played havoc with Prus-the abolition of the constitution. He sian dominions for a time, and the Hohen-made himself absolute monarch. His sec- zollerns were stripped of territories andond act was to create a professional army power; but the Napoleonic success wasto sustain him in absolutism. meteoric. At the Congress of Vienna, in He trained his army, disciplined it rig- 1814, Prussia recovered practically all that she had lost, and came into posses-orously and equipped it as well as was sion of several additional states that hadpossible in those seventeenth century Then he set forth to conquer his hitherto escaped her rapacity.days.neighbors. However, before the yoke of autocracy was finally fastened upon the necks of the In this he was measurably successful.Other little marks and duchies were subject peoples of Prussia; before theyadded to the territory of Brandenburg, were made the helpless and unthinking tools of a madly ambitiousand Berlin became the center of a con- imperialism, there was a revolt against absolutism.siderable domain. The fires of democracy that had swept So Frederick William the Great Elec- thru the American colonies, France andtor set the style for all Prussian rulerswho should come after him. England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were slow in kindling The three fundamental principles of their torches in central Europe. But inPrussianism were absolutism, military 1848 and 49 Prussia heard the cry ofpower and conquest. They remained the popular defiance in the streets of Berlin,fundamental principles of Prussianism and saw the flag of insurrection raised inthru two centuries and a half, and until Baden and Saxony.tliv allied democracies of the world under- With brutal power she crushed thetook to destroy them in the World War. revolutionaries of her own domain. The domain of the Great Elector was Those of Baden and Saxony might havejoined with East Prussia by his successor, fared better the king of Saxony, indeed,and in 1701 Frederick III assumed the was forced to hide himself but Prussiatitle df King o f Prussia, placing the sent her armies into her states neighborcrown on his own head with his own hands and trampled ruthlessly under foot the that being the nearest approach to brave men who sought to win freedom.actual coronation by the Almighty that he That is typical of Prussia. Always andcould devise. everywhere she has been the enemy of n
  12. 12. 12 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA Archduke Franz Ferdinand, his wife and children. The Archduke and wife were assassinated.
  13. 13. TICK KKD TRAIL Ol PRUSSIA 13freedom, the implacable foe of democ- sary preparation for war. When thingsracy. She has denied it to all people who were in readiness to strike a sharp, hardcame under her sway, and she has done blow, he aggravated the dispute to theher best to destroy it in the lands that she point of ruptured relations. The war hecould not, or did not choose, to conquer. wanted followed. Prussias armies, ready The yoke securely fastened upon the for action, were hurled into Bavaria andnecks of the people within her own realm Austria, the former state having electedand those of her neighbors; the revolu- to take Austrias side in the quarrel.tionary leaders exiled, imprisoned or The struggle was of short duration. Inslain, Prussia turned her thought and seven weeks Austria capitulated at theenergy again toward the plans of aggres- battle of Konnigsgratz, or Sadowa.sion that were the chief concern of her From that day Hapsburg never venturedrulers and statesmen. to challenge Hohenzollern, or in any way Bismarck had come upon the scene- to interfere with Prussian plans.Bismarck the empire builder. His vision Bismarck, having cleared the field,of Prussia dominant was challenged by went on with his work of building an em-the presence of a powerful rival in central pire. He welded the German states intoEurope. The House of Hapsburg, rul- a confederation under a constitution that Serbian civilians hung by Austrians along the roadways.ing Austria, had been often the ally of was designed to fasten the Hohenzollernthe House of Hohenzollern in expeditions dynasty upon it forever, and to give toof conquest and plunder. But Bismarck its successive monarchs autocratic control,wanted no ally of co-equal strength, no supported by military power. It waspossible competitor in imperialism. The provided in the constitution that it mightPrussian conception of an ally is a vassal, not be amended without the consent ofcompelled to play the game as Prussia Prussia. This was the ultimate and abso-pleases. lute safeguard. Only Prussia could undo Hence it was necessary to eliminate Prussia; only Hohenzollern could relaxAustria as a potential rival in order to as- the grip of Hohenzollern upon the livessure for Prussia the place she desired. of the German people. Bismarck had no difficulty in finding a Bavaria, having suffered defeat withcause for friction. There was a dispute Austria in the Seven Weeks war, cameover Schleswig-IIolstein that he carefully reluctantly into the confederation. Shefostered. He encouraged the belief that did not love Prussia and the Hohenzol-all difficulties could be settled amicably lerns. For years it was against the lawand, in the meantime, made every neces- to display the German flag in Bavaria.
  15. 15. TIIK HKI) TRAIL OF IMUSSIA 15She never became fully reconciled to her Acomparatively short struggle re-new status as the subordinate of Prussia sulted in a complete victory for Germany.in tbe family of Teutonic tribes. It was another instance where prepared- HohenzoUern ambitions were not satis- ness prevailed over courage and devotion.fied to rest with the consolidation of terri- Alsace-Lorraine was added to the Ger-tory under the German empire. The man empire, and France was compelledKing of Prussia had l>ecome German to pay an indemnity of five billion francsKm|>eror, and the new title merely quick- in order to get the German army out ofened the inherent appetite for further her territory.conquest. Envious eyes turned toward This sketch of Prussian history is nec-1- ranee. The rich provinces of Alsace- essary in order that we may understandLorraine invited plunder and acquisition. how wholly in keeping with the character Serbian officers watching experiments with liquid fire.Moreover France was a possible rival and aspirations of the rulers and peoplewhose bumbling was advisable in order to of Prussia was the world war in whichassure the dominant position of Europe. their ambitions culminated. Bismarck deliberately laid the founda- Prussia never blundered into wars un-tion for war with France by provoking a wittingly. She made them with deliber-quarrel thru the publication of a garbled ate purpose; prepared for them long intelegram from the King of Prussia to the advance, and carried them thru to victoryKing of France. The wording of the with only one intent to increase her owntelegram was made to carry an insult to power and territorial sovereignty.the French monarch and in those days The forty odd years of peace that fol-there was only one way of dealing with lowed gave the world time to forget Prus-insults. sias history. Moreover, Prussia, herself,
  17. 17. TIIK RKI) TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 17was camouflaged in the German empire, maturing plans.and people who had known the German Such is the general background of thetribes before tliey became subject to Prus- World War.sian rule and guidance found it difficult As we draw nearer the fateful year into believe that the industrious, home-lov- which Germany launched her long pre-ing folk of Germany could have in theirhearts ambitions that menaced the peace paring thunderbolts against the world, one incident after another shows that theand happiness of neighbor nations. It is hour of action was no chance hour.probable, indeed, that such ambitions wereforeign to these tribes or states in their Wilhelm II dreamed thru the earlierearlier history as a confederation, but they years of his reign of the day when tlieere never absent from the minds of their resting German sword would be againPrussian over-lords. unsheathed to continue the traditions of his dynasty and to carve from Europe During those forty years Prussia did and the continents beyond a domaintwo things she Prussianized the rest ofthe German people, and she built up a greater in extent and incomparably richer in resources than any autocrat of historygreat army and a great navy for enter- had ever ruled.prises of conquest conceived on a vasterscale than ever before. In accordance with his ambitions there The developed in Germany an organization story of these four decades of mis- devoted to the creation of a great middleeducation for the German people is one Europe state, including Austria-Hun-that merits a volume to itself. The secu- gary in its scope, and extending its fron-lar and religious instruction given the tiers thru the Balkans to Asia Minor andyouth of the land was definitely directedtoward inculcating a vaunting pride of Mesopotamia. Maps that were printed and distributed in Germany twenty yearsrace and nation and a contempt for all before the World War began showed theother peoples. They were taught to be-lieve that the Germans were the chosen greater empire, and swept within its boundaries Belgium and Holland on theof God, with a destiny to subdue the west, and the Baltic States of Russia, Po-world to their own peculiar "kultur." land, and the Balkan countries on the eastThe state, embodied and the in the kaiser and southeast, as well as the dual mon-general staff of the German army, be-came for them the voice of God. What archy. Leaders in this movement spoke of acquiring territory in South America,the state decreed was right, no matterho notably in the southern Argentine. It itmight violate individual concep- was boldly predicted that the whole civil-tions of ethics. To live and die for the ized world would become either part ofstate, unquestioningly obedient to its com- the empire, or subject to it in the relationmands this was the supreme morality. of vassal to master. This education was part of the process In order to promote the project for aby bieh the German people were made middle-Europe empire with an Asiaticthe docile tools of the Prussian dynasty, annex, the Kaiser visited Constantinople,serviceable for the later execution of its Damascus and Jerusalem. He addressed
  18. 18. 18 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA Wrn. Hohenzollern, ex-Kaiser of Germany, in the uniform of a Turkish officer. The shriveled left arm is most noticeable.
  19. 19. ~
  21. 21. THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 23a great audience of Turks in Damascus,and declared himself the friend of theOttoman empire and the Mohammedhanfa i tli. His immediate reward was a con-ecNsion from Turkey allowing Germanyto construct the Bagdad railroad, and giv-ing it a right of way in European Turkey,thru what was known as the San j at ofXoviha/ar, thus creating the link thru theBalkans that has heen often referred toas the Bagdad corridor. Austria-Hungary played her part inthese plans, doubtless with the knowledgeand approval of Germany. She seizedBosnia and Herzegovina, border Balkanstates. When her act aroused the angerof Europe, the Kaiser appeared as herchampion, and declared that he supportedthe policy of his Austrian ally. The Ex-Crown Prince of Germany whose flight showed his weak character. The Prussian moving plans were found her ambitions checked. Serbia,smoothly and swiftly toward the achieve-ment of Prussian ambitions, when the enlarged in territory, lay squarely across her path to the east. Serbia was antago-Balkan war broke out. The utter defeat nistic to Vienna and Berlin. She lookedof Turkey deprived Germany of her right to Petrograd then St. Petersburg forof way thru the San j at of Novibazar, friendship and support. Germany real-which became Serbian territory, and ized that diplomatic efforts to open a wayclosed the Bagdad corridor. thru the Balkans could not succeed. Bulgaria was prompted to renew the She knew only one way in which tostruggle in a second war by the intrigues realize her ambitions and that was force.of the central empires. They hoped by Force, for Prussia, was the normal andthis means to recover the advantage they most desirable method of obtaining any-had lost in the Balkans the necessary thing she desired.link of empire by which Hamburg would Suchhe joined to is the trail of intrigue and blood- Bagdad. The plan failed. shed that leads up to the critical day inBulgaria was defeated by her erstwhile June 1914, when a deed of assassinationallies. furnished the pretext that Prussia needed And thus it was that in 1913 Germany for the execution of her designs.
  22. 22. 24 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA The German Ex-Emperors Palace in Berlin.
  23. 23. The Spark in Europes Powder Magazine CII A IT Kit II ASSASSINATION OF AUSTRIAN ARCHDUKE AUSTRIA CHARiKD AXTI-DV NASTIC PLOTS ASSASSINATION IN FACT PLOTTED BY GERMANY ULTI- MATUM, TO SERBIA SERBIA MAKES CONCESSIONS TO KEEP PEACE GER- MANY AND AUSTRIA REFUSE TERMS AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA, GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA, BELGIUM AND FRANCE AUSTRIA DRIVES ON SERBIA AND GERMANY INVADES BELGIUM GREAT BRITAIN SFXDS ULTIMATUM TO GERMANY STATE OF WAR DECLARED BETWEEN (iRFAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. The Balkan wars were over, and with ences of the business men and the imperialtheir settlement Europe heaved a sigh of chancellor, and the men of finance and in-relief. For a time a general conflagration dustry were warned to set their affairs inhad threatened the nations of the old order and to prepare for a great war.world. The European war cloud, famil- the spark that exploded the Then cameiar in the headlines of the newspapers, powder magazine of Europe,had hung upon the horizon with low inut- The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heirterings of thunder. But the crisis was to the throne of Austria-Hungary, wentpassed safely, and men again hegan to w tn j his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg,talk as tho a great war were a thing im- on a vj s it o f state to Serajevo, the capitalpossible. of Bosnia. They pointed to the growing inter- Bosnia had been annexed by Austria-course among nations; the spread of Hungary in 1908. There were manydemocratic institutions the rising intelli- ; Bosnians who bitterly resented the Haps-gence of the masses of the people; the burg interference with their national life,multiplying of international peace trea- The state had its secret political organ-ties and agreements for arbitration. Had i/ations, its intrigues and plots, all con-not the Hague peace tribunal been estab- cerned with frustrating Austrian rule andlished, and were not many of the great promoting Slav interests,powers of the world signatory to its con- Serajevo was not a safe city for theventions, which they pledged them- in heir to the Austrian throne to visit, andselves to regard international law, and to this fact must have been well known tolive with one another on a basis of reason- the authorities. Yet, in spite of the perilsableness and humanity? that always beset royalty in Europe, and These things were all true. that were peculiarly acute in southeastern And yet from all of these things men Europe; in spite of the known existencederived a false sense of security. of enmities and conspiracies in Bosnia, practically no precautions were taken by Nations ruled by responsible govern- the municipal officials of Serajevo to pro-ments, controlled by the enlightened sen- tect the lives of the imper ial heir and histiment of their peoples, could not under- w fe *stand the peril that remained latent in the It was on Sunday, June 28, 1914, that the Archduke arrived at the Bosnian capi- Prussia was rapidly completing her tal. He and his wife at once got into anplans. We have learned from the dis- automobile and were driven toward theclosures made by Dr. Muehlon, a former town hall, where they were to be wel-Krupp director, and others who were in corned officially. The crowd that watcheda position to know what was them pass thru the city streets showed transpiringwithin the councils of the empire, that littleenthusiasm. Their automobile hadconspiracy against the worlds peace was not gone far before a man dashed fromon foot in Germany. There were confer- the throng on the pavement, and hurled a 26
  25. 25. THK SIAKK IN EUROPES POWDEB MAGA/INE 27I u MM!) at the car. He missed the arch- exposed the royal visitor to attack. Onduke. The bom!) fell on the road, and the way back from the town hall the im-exploded just as a second car passed over perial car passed a youth named Gavriloit, containing members of the archdukes Prinzip, standing on the curb, who calm-staff. ly drew a revolver and fired twice. The The would-be first shot fatally wounded the duchess, assassin attempted to but was caught and the second pierced the neck of the arch-escape in the crowd, He was a youth 21 duke, severing the jugular v-ein. Bothput under arrest. died without uttering a word.years of age named Gabrinovics. Archduke Ferdinand was livid with Prinzip was arrested. He denied anyfear and indignation when he reached the knowledge of Gabrinovics, and declaredtown hall, and, when the burgomaster that the first attempt at assassination was German soldiers decorated for exceptional bravery during the Battle of Verdun. These soldiers are being rewarded for making one of the many furious attacks on the Verdun front him an address of welcometried to read to a surprise to him. He said he was a Ser-he interrupted with the angry exclama- bian student, and had for long entertainedtion: the idea of killing some eminent person. "Herr Burgomaster, it is perfectly The Austrianauthorities immediatelyscandalous. We have come to Serajevo, promulgated the story that they had dis-and a bomb is thrown at us." covered an anti-dynastic plot, the source The burgomaster stammered an inco- of which was in Serbia.herent apnlnoy and went on with his The circumstances of the assassinationaddress. Hut the archdukes sharp re- have led many people to believe that itbuke had no practical effect. Nothing was deliberately planned, not by Bos-was done to remedy the neglect that had nians or Serbians, but by Austrians and
  26. 26. 28 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDiLR MAGAZINE 6* 5 rt - o 3 > C II in en C _
  27. 27. Till, SPARK IX El ROPKS POWDER MAGAZINE 29Germans who desired a for at- ized that a serious situation had developed pretexttac km- Serbia as tile initialstep toward involving grave possibilities.recovering the Bagdad corridor and open- Karly in July it was rumored in diplo-mu the mad to world conquest. It is matic circles that Austria- Hungary wasassurr.lly true that the taking off of the planning drastic reprisals for what shearchduke coincided exactly with the cul- alleged was a Serbian crime, committed,mination Prussias preparations for of ifnot with the authority, at least with thewar. It is, too, rather extraordinary that sympathy of the Serbian government.Prin/ip, the youth who killed him, was Then Count Tisxa, at that time premiersentenced to twenty years imprisonment of Austria, reassured the capitals of Eu-instead of to death. In a country where rope by a speech in the Austrian parlia-the death penalty was common, twenty ment in which he held out strong hope that there would be an amicable settle-years imprisonment for the murderer of The Arch Conspirators The Ex-Kaiser, Ferdinand of Bulgaria, the Ex-Sultan of Turkey, and the late Franz Josef of Austria.the heir to the throne seems strangely ment of the whole matter. Apprehen-lenient. sions were allayed, and the world thought The world was slow to realize the sig- it saw the war cloud passing.nificance of the Serajevo tragedy. Peo- One week later Austria sent an ulti-ple were horrified at the deed, and matum to Serbia, demanding a reply ineditorials were written denouncing an- 48 hours.arehy: no one seemed to see at first l)iit The ultimatum recited the facts of the the figures of war and famine and pesti- assassination and alleged that the crimelence walking in the funeral procession of was due to Serbias tolerance of propa-the dead archduke. ganda and intrigue against the peace and In the chancelleries of Europe, how- territory of the dual monarchy. It de-ever, then- was much anxiety. In Lon- manded that the Serbian governmentdon, Paris. Home and Petrograd men should condemn this propaganda and ut-conversant with European affairs real- terly suppress it.
  28. 28. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE IMPORTANT TOWNThe ENEMYS OBJECTIVE ^.i^Mi-M-i-*--whicSHE FAILEDto . ATTAIN * Defenders ffeinforcerrtents^^ . ^^2 " ., l/KDCSlHAULe; SALfl ULTIMATELY A BAND t, ran STROMGCFI posn - :r -V- J V ^^ The German Offensive: The New Methods bv Which It Was Pursued and How It Was Countered. The 1 Germany made her advances on the Western Front. The new method was devised by the famous
  29. 29. Till: SIAKK IN KTHOIM/S IOWDKK MACA/INK 31 V ;". .-/c. - * m .y$ IP B ..j5^l5!S< a^ > -Tliis diagram does not represent any particular battle or area, but illustrates the principles by whichernhardi, who was pooh-poohed for his ideas by the German General Staff at the outbreak of the war.
  30. 30. 32 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE The ultimatum then continued: In order to give a formal character to thisundertaking the royal Servian gov- ernment shall publish on the front page of its official journal of the 26th June (13th July) the following declaration: "The royal government of Servia con- demns the propaganda directed against Austria- Hungary the general ten- i. e., dency of which the final aim is to detach from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy territories belonging to it, and it sincerely deplores the fatal consequences of these criminal proceedings. "The government regrets that royal Servian officers and functionaries partici- pated in the above mentioned propaganda and thus compromised the good neighbor- ly relations to which the royal government was solemnly pledged by its declaration of Count Von Bernstorff The German arch conspirator and ex-ambassador. the 31st March, 1909. Supersubmarine Deutschland which arrived at Baltimore after a trip across the Atlantic.
  31. 31. TIIK SPAKK IX KTKOlKS 1()VI)KR MACA/INK 88 "The royal government, which disap-proves and repudiates all idea of interfer-ing or attempting to interfere with thedestinies of the inhabitants of any partwhatsoever of Austria-Hungary, consid-ers duty formally to warn officers it itsand functionaries, and the whole popula-tion of the kingdom, that henceforwardit will proceed with the utmost rigoragainst persons who may be guilty ofsuch machinations, which it will use allits efforts to anticipate and suppress." This declaration shall simultaneouslybe communicated to the royal army as anorder of the day by his majesty the kingand shall be published in the official bul-letin of the army. The royal Servian government furtherundertakes: 1. To suppress any publication whichincites to hatred and contempt of the Alfred Zimmerman, Germanys ex-foreign minister.Austro-IIungarian monarchy and the One of the German Sanitary Posts before Laon.
  32. 32. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE general tendency of which is directed against its territorial integrity; 2. To dissolve immediately the society styled Narodna Odbrana, to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in the same manner against other societies and their branches in Servia which engage in propaganda against the Austro-Hun- garian monarchy. The royal government shall take the necessary measures to pre- vent the societies dissolved frona continu- ing their activity under another name and form ; 3. To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Servia, both as re- gards the teaching body and also as regards the methods of instruction, every- thing that serves, or might serve, to foment the propaganda against Austria- Hungary ; 4. To remove from the military serv- Bethman Hollweg, the weak-minded member of the Ex-kaisers War Board. ice, and from the administration in gen-Remarkable Photograph of German Sub/marine U65, Terror of the Sea, in Act of Holding up Liner. This is probably the only photograph showing a German U-boat actually holding up a liner at sea to arrive in America.
  33. 33. TIIK SlAKK IX KTROPES POVDER MAGAZINE 35 and functionaries guiltyeral, all officersof propaganda against the Austro-llnn-garian monarchy whose names and deedstlu AustrorHungarian government re-serves to itself the right of communicatingto the royal government; .">. To accept the collaboration in Ser-bia of representatives of the Austro-Hun-garian government in the suppression oftin- Mibversive movement directed againstthe territorial integrity of the monarchy; 6. To take judicial proceedings againstaccessories to the plot of the 28th Junewho are on Servian territory. Delegatesof the Austro-Hungarian governmentwilltake part in the investigation relatingthereto ; 7. To proceed without delay to the ar-rest of Major Voija Tankositch and ofthe individual named Milan Ciganovitch,a Servian state employe, who have beencompromised by the results of the magis-terial inquiry at Serajevo; 8. To prevent by effective measures Von Hindenburg, General commander-in-chief, and histhe co-operation of the Servian authorities chief of staff. This Photo was taken in 1914. The Crowds were Optimistic.
  35. 35. Till; SIAKK IN KFUO POWDER MAGAZINE 37in the illicit traffic of arms and explosivesarn^s tin- frontier, to dismiss and punish -t-ly tlu- officials of the frontier serv-ice at Schabatz and Loznica guilty ofha ving assisted the perpetrators of theSera )f,> crime by facilitating their pass-age across the frontier; 9. To furnish the imperial and royalLM>tTiiment with explanations regardingthe unjustifiable utterances of high Ser-bian officials, both in Servia and abroad,who, notwithstanding their official posi-tion, did not hesitate after the crime ofthe 28th June to express themselves in in-terviews in terms of hostility to the Aus-tro-Hungarian government; and, finally. 10. To notify the imperial and royalgovernment without delay of the execu-tion of the measures comprised under thepreceding heads. Immediately the terms of the Austrian The Late Count George von HertlinR-. the Ex-Ba- varian Prime Minister and Ex-Imperial Germanultimatum became known in diplomatic Chancellor. Ukraine and Germany Signing Peace Pact. Germany and her allies on the one side and the newly created Ukrainian state on the other concluding a treaty of peace.
  36. 36. 38 THE SPARK IX EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINEcircles inEurope there was consternation. Meantime the European chancelleriesIt was seen that Austria had imposed con- were vibrant with nervous agitation. Theditions no nation could accept without an telegraph and cable were carrying codedutter humbling. The war cloud gathered messages from ambassadors to their gov-again, darker and more threatening than ernments, and apprehension of the mostbefore. serious results was everywhere felt. We have since learned, through the Serbias reply came within the allotteddisclosures made by Dr. Muehlon, the time. It amazed the world by its almostformer Krupp director to whom I have complete concession to Austria. Practi-already referred, that the kaiser had a cally all of the eleven demands but onehand in drafting this drastic document. were accepted without modification. Ser-H,e was consulted by Austria, and ap- bia declined to permit the agents of Aus-proved its form without consulting his tria to prosecute investigations on Serbian Royal Family of Germany. William II, Ex-Emperor of Germany and Ex-King of Prussia, married the Ex-Princess Victoria of Schles-wig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Austenburg. He has six sons and one daughter. The Ex-Crown Prince Frederick Wil-liam, married the Ex-Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The Ex-Emperors sister. Sophia is the wifeof Constantine, Ex-King of the Hellenes. Ex-Prince Henry, his brother, married his cousin, Ex-Princess Ireneof Hesse, daughter of the late Ex-Princess Alice of England. The Ex-Emperors mother was Princess Victoriaof England, daughter of Queen Victoria.advisers, according to the story that soil,but agreed to carry out the requiredMuehlon had from Chancellor von Beth- investigations and to report progress inmann Hollweg. suppressing anti-Austrian propaganda to The kaiser is saidto have told the chan- the representatives of the dual monarchy.cellor he was determined to go thru with In conclusion she offered, if Austria w^rehis program, and that no one now could not fully satisfied with these concessions,turn him back from his purpose. His to submit the whole matter in .dispute toresolution being thus declared he left for The Hague or to any tribunal constituteda trip on his royal yacht, a discreet by the Great Powers.maneuver designed to create the impres- It was recognized by all impartial ob-sion that he had no part in the matter. servers that a more complete acquiescence
  38. 38. tJBcXobococrto
  39. 39. Till: SIAKK IX KIKOlK.s IUWDKK MAC.A/IM. 41could not be asked in reason. The Austrian minister received Ser-bias conciliatory reply at Belgrade onJuly -."). r.Hk at :>:IO in the afternoon. He did not even wait to read it. Hi>things were packed and ready for de- allparture. He put the manuscript in hi-, spa li. teh box, and left Belgrade at oncefor Vienna, thus severing diplomatic rela-tions without ceremony. It was evident that Austria wantedtrouble. The ultimatum had been de-signed not to obtain a settlement of diffi-culties,but to promote war. Great Britain immediately took up thetask of preventing an outbreak of hostil-ities. She proposed to Germany, on July27, that the matters at issue between Aus-tria and Serbia be submitted to a confer-ence of representatives from Germany,France, Italy and Great Britain. Italywas then a member of the triple alliance,of which the two other members were Ger-many and Austria-Hungary. Germany declined the proposal bywhich peace might have been preserved, The Right Honorable Arthur J. Balfour, Foreign Secretary of Great Britain and a prominent figure atalleging that the controversy between the Peace Conference. He was formerly Prime MinisterAustria and Serbia involved the honor of of England and at an advanced age enjoys world-wide respect for his statesmanship.Austria and could not be submitted toadjudication by disinterested parties. frontiers of the central empires and con-Russia, Serbias friend, opened direct ne- stituted no immediate threat.gotiations with Vienna, and these wereproceeding more or less encouragingly On July 28 Austria formally declaredwhen they suddenly terminated, and war against Serbia, and began an imme-Menna refused to negotiate further. diate movement of her forces toward theThere Serbian frontiers on the Save and Dan- strong foundation for the belief isthat Germany intervened to prevent an ube. Russia, alarmed by this indication that Austria was determined to conquerunderstanding between Vienna and St. the little Slav monarchy that looked toPetersburg. Meantime Austria mobilized her armies her as protector, and that stood as a bar-and Serbia responded by like action. rier between Germany and the east, atThere was some talk of once began mobilization in her southwest- localizing the ern provinces.trouble, and permitting a punitive expe-dition against Serbia, but it ended in talk. Thus far there had been no direct threatRussia, realizing that her interests in the to Germany, but the kaiser on the sameBalkans and in the Dardanelles were day mobilized his fleet an act that car-menaced by the threat of Austria to drive ried with it a very clear menace to Greatdown toward the Aegean Sea thru Serbia, Britain.mobilized five army corps behind the Vis- By July 29 the Austrian guns weretula. The mobilization was far from the bombarding Belgrade from the north side
  41. 41. TIIK SIAHK IN K( I)1>K S |M)VI)KI< M.(, A/INK i:;of the Danube, and the world was arousedto the fact that the long predicted Kuro- pcan war could lie averted only hy somemiracle. The semi-official Lokal Anzeiger, ofBerlin, issued an extra edition about noon )! July .30, announcing that a decree hadbeen issm-d for the general mobilizationof the German army. The news wasflashed at once to St. Petersburg. Theedition was promptly suppressed by theauthorities, but it had accomplished itspurpose. It may never l>e known whetherit was originally printed with authorityand in order to provoke a belligerent re-sponse from Russia, and then suppressedto complete the case for innocence thatGermany hoped to lay before the worldin convincing fashion. Its suppression was followed by a per-emptory demand from Berlin that Rus- Capt. Boy-ed, ex- attache of Germany to U. 8. Tin- Orman Offensive. The Guard Grenadier Regiment who were taken prisoner, v the l, British.
  42. 42. 44 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE is rt v if. jr u
  43. 43. I IIK SPARK IX EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE 45sia cease mobilization within twenty-fourhours. But Russia, apprised that Ger-many was mobilizing, refused to accedeto this demand and ordered a general mo-1 ili/at ion. The Great Britain had failed efforts ofeither to avert or to localize the war.France, alarmed by the swift movementsof the central empires and their implaca-ble spirit, was calling out her troops. Sheheld them, however, at a discreet distancefrom the frontier, avoiding as far as pos-sible needless provocation. now that a general European Realizingwar was inevitable that France and Rus- ;sia were certain to be involved with Ger-many and Austria, Great Britain madeone avert the worst possible last effort toconsequences she addressed a note toParis and Berlin, asking both govern-ments to respect the neutrality of Bel-gium. Aprompt reply was received fromFrance, agreeing unconditionally. Ger- Dr. Richard von Kuehlmann. ex-member Russianmany made no answer. Her plans were Peace Conference. One Shot from a French 305 Battery did this to a German 88M Gun. The first shot aimed at the gun struck it clear amidship.
  45. 45. TIIK SPARK IN KIKOPKS POWDER MAGAZINE 47already laid for tin- invasion of Belgium.It was tlu- most convenient route to Paris,and Prussia considers nothing but herown interests. On August 1 Germany formally de-clared war on Russia and made publicher suppressed mobilization order. Great Britain followed this action byinforming France that her fleet wouldundertake to protect the French northcoast against German invasion. On thesame day the first hostilities opened theitruggle on the west front when a Ger-man patrol crossed the French frontierat Cirey. The French immediately beganthe movement of their troops toward thefrontier. Their preparations were madeto defend the line from Luxembourgsouth to Switzerland, along the Alsace-Lorraine border. The invasion of Alsacewas planned as a counter-stroke to the Captain Franz von Papen, Ex-German Military Attache, Sntish Capture Line of Luxurious German Dugouts in Sunken Road.
  46. 46. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE Great Britain addressed to Berlin an ulti- matum, allowing twenty-four hours for reply, in which she demanded that the neutrality of Belgium be respected. The ultimatum was delivered by Sir W. E. Goschen, British ambassador to Berlin, on the afternoon of August 4. Herr Von Jagow, the German secretary for foreign affairs, received it in person, and gave an immediate answer in the negative. He said it was impossible for Germany to observe the neutrality of Bel- gium since her troops had already crossed the frontier. He argued that Germany had to take this course in order to prevent France attacking her thru Belgium. He ignored the fact that France had already given her word that she would observe the obligation of Belgian neutrality, and that Great Britain, had France broken her word, would have been compelled to deal with her as she later dealt with Germany. The British ambassador asked if he might see the chancellor, unwilling to takeField Marshal Von Mackensen who led the Austro- Von Jagows reply as final. He was Gennan Forces on the Italian Front. granted permission. Von Bethmann Hollweg appeared much perturbed. HeGerman threat. talked for twenty minutes, haranguing They relied upon the neutrality of Bel- Great Britains representative in tonesgium and Luxembourg as protection pleading and upbraiding. He declaredagainst invasion over an almost unforti- it seemed impossible that Great Britainfied frontier. was going to make war on a friendly But on August 3 Germany addressed neighbor merely for the little word "neu-a demand to Belgium for free passage trality" that had been disregarded soacross her territory. The little country often in history, merely for a "scrap ofdid not hesitate. She returned a prompt paper."refusal, and mobilized her small army to The interview ended unavailingly. Sirmeet the menace that immediately over- W. E. Goschen prepared at once to leaveshadowed her. Her refusal was at once Berlin. That evening the British em-followed by a declaration of war against bassy was mobbed.her. A like declaration was simultane- At midnight in London a vast throngously made against France, and the in gathered Trafalgar Square, awaitingarmies of Germany began the attack. the issue of the momentous ultimatum. On the afternoon of August 3 German As the great clock in the tower of West-troops entered the little Belgian town of minster struck the fateful hour it was an-Arien, while Chancellor Von Bethmann war nounced that a state of existed be-Hollweg explained to the reichstag that tween Great Britain and Germany.military necessity compelled Germany tocommit a wrong against Belgium for There was a moments silence. Then awhich reparation would be made. great cheer went up, and the multitude Clinging to an eleventh hour hope melted silently away.
  47. 47. 3-rVcsu<ciIt*c ioL)
  50. 50. .2 S
  51. 51. The Armies Are Unleashed CHAPTER III l.r.K.MANY AND ATSTKIA HAD TWO MEN KI.ADY GREAT .MIl.l.lfN HKITAINS AHMV WEAK -- FRANC i. WELL PREPARED - BEU.HM AND SERBIA REASONABLY WELL EQUIPPED -- GERMANYS DRIVE THROUGH BELGIUM - ALLIED REVERSES - - GERMANYS ENOR- MOUS STRENGTH CRUSHES ALLIES. Great Britain, Russia, France and Bel- France, a military country, was ingium were now embroiled in war with much better situation. She began the wailirrniany. Austria-Hungary was at war with nearly 4,000,000 trained men be-with Serbia, and almost immediately be- tween the ages of 19 and 48, of whomcame a belligerent against the other allies. 2,500,000 belonged to the active army and its reserves, the remainder constituting Germany had 25 first line army corps the territorial army.ready foraction, numbering approxi-mately 1,000,000 men; she had twenty- Accurate figures as to Russias militaryfive additional reserve corps of like num- strength have. always been difficult to obber. On the day that hostilities began tain. Her available man power wasthere were at least 2,000,000 German sol- enormous. It is estimated that she haddiers available, and this number was soon 28,000,000 men between the ages ofincreased by another 1,500,000. twenty and forty-three who could be drawn upon for military service in Aug- Austria-Hungary had a first line armyof about 1,000,000 well trained soldiers, ust 1914. is probable that at least Itwith reserves of less number than those twenty-five per cent of this number wasof Germany, but material that was rapid- called to the colors or 7,000,000 men before the war had continued many weeks.ly converted which brought her total forceup to approximately 3,000,000 before Perhaps one-half that number was sent to the long fighting front.many weeks had elapsed. Italy, who came into the war on the Turkey, soon to enter the war as an side of the allies in the spring of 1915, hadally of the central empires, was a nationof soldiers. In later years they had been about 1,200,000 fully trained soldiers,trained by German officers. She is esti- 800,000 partly trained, and a million moremated to have untrained but available for call. had about 750,000 goodsoldiers subject to mobilization when the Belgium had only 120,000 men withwar began. which to meet the armies of Germany Bulgaria, whose decision to link her when they crossed her frontier. Thisfortunes with Germany came only after force was later increased to a quarter ofmuch hesitation and a cool and calculated a million.bargaining, had probably a little less than Serbia mobilized 350,000 to face thehalf a million men fit for the field. Austrian invasion. Great whose reliance was Britain, Such was the approximate strength of the opposing forces at the beginning ofplaced upon her navy, was notably weak Her regular army, at home the great struggle.militarily.and in the colonies, numbered only 156,- It was recognized that Germany had100 men. She had a territorial or militia the best organized army in Europe. Itsforce numbering 251,000. Her native equipment was perfect in every detail.troops in India and her volunteer sQldiers Xot a necessary thing had been over-<>f the overseas dominions, including looked that was within range of humancadets and members of rifle clubs, did not foresight. Kvt-ry officer was providedexceed half a million. with maps, showing in detail the cities,
  52. 52. 54 THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHEDtowns and villages, the roads and rail- shells began to fall upon the Belgian de-roads, the rivers, forests and elevations fenses. Then they were a nightmare toof Belgium and France. the world. For years the trucks used for peace Germanys decision to attack Francetransport in Germany had been built so thru Belgium was due to the topograph-as to be available for war purposes. ical difficulties in the way of a successful A German Lookout in a Waterproof Trench. A view of a sandbag-constructed trench on the German battlefront in the Western battle zone showing how carefully the trench has been water-proofed. Never had any nation in arms been pre- advance from Alsace-Lorraine. Parispared with every type of known fighting lieswithin a series of natural escarpmentsweapon as Germany was prepared. She that run in a north and south directionhad guns more powerful than the world across France to the east of the capital.had dreamed of, until their 42 centimeter The outermost is that of the Vosges,
  53. 53. TIIK AH.MIKS AHK UNLEASHED .V,mountains: moving toward Paris the nextis the heights of the Meuse; then comesthe eastern edge of the Champagne, and,nearest Paris, the hills that extend fromthe region of Laon to the Seine. After the war of 1870 France stronglyfortified the line of the Meuse. The Ver- bar-dun-Toul-Epinal-Belfort defensiverier is famous. This Germany wouldhave been compelled to storm, after cross-ing the Vosges, had she observed the neu-trality of Belgium, and struck Francedirectly from her own territory. There are gaps in the line, but theywere readily defensible and offered onlynarrow entrances for the immense forcewith which Germany planned to over-whelm her neighbor. The gap of Stenaylies between the Ardennes forest and theMeuse heights; the Toul-Epinal gap ismade by the valley of the Moselle, and Teuton Machine Gun in Action Under Bomb-Proof gap lies between the southern Shelter.the Belfortend of the Meuse escarpment and the over ground vastly freer from obstacles.mountains of Switzerland. Germany had two main foes to con- By sweeping thru Belgium the enemy sider when she began her campaigns-hoped to circumvent the escarpments at France and Russia. She anticipated notheir northern end, and to reach Paris appreciable resistance from Belgium. She knew the military weakness of Great Britain, and feared chiefly her fleet. Rus- sia, she reasoned, would be slow in mobil- izing and reaching her frontiers. Hence it was her plan to drive France to her knees in a swift, smashing blow, and then to turn and deal with Russia before the Slavic giant mustered his strength and became dangerous. Of the twenty-six army corps that she had available for an immediate use she sent twenty against France and six to hold Russia in check. She began her attack by occupying the Duchy of Luxembourg, to the east of Bel- Armorplated Battery on the Flanders ("oast. Ilack View of the Armorplated Gun Turret. gium. It was an easy victory. Luxem-
  54. 54. THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHEDbourg had no army to oppose invasion. enemy attempted to storm the forts afterThe Duchess went out to meet the ad- a heavy bombardment. He was drivenvance guard of the enemy and made for- back with heavy losses, and an amazedmal, but futile, protest against the outrage world began to wonder whether little Bel-that was planned. gium would halt the foe on the very The capital of Luxembourg was seized, threshold of his campaign. But the worldand its railroads taken over by the Ger- had much to learn of Prussian power. Amans. The latter were, of course, of con- third storming effort was made on Aug-siderable value for the transport of troops ust 7, and the enemy succeeded in enter-to the French frontier. ing that part of the city lying east of the Meantime three German divisions had Meuse. General Leman withdrew his French Armored Cruisers "Jaureguiberry" and "Bouvet" in Speed Trials.reached the Belgian frontier opposite the troops to the west bank of the river.Meuse fortress of Liege. On the night of On the seventh a German siege trainAugust 4th they moved to the attack. arrived carrying heavier guns, and the is surrounded by six large pen- monster 42 centimeter shells were hurled Liegetagonal forts, and as many smaller ones. against the remaining forts of the be-General Leman, a brave Belgian officer, leaguered city. The bombardment wasfamous as a mathematician, commanded terrific, and the forts crumbled under thethe garrison, and made every possible ponderous impact.preparation for stubborn resistance. But it was not until August 15 that the On the fifth and again on the sixth the last of the Liege forts yielded. They had
  55. 55. TIIK AH.MIKS AUK UNLEASHED 67 ml a great piirpnsr. Hd^ium s mag-nificent hut sacrificial effort had delayedthr armies of Germany for two weeks,giving the French time to prepare theirdefense and the British to mobilize theirlittle army and hasten it across the chan-nel to the scene of hostilities. On August 7, the day that the Germansentered Liege, the French began their in-xa.sion of Alsace. It was designed as aflank attack on the enemy, and, in theory,was wisely planned. But the Frenchmovement was too long delayed to be suc-cessful. The enemy had moved more rap-idly and was already on the ground withstrong forces. Moreover the Germansuccess at Liege developed at once a se-rious threat to the French northern fron-tier thatmade further offensive adventurein Alsace imprudent. It was necessary toconcentrate in order to meet the menace ,of a sweep thru Belgium. The British expeditionary force, underGeneral Sir John French, and numberingonly some 80,000 men, landed in Franceon August 8, and immediately moved for-ward to join the French who were ad- Searching skies for the enemy air fleet. Search- light in full activity; to the left an officer observingvancing into Belgium. ft trre movements of an enemy aeroplane. Meantime the enemy was sweeping villages,burning and pillaging. Behindacross northern Belgium, outraging the was a trail of blood and ruin.civilian inhabitants of the little towns and The French armies took up defensive positions on a line beginning at Mont- medy and extending northwest along the Meuse to Mezieres, and thence north to Dinant. From Dinant the line ran west to Charleroi. The British assumed posi- tions to the left of the French, north of Mons. The second French army was holding positions along the Alsace-Lor- raine border, its right wing resting in upper Alsace near Mulhouse and its left near Xancy. The Belgians evacuated Brussels, re- on Antwerp. tiring In way theythis saved one of the most beautiful capitals The three women were found operating machine- Kims during the American advance. from otherwise inevitable destruction. On
  56. 56. TIIK ARMIES AUK UXLKASIIK1)August 20 the Germans occupied Brus- that were a few days late in reachingsels, taking over the administration of the Liege, were on time at Namur, and madecity. it a heap of ruins in a few hours. The dismayed civilians lined the streets The battleground was now cleared forand watched the endless procession of the great test of strength between firstenemy soldiers, clad in their gray uni- the enemy and the allied armies of Greatforms, marching with monotonous rythm Britain and France. Von Kluck com-thru the city. They marched with heads manded the right wing of the advancingerect and the confidence of conquerors. foe the left wing was commanded by the ;They were on their way to Paris, and not Duke of Wurtemburg; the center wasone of them doubted that he would reach held by troops under Von Bulow and Von Great German Battleship "Ersatz Bavern" Among Those Surrendered.the great French capital within a few Hausen.days time. The Crown Prince of Germany, com- On August 22 the Germans, after a manding the Fifth army, was advancingbrief assault, captured the Belgian fort- from Luxembourg.ress of Namur, at the junction of the The French troops reeled backwardMeuse and Sambre rivers. Namur was under the smashing blow of the enemy.the last stronghold between them and the Along the line Mezieres-Dinant-Charleroiallied armies. Its sudden capitulation toward -Rethel and they retired fightingcame with the shock of surprise. It had Hirson. Between Mezieres and Longwybeen thought it might hold at least as long they staggered under the attack of theas did Liege. But the big siege guns, Crown Prince, and retreated toward
  57. 57. II IK A KM IKS AKK INKKASIIKl)Chalons, thru the Argonne forest. Had he succeeded in this disaster might The little British army in front of Mons have overtaken the aim its of France andwas left without support, and had to face Great Britain, and the victory might havethe full strength of the enemy First army been gained by Germany before her oppo-under Von Kluck. It fought a gallant nents had time to rally. But Sir Johnhattle, outnumbered three to one. The French with his 80,000 men managed to hold Von Kluck and 240,000 at attempted to drive the British intociu-iiiy bay. Inthe entrenched camp of Maubeuge, but four days he retreated 64 miles an aver-the masterly tactics of Sir John French age of 10 miles a day fighting courage-defeated his purpose. ous rear-guard actions on every mile, and There then began one of the most nota- occasionally halting to strike a more than A Successful Submarine Torpedo Attack. Cruiser Destroyed by An "Assassin of the Sea."ble retreats in history the retreat of the usually hard blow against his pitiless pur-British army from Mons. It held the suers.vital position on the wing of the allied left Effective retreat calls for as high gen-forces. It had for its task the supreme eralship as effective attack. It is a muchduty of preventing an enveloping move- harder test of morale. Giving ground isment. always discouraging to the rank and file From the time the retreat began it was and taxing upon the nerve and endurancethe aim of Von Kluck to outflank the of officers, who must maintain a spirit ofallies, swing around their left wing and hope and confidence whatever happens.intercept their retirement on Paris. As the allied armies retired the world
  58. 58. 60 THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED Palace of Justice, Brussels, Belgium.
  59. 59. Till-: ARMIES AKF UNLEASHEDatchnl with keen anxiety. Germany manding the French armies, that he haduas exultant, hut nations that loved intention of halting and offering a anyFrance and admiral Paris contemplated stabilized resistance.with alarm and consternation the possi- that the great capital of light and The line as it was pivoting retreatedbilitylife and youth might suffer as Belgian on Verdun. Along the Verdun-Toulcities had suffered, or that the nation fortifications the enemy was completelywhose spirit it embodied might be forced checked, while at Nancy the French army,to yield to the invading foe. that had been driven ignominiously from For six days, from August 22 to Aug- Lorraine, was retrieving its honor by aust 28, the fate of the allied armies hungin the balance. The Germans had an- magnificent and stubborn defense.other opportunity to win a Sedan. The The wing of the retreating Anglo- leftcrisis was reached on August 26, when French armies came under the protectionthe British met the full force of Von of the guns of the Paris forts on Septem-K lucks offensive -- five army corps ber 3. It had won the race. Von Klucksagainst two. The British were standing efforts to outflank and envelope hadon the line of Cambrai-LeCateau-Landre- failed.cies, and preparing to retire, when theblow fell. ^It was met with supreme The allied armies were now buttressedcourage. between the great entrenched camp of Re-enforcements had been asked from Paris and the fortified line of Verdun-the French, but no help was sent, and Toul. In the center they bent crescenti-the British were compelled to fight alone. cally south of the Marne.Had they failed Paris would have beenlost, because Von Kluck would have The supreme moment for which Gen-driven between Paris and the French eral Joffre had waited silently and imper-right wing, rolling back the French ar- turbably was now at hand. He had yielded all of northern France to reachmies and compelling them to fight at a this position, and here he elected to makeserious disadvantage for their very exis- his stand and risk conclusive battle withtence. The capital city would have been without other the enemy.left protection than itsfortifications and garrison utterly in-sufficient fordefense under the new con-ditions of warfare. But the British repulsed the enemy on-slaught, and General French retired ingood order upon St. Quentin. Here heobtained the help he had asked, and thussupported he again faced the enemy andfought a vigorous delaying battle withhim in which was inflicted heavy losses. By September1 the allied armies hadfallenback to within 40 miles of Paris,and the second line of French defenseshad been taken by the enemy. There wasas yet no sign from General Joffre, com- Immense Ammunition Dumps Captured by Allies.
  60. 60. 62 THK AUM1ES AKE UNLEASHED 3 pq be _c *c ~ "a W 1 be c 2