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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, DIGITALIZED BY MICROSOFT 2007,

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, DIGITALIZED BY MICROSOFT 2007,

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pictorial-history OF THE GREAT WAR-1846 Document Transcript

  • 1. COinECO OF THE GREAT WAR *CO -CLARK DAS .VALOROUS ACHIEVEMENTS If .VCE. M.A.(OXON.)
  • 2. <Sx oCIBRIS J. S. MART, M.D.No..
  • 3. presented to Xtbran? of tbeIHntveraftp of Toronto bi Mrs* J.S. Hart
  • 4. David Lloyd George. Great Britains foremost Statesman and War Premier
  • 5. SIR DOUGLAS HAIG, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE BRITISH FORCES IN FRANCE AND BELGIUM.
  • 6. DEDICATIONTo Righteousness, The Foundation of Peace;To Freedom, The Spirit of Peace;To Democracy, The Dwelling of Peace; and to all Brave Men of whatever Clime or Creed, Who for these things fought and suffered even unto death.
  • 7. FOREWORD The need of a popular History of the Great War, which should be at onceauthoritative and free from bias and weak sentimentalism, is felt by all. This vol-ume is designed to fill this need. It attempts toencompass the causes of the great conflict, the chief happeningsof military and political importance during the bloodiest fifty-one months of theworlds history, and their results and their effects upon the nations involved. Anearnest endeavor has been made to take the reader through the most importantphases. The limitation of this work to one volume makes the giving of exhaustivedetails of every incident, every battle, every siege, every advance or retreat, animpossibility. But in this very limitation lies the books greatest value. To please a tactician, chapters might be devoted to the battles along the Marne,the Somme, the Yser, at Cambrai, or to the struggle before Verdun or to the Rus-sian campaigns. But for the reader who seeks a straightforward, circumstantialnarrative of the great war, without its chief events being clouded and obscured by amultiplicity of subsidiary details, this book has been written. Devotion of time to research by the very best authors and critics has beengiven that its facts may be clearly and accurately presented. It contains no state-ments based on rumors, no accounts taken from unauthoritative sources. The New World undoubtedly was a great determining factor in the overthrowand crushing of junkerism, and for that reason this volume should be of the great-est interest to the peoples of Canada and the United States. Over two and one-half million sons of North America crossed to France. Their concentration andtransportation was one of the greatest military feats in history. Canada, as a partof the British Empire, naturally became involved first. Her record of service willfill every patriot with a feeling of pride and inspiration. The active share in thewar by the United States, though it covered only a little over a year and a half, isthe nations most glorious achievement. With mind, painstaking effort has been made to do the fullest justice to this inall in recounting the parts played by these nations during the months of their unself-ish crusade against autocracy and militarism. Entertaining visualization of the war is best attained through photographs.Consequently this book has been profusely illustrated with hundreds of scenes offi-cially photographed during the long period of campaigning on all the great fronts.These in themselves tell the narrative in a convincing manner. In securing thesepictures, the most skilled men attached to the fighting forces were employed. Manywere taken by men who risked death for a "close-up". In preparing this instructive, inspiring and entertaining history, no vital epi-sode of the war has been overlooked. The narrative is complete from the demolitionof Liege to the restoration of Peace. It is hoped that it will do full justice to thesacrifice, courage, steadfastness in the face of great difficulties, of the tireless andvalorous fighting men of the British Empire, France, Italy, Belgium, Serbia andthe United States. H. H. H.
  • 8. la V C O rt a .2 rt >, ex C O .1 " s s " 20 o"3 2 5 fl bo rt c js o * ~ aU v>. cTD cfl in S C o c"u O O CO
  • 9. TABLE OF CONTENTS Pictorial History of The Great War PAGFCHAPTER I. THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 11CHAPTER II. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE 25CHAPTER III. THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 53CHAPTER IV. PRUSSIAN PLANS Go ASTRAY 63CHAPTER V. THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLIS 75CHAPTER VI. HINDENBURG RETREATS 85CHAPTER VII. RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORY 107CHAPTER VIII. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 119CHAPTER IX. THE WAR ON THE SEA 145CHAPTER X. AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 159CHAPTER XI. THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 175CHAPTER XII. THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 183CHAPTER XIII. THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 235CHAPTER XIV. THE PRICE OF VICTORY 255CHAPTER XV. How THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 261CHAPTER XVI. MARVELS OF THE WAR ON LAND, SEA AND AIR 289
  • 10. CONTENTS (Continued) PAGECHAPTER XVII. THE DEBATE ON PEACE TERMS 293CHAPTER XVIII. GERMANY LEARNS THE TERMS 301"AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES," BY GEN. JOHN J. PERSHING 307"NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR/ BY ADMIRAL WM. S. SIMS .314 BOOK II. CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR.CHAPTER I. THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 3CHAPTER II. THE GROWTH OF THE CANADIAN CORPS 11CHAPTER III. THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1917 17 ^CHAPTER IV. THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1918 21CHAPTER V. THE CANADIAN CAVALRY 29CHAPTER VI. THE WORK or THE AUXILIARY SERVICES 35CHAPTER VII. THE STORY OF THE REINFORCEMENTS 41CHAPTER VIII. CANADIANS IN THE IMPERIAL FORCES 45CHAPTER IX. THE CIVILIAN WAR EFFORT 51CHAPTER X. CANADAS WAR GOVERNMENT 57CHAPTER XI. THE STAND AT YPRES 63CHAPTER XII. FESTUBERT AND GIVENCHY 71CHAPTER XIII. ST. ELOI AND SANCTUARY WOOD 75CHAPTER XIV. THE FIGHTING ON THE SOMMK 81CHAPTER XV. VIMY RIDGE AND B *YOND 87CHAPTER XVI. THE SIEGE OF LEN .93-96
  • 11. Pictorial History of The Great War The Red Trail of Prussia CHAPTER I PRUSSIA UNSCRUPULOUS IN EARLY HISTORY BISMARCK THE EMPIRE BUILDER GERMANY VICTORIOUS OVER FRANCE IN 1870 HARSH KST TERMS IN HISTORY PRUSSIA PREPARED CAREFULLY FOR ALL WARS MIDDLE EUROPE EMPIRE PRUSSIAN AMBITION About two centuries and a half ago the Meantime the sway of the PrussianMark of Brandenburg, formerly known dynasty extended in all directions. Swed-as the Nordmark, came under the sway of ish Pomerania, Silesia and the Posen andFrederick William the Great Elector. West Prussian provinces of Poland were That was the beginning of Prussia as added in the period from 1720 to 1795.an ambitious, aggressive and unscrupu- The fortunes of war fluctuated, it is true;lous state. Prussian arms were not always success- The first act of Frederick William was ful. Napoleon played havoc with Prus-the abolition of the constitution. He sian dominions for a time, and the Hohen-made himself absolute monarch. His sec- zollerns were stripped of territories andond act was to create a professional army power; but the Napoleonic success wasto sustain him in absolutism. meteoric. At the Congress of Vienna, in He trained his army, disciplined it rig- 1814, Prussia recovered practically all that she had lost, and came into posses-orously and equipped it as well as was sion of several additional states that hadpossible in those seventeenth century Then he set forth to conquer his hitherto escaped her rapacity.days.neighbors. However, before the yoke of autocracy was finally fastened upon the necks of the In this he was measurably successful.Other little marks and duchies were subject peoples of Prussia; before theyadded to the territory of Brandenburg, were made the helpless and unthinking tools of a madly ambitiousand Berlin became the center of a con- imperialism, there was a revolt against absolutism.siderable domain. The fires of democracy that had swept So Frederick William the Great Elec- thru the American colonies, France andtor set the style for all Prussian rulerswho should come after him. England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were slow in kindling The three fundamental principles of their torches in central Europe. But inPrussianism were absolutism, military 1848 and 49 Prussia heard the cry ofpower and conquest. They remained the popular defiance in the streets of Berlin,fundamental principles of Prussianism and saw the flag of insurrection raised inthru two centuries and a half, and until Baden and Saxony.tliv allied democracies of the world under- With brutal power she crushed thetook to destroy them in the World War. revolutionaries of her own domain. The domain of the Great Elector was Those of Baden and Saxony might havejoined with East Prussia by his successor, fared better the king of Saxony, indeed,and in 1701 Frederick III assumed the was forced to hide himself but Prussiatitle df King o f Prussia, placing the sent her armies into her states neighborcrown on his own head with his own hands and trampled ruthlessly under foot the that being the nearest approach to brave men who sought to win freedom.actual coronation by the Almighty that he That is typical of Prussia. Always andcould devise. everywhere she has been the enemy of n
  • 12. 12 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA Archduke Franz Ferdinand, his wife and children. The Archduke and wife were assassinated.
  • 13. TICK KKD TRAIL Ol PRUSSIA 13freedom, the implacable foe of democ- sary preparation for war. When thingsracy. She has denied it to all people who were in readiness to strike a sharp, hardcame under her sway, and she has done blow, he aggravated the dispute to theher best to destroy it in the lands that she point of ruptured relations. The war hecould not, or did not choose, to conquer. wanted followed. Prussias armies, ready The yoke securely fastened upon the for action, were hurled into Bavaria andnecks of the people within her own realm Austria, the former state having electedand those of her neighbors; the revolu- to take Austrias side in the quarrel.tionary leaders exiled, imprisoned or The struggle was of short duration. Inslain, Prussia turned her thought and seven weeks Austria capitulated at theenergy again toward the plans of aggres- battle of Konnigsgratz, or Sadowa.sion that were the chief concern of her From that day Hapsburg never venturedrulers and statesmen. to challenge Hohenzollern, or in any way Bismarck had come upon the scene- to interfere with Prussian plans.Bismarck the empire builder. His vision Bismarck, having cleared the field,of Prussia dominant was challenged by went on with his work of building an em-the presence of a powerful rival in central pire. He welded the German states intoEurope. The House of Hapsburg, rul- a confederation under a constitution that Serbian civilians hung by Austrians along the roadways.ing Austria, had been often the ally of was designed to fasten the Hohenzollernthe House of Hohenzollern in expeditions dynasty upon it forever, and to give toof conquest and plunder. But Bismarck its successive monarchs autocratic control,wanted no ally of co-equal strength, no supported by military power. It waspossible competitor in imperialism. The provided in the constitution that it mightPrussian conception of an ally is a vassal, not be amended without the consent ofcompelled to play the game as Prussia Prussia. This was the ultimate and abso-pleases. lute safeguard. Only Prussia could undo Hence it was necessary to eliminate Prussia; only Hohenzollern could relaxAustria as a potential rival in order to as- the grip of Hohenzollern upon the livessure for Prussia the place she desired. of the German people. Bismarck had no difficulty in finding a Bavaria, having suffered defeat withcause for friction. There was a dispute Austria in the Seven Weeks war, cameover Schleswig-IIolstein that he carefully reluctantly into the confederation. Shefostered. He encouraged the belief that did not love Prussia and the Hohenzol-all difficulties could be settled amicably lerns. For years it was against the lawand, in the meantime, made every neces- to display the German flag in Bavaria.
  • 14. 14 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA
  • 15. TIIK HKI) TRAIL OF IMUSSIA 15She never became fully reconciled to her Acomparatively short struggle re-new status as the subordinate of Prussia sulted in a complete victory for Germany.in tbe family of Teutonic tribes. It was another instance where prepared- HohenzoUern ambitions were not satis- ness prevailed over courage and devotion.fied to rest with the consolidation of terri- Alsace-Lorraine was added to the Ger-tory under the German empire. The man empire, and France was compelledKing of Prussia had l>ecome German to pay an indemnity of five billion francsKm|>eror, and the new title merely quick- in order to get the German army out ofened the inherent appetite for further her territory.conquest. Envious eyes turned toward This sketch of Prussian history is nec-1- ranee. The rich provinces of Alsace- essary in order that we may understandLorraine invited plunder and acquisition. how wholly in keeping with the character Serbian officers watching experiments with liquid fire.Moreover France was a possible rival and aspirations of the rulers and peoplewhose bumbling was advisable in order to of Prussia was the world war in whichassure the dominant position of Europe. their ambitions culminated. Bismarck deliberately laid the founda- Prussia never blundered into wars un-tion for war with France by provoking a wittingly. She made them with deliber-quarrel thru the publication of a garbled ate purpose; prepared for them long intelegram from the King of Prussia to the advance, and carried them thru to victoryKing of France. The wording of the with only one intent to increase her owntelegram was made to carry an insult to power and territorial sovereignty.the French monarch and in those days The forty odd years of peace that fol-there was only one way of dealing with lowed gave the world time to forget Prus-insults. sias history. Moreover, Prussia, herself,
  • 16. 16 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA
  • 17. TIIK RKI) TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 17was camouflaged in the German empire, maturing plans.and people who had known the German Such is the general background of thetribes before tliey became subject to Prus- World War.sian rule and guidance found it difficult As we draw nearer the fateful year into believe that the industrious, home-lov- which Germany launched her long pre-ing folk of Germany could have in theirhearts ambitions that menaced the peace paring thunderbolts against the world, one incident after another shows that theand happiness of neighbor nations. It is hour of action was no chance hour.probable, indeed, that such ambitions wereforeign to these tribes or states in their Wilhelm II dreamed thru the earlierearlier history as a confederation, but they years of his reign of the day when tlieere never absent from the minds of their resting German sword would be againPrussian over-lords. unsheathed to continue the traditions of his dynasty and to carve from Europe During those forty years Prussia did and the continents beyond a domaintwo things she Prussianized the rest ofthe German people, and she built up a greater in extent and incomparably richer in resources than any autocrat of historygreat army and a great navy for enter- had ever ruled.prises of conquest conceived on a vasterscale than ever before. In accordance with his ambitions there The developed in Germany an organization story of these four decades of mis- devoted to the creation of a great middleeducation for the German people is one Europe state, including Austria-Hun-that merits a volume to itself. The secu- gary in its scope, and extending its fron-lar and religious instruction given the tiers thru the Balkans to Asia Minor andyouth of the land was definitely directedtoward inculcating a vaunting pride of Mesopotamia. Maps that were printed and distributed in Germany twenty yearsrace and nation and a contempt for all before the World War began showed theother peoples. They were taught to be-lieve that the Germans were the chosen greater empire, and swept within its boundaries Belgium and Holland on theof God, with a destiny to subdue the west, and the Baltic States of Russia, Po-world to their own peculiar "kultur." land, and the Balkan countries on the eastThe state, embodied and the in the kaiser and southeast, as well as the dual mon-general staff of the German army, be-came for them the voice of God. What archy. Leaders in this movement spoke of acquiring territory in South America,the state decreed was right, no matterho notably in the southern Argentine. It itmight violate individual concep- was boldly predicted that the whole civil-tions of ethics. To live and die for the ized world would become either part ofstate, unquestioningly obedient to its com- the empire, or subject to it in the relationmands this was the supreme morality. of vassal to master. This education was part of the process In order to promote the project for aby bieh the German people were made middle-Europe empire with an Asiaticthe docile tools of the Prussian dynasty, annex, the Kaiser visited Constantinople,serviceable for the later execution of its Damascus and Jerusalem. He addressed
  • 18. 18 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA Wrn. Hohenzollern, ex-Kaiser of Germany, in the uniform of a Turkish officer. The shriveled left arm is most noticeable.
  • 19. ~
  • 20. GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE UNITED TATES FORCES ABROAD.
  • 21. THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 23a great audience of Turks in Damascus,and declared himself the friend of theOttoman empire and the Mohammedhanfa i tli. His immediate reward was a con-ecNsion from Turkey allowing Germanyto construct the Bagdad railroad, and giv-ing it a right of way in European Turkey,thru what was known as the San j at ofXoviha/ar, thus creating the link thru theBalkans that has heen often referred toas the Bagdad corridor. Austria-Hungary played her part inthese plans, doubtless with the knowledgeand approval of Germany. She seizedBosnia and Herzegovina, border Balkanstates. When her act aroused the angerof Europe, the Kaiser appeared as herchampion, and declared that he supportedthe policy of his Austrian ally. The Ex-Crown Prince of Germany whose flight showed his weak character. The Prussian moving plans were found her ambitions checked. Serbia,smoothly and swiftly toward the achieve-ment of Prussian ambitions, when the enlarged in territory, lay squarely across her path to the east. Serbia was antago-Balkan war broke out. The utter defeat nistic to Vienna and Berlin. She lookedof Turkey deprived Germany of her right to Petrograd then St. Petersburg forof way thru the San j at of Novibazar, friendship and support. Germany real-which became Serbian territory, and ized that diplomatic efforts to open a wayclosed the Bagdad corridor. thru the Balkans could not succeed. Bulgaria was prompted to renew the She knew only one way in which tostruggle in a second war by the intrigues realize her ambitions and that was force.of the central empires. They hoped by Force, for Prussia, was the normal andthis means to recover the advantage they most desirable method of obtaining any-had lost in the Balkans the necessary thing she desired.link of empire by which Hamburg would Suchhe joined to is the trail of intrigue and blood- Bagdad. The plan failed. shed that leads up to the critical day inBulgaria was defeated by her erstwhile June 1914, when a deed of assassinationallies. furnished the pretext that Prussia needed And thus it was that in 1913 Germany for the execution of her designs.
  • 22. 24 THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA The German Ex-Emperors Palace in Berlin.
  • 23. The Spark in Europes Powder Magazine CII A IT Kit II ASSASSINATION OF AUSTRIAN ARCHDUKE AUSTRIA CHARiKD AXTI-DV NASTIC PLOTS ASSASSINATION IN FACT PLOTTED BY GERMANY ULTI- MATUM, TO SERBIA SERBIA MAKES CONCESSIONS TO KEEP PEACE GER- MANY AND AUSTRIA REFUSE TERMS AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA, GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA, BELGIUM AND FRANCE AUSTRIA DRIVES ON SERBIA AND GERMANY INVADES BELGIUM GREAT BRITAIN SFXDS ULTIMATUM TO GERMANY STATE OF WAR DECLARED BETWEEN (iRFAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. The Balkan wars were over, and with ences of the business men and the imperialtheir settlement Europe heaved a sigh of chancellor, and the men of finance and in-relief. For a time a general conflagration dustry were warned to set their affairs inhad threatened the nations of the old order and to prepare for a great war.world. The European war cloud, famil- the spark that exploded the Then cameiar in the headlines of the newspapers, powder magazine of Europe,had hung upon the horizon with low inut- The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heirterings of thunder. But the crisis was to the throne of Austria-Hungary, wentpassed safely, and men again hegan to w tn j his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg,talk as tho a great war were a thing im- on a vj s it o f state to Serajevo, the capitalpossible. of Bosnia. They pointed to the growing inter- Bosnia had been annexed by Austria-course among nations; the spread of Hungary in 1908. There were manydemocratic institutions the rising intelli- ; Bosnians who bitterly resented the Haps-gence of the masses of the people; the burg interference with their national life,multiplying of international peace trea- The state had its secret political organ-ties and agreements for arbitration. Had i/ations, its intrigues and plots, all con-not the Hague peace tribunal been estab- cerned with frustrating Austrian rule andlished, and were not many of the great promoting Slav interests,powers of the world signatory to its con- Serajevo was not a safe city for theventions, which they pledged them- in heir to the Austrian throne to visit, andselves to regard international law, and to this fact must have been well known tolive with one another on a basis of reason- the authorities. Yet, in spite of the perilsableness and humanity? that always beset royalty in Europe, and These things were all true. that were peculiarly acute in southeastern And yet from all of these things men Europe; in spite of the known existencederived a false sense of security. of enmities and conspiracies in Bosnia, practically no precautions were taken by Nations ruled by responsible govern- the municipal officials of Serajevo to pro-ments, controlled by the enlightened sen- tect the lives of the imper ial heir and histiment of their peoples, could not under- w fe *stand the peril that remained latent in the It was on Sunday, June 28, 1914, that the Archduke arrived at the Bosnian capi- Prussia was rapidly completing her tal. He and his wife at once got into anplans. We have learned from the dis- automobile and were driven toward theclosures made by Dr. Muehlon, a former town hall, where they were to be wel-Krupp director, and others who were in corned officially. The crowd that watcheda position to know what was them pass thru the city streets showed transpiringwithin the councils of the empire, that littleenthusiasm. Their automobile hadconspiracy against the worlds peace was not gone far before a man dashed fromon foot in Germany. There were confer- the throng on the pavement, and hurled a 26
  • 24. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE
  • 25. THK SIAKK IN EUROPES POWDEB MAGA/INE 27I u MM!) at the car. He missed the arch- exposed the royal visitor to attack. Onduke. The bom!) fell on the road, and the way back from the town hall the im-exploded just as a second car passed over perial car passed a youth named Gavriloit, containing members of the archdukes Prinzip, standing on the curb, who calm-staff. ly drew a revolver and fired twice. The The would-be first shot fatally wounded the duchess, assassin attempted to but was caught and the second pierced the neck of the arch-escape in the crowd, He was a youth 21 duke, severing the jugular v-ein. Bothput under arrest. died without uttering a word.years of age named Gabrinovics. Archduke Ferdinand was livid with Prinzip was arrested. He denied anyfear and indignation when he reached the knowledge of Gabrinovics, and declaredtown hall, and, when the burgomaster that the first attempt at assassination was German soldiers decorated for exceptional bravery during the Battle of Verdun. These soldiers are being rewarded for making one of the many furious attacks on the Verdun front him an address of welcometried to read to a surprise to him. He said he was a Ser-he interrupted with the angry exclama- bian student, and had for long entertainedtion: the idea of killing some eminent person. "Herr Burgomaster, it is perfectly The Austrianauthorities immediatelyscandalous. We have come to Serajevo, promulgated the story that they had dis-and a bomb is thrown at us." covered an anti-dynastic plot, the source The burgomaster stammered an inco- of which was in Serbia.herent apnlnoy and went on with his The circumstances of the assassinationaddress. Hut the archdukes sharp re- have led many people to believe that itbuke had no practical effect. Nothing was deliberately planned, not by Bos-was done to remedy the neglect that had nians or Serbians, but by Austrians and
  • 26. 28 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDiLR MAGAZINE 6* 5 rt - o 3 > C II in en C _
  • 27. Till, SPARK IX El ROPKS POWDER MAGAZINE 29Germans who desired a for at- ized that a serious situation had developed pretexttac km- Serbia as tile initialstep toward involving grave possibilities.recovering the Bagdad corridor and open- Karly in July it was rumored in diplo-mu the mad to world conquest. It is matic circles that Austria- Hungary wasassurr.lly true that the taking off of the planning drastic reprisals for what shearchduke coincided exactly with the cul- alleged was a Serbian crime, committed,mination Prussias preparations for of ifnot with the authority, at least with thewar. It is, too, rather extraordinary that sympathy of the Serbian government.Prin/ip, the youth who killed him, was Then Count Tisxa, at that time premiersentenced to twenty years imprisonment of Austria, reassured the capitals of Eu-instead of to death. In a country where rope by a speech in the Austrian parlia-the death penalty was common, twenty ment in which he held out strong hope that there would be an amicable settle-years imprisonment for the murderer of The Arch Conspirators The Ex-Kaiser, Ferdinand of Bulgaria, the Ex-Sultan of Turkey, and the late Franz Josef of Austria.the heir to the throne seems strangely ment of the whole matter. Apprehen-lenient. sions were allayed, and the world thought The world was slow to realize the sig- it saw the war cloud passing.nificance of the Serajevo tragedy. Peo- One week later Austria sent an ulti-ple were horrified at the deed, and matum to Serbia, demanding a reply ineditorials were written denouncing an- 48 hours.arehy: no one seemed to see at first l)iit The ultimatum recited the facts of the the figures of war and famine and pesti- assassination and alleged that the crimelence walking in the funeral procession of was due to Serbias tolerance of propa-the dead archduke. ganda and intrigue against the peace and In the chancelleries of Europe, how- territory of the dual monarchy. It de-ever, then- was much anxiety. In Lon- manded that the Serbian governmentdon, Paris. Home and Petrograd men should condemn this propaganda and ut-conversant with European affairs real- terly suppress it.
  • 28. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE IMPORTANT TOWNThe ENEMYS OBJECTIVE ^.i^Mi-M-i-*--whicSHE FAILEDto . ATTAIN * Defenders ffeinforcerrtents^^ . ^^2 " ., l/KDCSlHAULe; SALfl ULTIMATELY A BAND t, ran STROMGCFI posn - :r -V- J V ^^ The German Offensive: The New Methods bv Which It Was Pursued and How It Was Countered. The 1 Germany made her advances on the Western Front. The new method was devised by the famous
  • 29. Till: SIAKK IN KTHOIM/S IOWDKK MACA/INK 31 V ;". .-/c. - * m .y$ IP B ..j5^l5!S< a^ > -Tliis diagram does not represent any particular battle or area, but illustrates the principles by whichernhardi, who was pooh-poohed for his ideas by the German General Staff at the outbreak of the war.
  • 30. 32 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE The ultimatum then continued: In order to give a formal character to thisundertaking the royal Servian gov- ernment shall publish on the front page of its official journal of the 26th June (13th July) the following declaration: "The royal government of Servia con- demns the propaganda directed against Austria- Hungary the general ten- i. e., dency of which the final aim is to detach from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy territories belonging to it, and it sincerely deplores the fatal consequences of these criminal proceedings. "The government regrets that royal Servian officers and functionaries partici- pated in the above mentioned propaganda and thus compromised the good neighbor- ly relations to which the royal government was solemnly pledged by its declaration of Count Von Bernstorff The German arch conspirator and ex-ambassador. the 31st March, 1909. Supersubmarine Deutschland which arrived at Baltimore after a trip across the Atlantic.
  • 31. TIIK SPAKK IX KTKOlKS 1()VI)KR MACA/INK 88 "The royal government, which disap-proves and repudiates all idea of interfer-ing or attempting to interfere with thedestinies of the inhabitants of any partwhatsoever of Austria-Hungary, consid-ers duty formally to warn officers it itsand functionaries, and the whole popula-tion of the kingdom, that henceforwardit will proceed with the utmost rigoragainst persons who may be guilty ofsuch machinations, which it will use allits efforts to anticipate and suppress." This declaration shall simultaneouslybe communicated to the royal army as anorder of the day by his majesty the kingand shall be published in the official bul-letin of the army. The royal Servian government furtherundertakes: 1. To suppress any publication whichincites to hatred and contempt of the Alfred Zimmerman, Germanys ex-foreign minister.Austro-IIungarian monarchy and the One of the German Sanitary Posts before Laon.
  • 32. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE general tendency of which is directed against its territorial integrity; 2. To dissolve immediately the society styled Narodna Odbrana, to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in the same manner against other societies and their branches in Servia which engage in propaganda against the Austro-Hun- garian monarchy. The royal government shall take the necessary measures to pre- vent the societies dissolved frona continu- ing their activity under another name and form ; 3. To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Servia, both as re- gards the teaching body and also as regards the methods of instruction, every- thing that serves, or might serve, to foment the propaganda against Austria- Hungary ; 4. To remove from the military serv- Bethman Hollweg, the weak-minded member of the Ex-kaisers War Board. ice, and from the administration in gen-Remarkable Photograph of German Sub/marine U65, Terror of the Sea, in Act of Holding up Liner. This is probably the only photograph showing a German U-boat actually holding up a liner at sea to arrive in America.
  • 33. TIIK SlAKK IX KTROPES POVDER MAGAZINE 35 and functionaries guiltyeral, all officersof propaganda against the Austro-llnn-garian monarchy whose names and deedstlu AustrorHungarian government re-serves to itself the right of communicatingto the royal government; .">. To accept the collaboration in Ser-bia of representatives of the Austro-Hun-garian government in the suppression oftin- Mibversive movement directed againstthe territorial integrity of the monarchy; 6. To take judicial proceedings againstaccessories to the plot of the 28th Junewho are on Servian territory. Delegatesof the Austro-Hungarian governmentwilltake part in the investigation relatingthereto ; 7. To proceed without delay to the ar-rest of Major Voija Tankositch and ofthe individual named Milan Ciganovitch,a Servian state employe, who have beencompromised by the results of the magis-terial inquiry at Serajevo; 8. To prevent by effective measures Von Hindenburg, General commander-in-chief, and histhe co-operation of the Servian authorities chief of staff. This Photo was taken in 1914. The Crowds were Optimistic.
  • 34. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE
  • 35. Till; SIAKK IN KFUO POWDER MAGAZINE 37in the illicit traffic of arms and explosivesarn^s tin- frontier, to dismiss and punish -t-ly tlu- officials of the frontier serv-ice at Schabatz and Loznica guilty ofha ving assisted the perpetrators of theSera )f,> crime by facilitating their pass-age across the frontier; 9. To furnish the imperial and royalLM>tTiiment with explanations regardingthe unjustifiable utterances of high Ser-bian officials, both in Servia and abroad,who, notwithstanding their official posi-tion, did not hesitate after the crime ofthe 28th June to express themselves in in-terviews in terms of hostility to the Aus-tro-Hungarian government; and, finally. 10. To notify the imperial and royalgovernment without delay of the execu-tion of the measures comprised under thepreceding heads. Immediately the terms of the Austrian The Late Count George von HertlinR-. the Ex-Ba- varian Prime Minister and Ex-Imperial Germanultimatum became known in diplomatic Chancellor. Ukraine and Germany Signing Peace Pact. Germany and her allies on the one side and the newly created Ukrainian state on the other concluding a treaty of peace.
  • 36. 38 THE SPARK IX EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINEcircles inEurope there was consternation. Meantime the European chancelleriesIt was seen that Austria had imposed con- were vibrant with nervous agitation. Theditions no nation could accept without an telegraph and cable were carrying codedutter humbling. The war cloud gathered messages from ambassadors to their gov-again, darker and more threatening than ernments, and apprehension of the mostbefore. serious results was everywhere felt. We have since learned, through the Serbias reply came within the allotteddisclosures made by Dr. Muehlon, the time. It amazed the world by its almostformer Krupp director to whom I have complete concession to Austria. Practi-already referred, that the kaiser had a cally all of the eleven demands but onehand in drafting this drastic document. were accepted without modification. Ser-H,e was consulted by Austria, and ap- bia declined to permit the agents of Aus-proved its form without consulting his tria to prosecute investigations on Serbian Royal Family of Germany. William II, Ex-Emperor of Germany and Ex-King of Prussia, married the Ex-Princess Victoria of Schles-wig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Austenburg. He has six sons and one daughter. The Ex-Crown Prince Frederick Wil-liam, married the Ex-Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The Ex-Emperors sister. Sophia is the wifeof Constantine, Ex-King of the Hellenes. Ex-Prince Henry, his brother, married his cousin, Ex-Princess Ireneof Hesse, daughter of the late Ex-Princess Alice of England. The Ex-Emperors mother was Princess Victoriaof England, daughter of Queen Victoria.advisers, according to the story that soil,but agreed to carry out the requiredMuehlon had from Chancellor von Beth- investigations and to report progress inmann Hollweg. suppressing anti-Austrian propaganda to The kaiser is saidto have told the chan- the representatives of the dual monarchy.cellor he was determined to go thru with In conclusion she offered, if Austria w^rehis program, and that no one now could not fully satisfied with these concessions,turn him back from his purpose. His to submit the whole matter in .dispute toresolution being thus declared he left for The Hague or to any tribunal constituteda trip on his royal yacht, a discreet by the Great Powers.maneuver designed to create the impres- It was recognized by all impartial ob-sion that he had no part in the matter. servers that a more complete acquiescence
  • 37. WOODROW WILSON, PRESIDENT OE THE UNITED STATES.
  • 38. tJBcXobococrto
  • 39. Till: SIAKK IX KIKOlK.s IUWDKK MAC.A/IM. 41could not be asked in reason. The Austrian minister received Ser-bias conciliatory reply at Belgrade onJuly -."). r.Hk at :>:IO in the afternoon. He did not even wait to read it. Hi>things were packed and ready for de- allparture. He put the manuscript in hi-, spa li. teh box, and left Belgrade at oncefor Vienna, thus severing diplomatic rela-tions without ceremony. It was evident that Austria wantedtrouble. The ultimatum had been de-signed not to obtain a settlement of diffi-culties,but to promote war. Great Britain immediately took up thetask of preventing an outbreak of hostil-ities. She proposed to Germany, on July27, that the matters at issue between Aus-tria and Serbia be submitted to a confer-ence of representatives from Germany,France, Italy and Great Britain. Italywas then a member of the triple alliance,of which the two other members were Ger-many and Austria-Hungary. Germany declined the proposal bywhich peace might have been preserved, The Right Honorable Arthur J. Balfour, Foreign Secretary of Great Britain and a prominent figure atalleging that the controversy between the Peace Conference. He was formerly Prime MinisterAustria and Serbia involved the honor of of England and at an advanced age enjoys world-wide respect for his statesmanship.Austria and could not be submitted toadjudication by disinterested parties. frontiers of the central empires and con-Russia, Serbias friend, opened direct ne- stituted no immediate threat.gotiations with Vienna, and these wereproceeding more or less encouragingly On July 28 Austria formally declaredwhen they suddenly terminated, and war against Serbia, and began an imme-Menna refused to negotiate further. diate movement of her forces toward theThere Serbian frontiers on the Save and Dan- strong foundation for the belief isthat Germany intervened to prevent an ube. Russia, alarmed by this indication that Austria was determined to conquerunderstanding between Vienna and St. the little Slav monarchy that looked toPetersburg. Meantime Austria mobilized her armies her as protector, and that stood as a bar-and Serbia responded by like action. rier between Germany and the east, atThere was some talk of once began mobilization in her southwest- localizing the ern provinces.trouble, and permitting a punitive expe-dition against Serbia, but it ended in talk. Thus far there had been no direct threatRussia, realizing that her interests in the to Germany, but the kaiser on the sameBalkans and in the Dardanelles were day mobilized his fleet an act that car-menaced by the threat of Austria to drive ried with it a very clear menace to Greatdown toward the Aegean Sea thru Serbia, Britain.mobilized five army corps behind the Vis- By July 29 the Austrian guns weretula. The mobilization was far from the bombarding Belgrade from the north side
  • 40. THK SPARK IN KIKOPKS POWDKK MACAZIXE fi c r
  • 41. TIIK SIAHK IN K( I)1>K S |M)VI)KI< M.(, A/INK i:;of the Danube, and the world was arousedto the fact that the long predicted Kuro- pcan war could lie averted only hy somemiracle. The semi-official Lokal Anzeiger, ofBerlin, issued an extra edition about noon )! July .30, announcing that a decree hadbeen issm-d for the general mobilizationof the German army. The news wasflashed at once to St. Petersburg. Theedition was promptly suppressed by theauthorities, but it had accomplished itspurpose. It may never l>e known whetherit was originally printed with authorityand in order to provoke a belligerent re-sponse from Russia, and then suppressedto complete the case for innocence thatGermany hoped to lay before the worldin convincing fashion. Its suppression was followed by a per-emptory demand from Berlin that Rus- Capt. Boy-ed, ex- attache of Germany to U. 8. Tin- Orman Offensive. The Guard Grenadier Regiment who were taken prisoner, v the l, British.
  • 42. 44 THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE is rt v if. jr u
  • 43. I IIK SPARK IX EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE 45sia cease mobilization within twenty-fourhours. But Russia, apprised that Ger-many was mobilizing, refused to accedeto this demand and ordered a general mo-1 ili/at ion. The Great Britain had failed efforts ofeither to avert or to localize the war.France, alarmed by the swift movementsof the central empires and their implaca-ble spirit, was calling out her troops. Sheheld them, however, at a discreet distancefrom the frontier, avoiding as far as pos-sible needless provocation. now that a general European Realizingwar was inevitable that France and Rus- ;sia were certain to be involved with Ger-many and Austria, Great Britain madeone avert the worst possible last effort toconsequences she addressed a note toParis and Berlin, asking both govern-ments to respect the neutrality of Bel-gium. Aprompt reply was received fromFrance, agreeing unconditionally. Ger- Dr. Richard von Kuehlmann. ex-member Russianmany made no answer. Her plans were Peace Conference. One Shot from a French 305 Battery did this to a German 88M Gun. The first shot aimed at the gun struck it clear amidship.
  • 44. Ki THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE in o E c rt E
  • 45. TIIK SPARK IN KIKOPKS POWDER MAGAZINE 47already laid for tin- invasion of Belgium.It was tlu- most convenient route to Paris,and Prussia considers nothing but herown interests. On August 1 Germany formally de-clared war on Russia and made publicher suppressed mobilization order. Great Britain followed this action byinforming France that her fleet wouldundertake to protect the French northcoast against German invasion. On thesame day the first hostilities opened theitruggle on the west front when a Ger-man patrol crossed the French frontierat Cirey. The French immediately beganthe movement of their troops toward thefrontier. Their preparations were madeto defend the line from Luxembourgsouth to Switzerland, along the Alsace-Lorraine border. The invasion of Alsacewas planned as a counter-stroke to the Captain Franz von Papen, Ex-German Military Attache, Sntish Capture Line of Luxurious German Dugouts in Sunken Road.
  • 46. THE SPARK IN EUROPES POWDER MAGAZINE Great Britain addressed to Berlin an ulti- matum, allowing twenty-four hours for reply, in which she demanded that the neutrality of Belgium be respected. The ultimatum was delivered by Sir W. E. Goschen, British ambassador to Berlin, on the afternoon of August 4. Herr Von Jagow, the German secretary for foreign affairs, received it in person, and gave an immediate answer in the negative. He said it was impossible for Germany to observe the neutrality of Bel- gium since her troops had already crossed the frontier. He argued that Germany had to take this course in order to prevent France attacking her thru Belgium. He ignored the fact that France had already given her word that she would observe the obligation of Belgian neutrality, and that Great Britain, had France broken her word, would have been compelled to deal with her as she later dealt with Germany. The British ambassador asked if he might see the chancellor, unwilling to takeField Marshal Von Mackensen who led the Austro- Von Jagows reply as final. He was Gennan Forces on the Italian Front. granted permission. Von Bethmann Hollweg appeared much perturbed. HeGerman threat. talked for twenty minutes, haranguing They relied upon the neutrality of Bel- Great Britains representative in tonesgium and Luxembourg as protection pleading and upbraiding. He declaredagainst invasion over an almost unforti- it seemed impossible that Great Britainfied frontier. was going to make war on a friendly But on August 3 Germany addressed neighbor merely for the little word "neu-a demand to Belgium for free passage trality" that had been disregarded soacross her territory. The little country often in history, merely for a "scrap ofdid not hesitate. She returned a prompt paper."refusal, and mobilized her small army to The interview ended unavailingly. Sirmeet the menace that immediately over- W. E. Goschen prepared at once to leaveshadowed her. Her refusal was at once Berlin. That evening the British em-followed by a declaration of war against bassy was mobbed.her. A like declaration was simultane- At midnight in London a vast throngously made against France, and the in gathered Trafalgar Square, awaitingarmies of Germany began the attack. the issue of the momentous ultimatum. On the afternoon of August 3 German As the great clock in the tower of West-troops entered the little Belgian town of minster struck the fateful hour it was an-Arien, while Chancellor Von Bethmann war nounced that a state of existed be-Hollweg explained to the reichstag that tween Great Britain and Germany.military necessity compelled Germany tocommit a wrong against Belgium for There was a moments silence. Then awhich reparation would be made. great cheer went up, and the multitude Clinging to an eleventh hour hope melted silently away.
  • 47. 3-rVcsu<ciIt*c ioL)
  • 48. CAMOUFLAGE ARTISTS CHANGING A MONSTER GUN INTO A "PIECE OF LANDSCAPE" NOT]
  • 49. IE BRILLIANT COLORING WHICH BLENDS COMPLETELY WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS
  • 50. .2 S
  • 51. The Armies Are Unleashed CHAPTER III l.r.K.MANY AND ATSTKIA HAD TWO MEN KI.ADY GREAT .MIl.l.lfN HKITAINS AHMV WEAK -- FRANC i. WELL PREPARED - BEU.HM AND SERBIA REASONABLY WELL EQUIPPED -- GERMANYS DRIVE THROUGH BELGIUM - ALLIED REVERSES - - GERMANYS ENOR- MOUS STRENGTH CRUSHES ALLIES. Great Britain, Russia, France and Bel- France, a military country, was ingium were now embroiled in war with much better situation. She began the wailirrniany. Austria-Hungary was at war with nearly 4,000,000 trained men be-with Serbia, and almost immediately be- tween the ages of 19 and 48, of whomcame a belligerent against the other allies. 2,500,000 belonged to the active army and its reserves, the remainder constituting Germany had 25 first line army corps the territorial army.ready foraction, numbering approxi-mately 1,000,000 men; she had twenty- Accurate figures as to Russias militaryfive additional reserve corps of like num- strength have. always been difficult to obber. On the day that hostilities began tain. Her available man power wasthere were at least 2,000,000 German sol- enormous. It is estimated that she haddiers available, and this number was soon 28,000,000 men between the ages ofincreased by another 1,500,000. twenty and forty-three who could be drawn upon for military service in Aug- Austria-Hungary had a first line armyof about 1,000,000 well trained soldiers, ust 1914. is probable that at least Itwith reserves of less number than those twenty-five per cent of this number wasof Germany, but material that was rapid- called to the colors or 7,000,000 men before the war had continued many weeks.ly converted which brought her total forceup to approximately 3,000,000 before Perhaps one-half that number was sent to the long fighting front.many weeks had elapsed. Italy, who came into the war on the Turkey, soon to enter the war as an side of the allies in the spring of 1915, hadally of the central empires, was a nationof soldiers. In later years they had been about 1,200,000 fully trained soldiers,trained by German officers. She is esti- 800,000 partly trained, and a million moremated to have untrained but available for call. had about 750,000 goodsoldiers subject to mobilization when the Belgium had only 120,000 men withwar began. which to meet the armies of Germany Bulgaria, whose decision to link her when they crossed her frontier. Thisfortunes with Germany came only after force was later increased to a quarter ofmuch hesitation and a cool and calculated a million.bargaining, had probably a little less than Serbia mobilized 350,000 to face thehalf a million men fit for the field. Austrian invasion. Great whose reliance was Britain, Such was the approximate strength of the opposing forces at the beginning ofplaced upon her navy, was notably weak Her regular army, at home the great struggle.militarily.and in the colonies, numbered only 156,- It was recognized that Germany had100 men. She had a territorial or militia the best organized army in Europe. Itsforce numbering 251,000. Her native equipment was perfect in every detail.troops in India and her volunteer sQldiers Xot a necessary thing had been over-<>f the overseas dominions, including looked that was within range of humancadets and members of rifle clubs, did not foresight. Kvt-ry officer was providedexceed half a million. with maps, showing in detail the cities,
  • 52. 54 THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHEDtowns and villages, the roads and rail- shells began to fall upon the Belgian de-roads, the rivers, forests and elevations fenses. Then they were a nightmare toof Belgium and France. the world. For years the trucks used for peace Germanys decision to attack Francetransport in Germany had been built so thru Belgium was due to the topograph-as to be available for war purposes. ical difficulties in the way of a successful A German Lookout in a Waterproof Trench. A view of a sandbag-constructed trench on the German battlefront in the Western battle zone showing how carefully the trench has been water-proofed. Never had any nation in arms been pre- advance from Alsace-Lorraine. Parispared with every type of known fighting lieswithin a series of natural escarpmentsweapon as Germany was prepared. She that run in a north and south directionhad guns more powerful than the world across France to the east of the capital.had dreamed of, until their 42 centimeter The outermost is that of the Vosges,
  • 53. TIIK AH.MIKS AHK UNLEASHED .V,mountains: moving toward Paris the nextis the heights of the Meuse; then comesthe eastern edge of the Champagne, and,nearest Paris, the hills that extend fromthe region of Laon to the Seine. After the war of 1870 France stronglyfortified the line of the Meuse. The Ver- bar-dun-Toul-Epinal-Belfort defensiverier is famous. This Germany wouldhave been compelled to storm, after cross-ing the Vosges, had she observed the neu-trality of Belgium, and struck Francedirectly from her own territory. There are gaps in the line, but theywere readily defensible and offered onlynarrow entrances for the immense forcewith which Germany planned to over-whelm her neighbor. The gap of Stenaylies between the Ardennes forest and theMeuse heights; the Toul-Epinal gap ismade by the valley of the Moselle, and Teuton Machine Gun in Action Under Bomb-Proof gap lies between the southern Shelter.the Belfortend of the Meuse escarpment and the over ground vastly freer from obstacles.mountains of Switzerland. Germany had two main foes to con- By sweeping thru Belgium the enemy sider when she began her campaigns-hoped to circumvent the escarpments at France and Russia. She anticipated notheir northern end, and to reach Paris appreciable resistance from Belgium. She knew the military weakness of Great Britain, and feared chiefly her fleet. Rus- sia, she reasoned, would be slow in mobil- izing and reaching her frontiers. Hence it was her plan to drive France to her knees in a swift, smashing blow, and then to turn and deal with Russia before the Slavic giant mustered his strength and became dangerous. Of the twenty-six army corps that she had available for an immediate use she sent twenty against France and six to hold Russia in check. She began her attack by occupying the Duchy of Luxembourg, to the east of Bel- Armorplated Battery on the Flanders ("oast. Ilack View of the Armorplated Gun Turret. gium. It was an easy victory. Luxem-
  • 54. THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHEDbourg had no army to oppose invasion. enemy attempted to storm the forts afterThe Duchess went out to meet the ad- a heavy bombardment. He was drivenvance guard of the enemy and made for- back with heavy losses, and an amazedmal, but futile, protest against the outrage world began to wonder whether little Bel-that was planned. gium would halt the foe on the very The capital of Luxembourg was seized, threshold of his campaign. But the worldand its railroads taken over by the Ger- had much to learn of Prussian power. Amans. The latter were, of course, of con- third storming effort was made on Aug-siderable value for the transport of troops ust 7, and the enemy succeeded in enter-to the French frontier. ing that part of the city lying east of the Meantime three German divisions had Meuse. General Leman withdrew his French Armored Cruisers "Jaureguiberry" and "Bouvet" in Speed Trials.reached the Belgian frontier opposite the troops to the west bank of the river.Meuse fortress of Liege. On the night of On the seventh a German siege trainAugust 4th they moved to the attack. arrived carrying heavier guns, and the is surrounded by six large pen- monster 42 centimeter shells were hurled Liegetagonal forts, and as many smaller ones. against the remaining forts of the be-General Leman, a brave Belgian officer, leaguered city. The bombardment wasfamous as a mathematician, commanded terrific, and the forts crumbled under thethe garrison, and made every possible ponderous impact.preparation for stubborn resistance. But it was not until August 15 that the On the fifth and again on the sixth the last of the Liege forts yielded. They had
  • 55. TIIK AH.MIKS AUK UNLEASHED 67 ml a great piirpnsr. Hd^ium s mag-nificent hut sacrificial effort had delayedthr armies of Germany for two weeks,giving the French time to prepare theirdefense and the British to mobilize theirlittle army and hasten it across the chan-nel to the scene of hostilities. On August 7, the day that the Germansentered Liege, the French began their in-xa.sion of Alsace. It was designed as aflank attack on the enemy, and, in theory,was wisely planned. But the Frenchmovement was too long delayed to be suc-cessful. The enemy had moved more rap-idly and was already on the ground withstrong forces. Moreover the Germansuccess at Liege developed at once a se-rious threat to the French northern fron-tier thatmade further offensive adventurein Alsace imprudent. It was necessary toconcentrate in order to meet the menace ,of a sweep thru Belgium. The British expeditionary force, underGeneral Sir John French, and numberingonly some 80,000 men, landed in Franceon August 8, and immediately moved for-ward to join the French who were ad- Searching skies for the enemy air fleet. Search- light in full activity; to the left an officer observingvancing into Belgium. ft trre movements of an enemy aeroplane. Meantime the enemy was sweeping villages,burning and pillaging. Behindacross northern Belgium, outraging the was a trail of blood and ruin.civilian inhabitants of the little towns and The French armies took up defensive positions on a line beginning at Mont- medy and extending northwest along the Meuse to Mezieres, and thence north to Dinant. From Dinant the line ran west to Charleroi. The British assumed posi- tions to the left of the French, north of Mons. The second French army was holding positions along the Alsace-Lor- raine border, its right wing resting in upper Alsace near Mulhouse and its left near Xancy. The Belgians evacuated Brussels, re- on Antwerp. tiring In way theythis saved one of the most beautiful capitals The three women were found operating machine- Kims during the American advance. from otherwise inevitable destruction. On
  • 56. TIIK ARMIES AUK UXLKASIIK1)August 20 the Germans occupied Brus- that were a few days late in reachingsels, taking over the administration of the Liege, were on time at Namur, and madecity. it a heap of ruins in a few hours. The dismayed civilians lined the streets The battleground was now cleared forand watched the endless procession of the great test of strength between firstenemy soldiers, clad in their gray uni- the enemy and the allied armies of Greatforms, marching with monotonous rythm Britain and France. Von Kluck com-thru the city. They marched with heads manded the right wing of the advancingerect and the confidence of conquerors. foe the left wing was commanded by the ;They were on their way to Paris, and not Duke of Wurtemburg; the center wasone of them doubted that he would reach held by troops under Von Bulow and Von Great German Battleship "Ersatz Bavern" Among Those Surrendered.the great French capital within a few Hausen.days time. The Crown Prince of Germany, com- On August 22 the Germans, after a manding the Fifth army, was advancingbrief assault, captured the Belgian fort- from Luxembourg.ress of Namur, at the junction of the The French troops reeled backwardMeuse and Sambre rivers. Namur was under the smashing blow of the enemy.the last stronghold between them and the Along the line Mezieres-Dinant-Charleroiallied armies. Its sudden capitulation toward -Rethel and they retired fightingcame with the shock of surprise. It had Hirson. Between Mezieres and Longwybeen thought it might hold at least as long they staggered under the attack of theas did Liege. But the big siege guns, Crown Prince, and retreated toward
  • 57. II IK A KM IKS AKK INKKASIIKl)Chalons, thru the Argonne forest. Had he succeeded in this disaster might The little British army in front of Mons have overtaken the aim its of France andwas left without support, and had to face Great Britain, and the victory might havethe full strength of the enemy First army been gained by Germany before her oppo-under Von Kluck. It fought a gallant nents had time to rally. But Sir Johnhattle, outnumbered three to one. The French with his 80,000 men managed to hold Von Kluck and 240,000 at attempted to drive the British intociu-iiiy bay. Inthe entrenched camp of Maubeuge, but four days he retreated 64 miles an aver-the masterly tactics of Sir John French age of 10 miles a day fighting courage-defeated his purpose. ous rear-guard actions on every mile, and There then began one of the most nota- occasionally halting to strike a more than A Successful Submarine Torpedo Attack. Cruiser Destroyed by An "Assassin of the Sea."ble retreats in history the retreat of the usually hard blow against his pitiless pur-British army from Mons. It held the suers.vital position on the wing of the allied left Effective retreat calls for as high gen-forces. It had for its task the supreme eralship as effective attack. It is a muchduty of preventing an enveloping move- harder test of morale. Giving ground isment. always discouraging to the rank and file From the time the retreat began it was and taxing upon the nerve and endurancethe aim of Von Kluck to outflank the of officers, who must maintain a spirit ofallies, swing around their left wing and hope and confidence whatever happens.intercept their retirement on Paris. As the allied armies retired the world
  • 58. 60 THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED Palace of Justice, Brussels, Belgium.
  • 59. Till-: ARMIES AKF UNLEASHEDatchnl with keen anxiety. Germany manding the French armies, that he haduas exultant, hut nations that loved intention of halting and offering a anyFrance and admiral Paris contemplated stabilized resistance.with alarm and consternation the possi- that the great capital of light and The line as it was pivoting retreatedbilitylife and youth might suffer as Belgian on Verdun. Along the Verdun-Toulcities had suffered, or that the nation fortifications the enemy was completelywhose spirit it embodied might be forced checked, while at Nancy the French army,to yield to the invading foe. that had been driven ignominiously from For six days, from August 22 to Aug- Lorraine, was retrieving its honor by aust 28, the fate of the allied armies hungin the balance. The Germans had an- magnificent and stubborn defense.other opportunity to win a Sedan. The The wing of the retreating Anglo- leftcrisis was reached on August 26, when French armies came under the protectionthe British met the full force of Von of the guns of the Paris forts on Septem-K lucks offensive -- five army corps ber 3. It had won the race. Von Klucksagainst two. The British were standing efforts to outflank and envelope hadon the line of Cambrai-LeCateau-Landre- failed.cies, and preparing to retire, when theblow fell. ^It was met with supreme The allied armies were now buttressedcourage. between the great entrenched camp of Re-enforcements had been asked from Paris and the fortified line of Verdun-the French, but no help was sent, and Toul. In the center they bent crescenti-the British were compelled to fight alone. cally south of the Marne.Had they failed Paris would have beenlost, because Von Kluck would have The supreme moment for which Gen-driven between Paris and the French eral Joffre had waited silently and imper-right wing, rolling back the French ar- turbably was now at hand. He had yielded all of northern France to reachmies and compelling them to fight at a this position, and here he elected to makeserious disadvantage for their very exis- his stand and risk conclusive battle withtence. The capital city would have been without other the enemy.left protection than itsfortifications and garrison utterly in-sufficient fordefense under the new con-ditions of warfare. But the British repulsed the enemy on-slaught, and General French retired ingood order upon St. Quentin. Here heobtained the help he had asked, and thussupported he again faced the enemy andfought a vigorous delaying battle withhim in which was inflicted heavy losses. By September1 the allied armies hadfallenback to within 40 miles of Paris,and the second line of French defenseshad been taken by the enemy. There wasas yet no sign from General Joffre, com- Immense Ammunition Dumps Captured by Allies.
  • 60. 62 THK AUM1ES AKE UNLEASHED 3 pq be _c *c ~ "a W 1 be c 2
  • 61. Prussian Plans Go Astray (HA IT K K IV (.1 UMAX XKI.NS - JOF1RL STOPS (.1 UMAX ADVANCE AT DIUVI I VKKDUN 1MNCU RKSKRVES FROM PARIS HOLSTER LINK -- BEL- - I GIANS cult K ;I:RMAS risi.wnKRK GREAT BRITAIN HOLDS - LINK AT YPRKS. The whole carefully elahorated plan of Hank of the armies was gone. allied campaign lor a quick and crushing tri- Von Kluck could not storm Paris umph of Prussia over her enemies and He could not go around it on directly. rivals required the occupation of Paris the west without breaking the continuity and the paralysis of the French and Brit- () f the German line and exposing himself ish armies in not more than six weeks an d comrades to certain disaster. his ^ me - There was only one thing left for him to Every days delay increased the menace do to swing across in front of Paris and on the German eastern front where com- assume positions in which he could assist paratively few troops had been left to the German armies to the east of him in watch the Russians. attacking the allied center. General Joffre, of course, realized this Von Kluck violated a Napoleonic fact. He also realized that the further aphorism in venturing to swing across German armies pursued him into the Paris and turn his flank toward his oppo-France the longer the distance over which nent, but he was convinced the allies werethey must maintain communications and a beaten foe, lacking either the spirit or the resourcefulness to bring transport. accept the opportu- The region of the Maine was known "^ his movemen * might offer.in every topographical detail to Joffre He reckoned without Joffre. Theand his subordinates. The French army silent, unworried and unhurried Frenchhad often held maneuvers along the river strategist had foreseen what Von Kluckvalley and on the heights that border it. would be compelled do at the time when toThe opportunities for employing tactics the German general saw nothing but theand developing strategy had all been care- possibility of outflanking Joffre and thefully studied. British. The from Paris to Verdun battle line The longer- visioned Frenchman hadwas some 180 miles in length. Paris had ambushed an army, under Maunoury, inirased to be the French capital, and be- tne region of Amiens. This army hadcome merely a great camp, ready to no part in the retreat. It was a surprise<lrfend itself if need be against siege or prepared for use at the right moment,storming attack. The French govern- Joffre had another surprise in readiness.meiit removed to Bordeaux on September He had placed the man whom he consid- l .just us General Von Kluck, now only ered the ablest strategist in at the Europe25 miles to the north at Senlis, discovered head of another army, as yet unused.that the British had eluded him, and that There has been some mystery about thehis last -chance to turn the-exposed left seventh army commanded bv General
  • 62. PHI SSI. PLANS GO ASTRAYloch at the battle of the Marne. It was corps strong 120,000 men.tliree I have heard a story that I am un-able to confirm concerning the part.played by Italy at this critical time. Italyhad declared her neutrality, altho an allyof Germany and Austria when the warbegan. But France, never at any time acordial friend of Italy, as a matter ofwise precaution had to watch the Franco-Italian frontier. It is said that two armycorps were delegated to this duty. Then, so the story goes, word came tothe French government from the Italiangovernment that the latter had no inten-tion of becoming involved in the hostil-ities; that the French frontier was per-fectly safe, and that the French were ex-ceedingly foolish if they did not withdrawtheir two army corps and use them tocheck the Germans. The French acted on this suggestion,it is said, and threw into the battle at thecritical moment two army corps that the The latest photograph of King Albert, of Belgium. enemy calculated were still employed in watching Italy. Whether the story be true or no, it is certain that J offre met the enemy with r greater strength and troops fresher and more vigorous than he expected to en- counter. As Von Kluck swung east, Maunoury, who had slipped down nearer Paris on the heels of the Germans, struck him on his flank. A desperate battle began on the Ourcq river. Von Kluck sent for aid and obtained re-enforcements. He at- tempted to break thru Maunourys line and destroy its menace to the German armies, now preparing to attack on the allied center. But Jotfre had a third surprise ready. Every taxi-cab and vehicle in Paris had been employed to make itand possible,Queen Elizabeth of Belgium cheered her wounded soldiers at the front. the Paris garrison, consisting of a med-
  • 63. 66 PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY ley of fighting material, gendarmes, Re- lying his forces with indomitable cour- publican guards and others, was rushed age, he struck so heavily that the whole to the scene of action. The sudden ap- enemy line was thrown into confusion pearance of the re-en foreements threw con- and a general retreat began. sternation into the German ranks. Maun- The battle had become an allied vic- ourys blow had been a surprise this first ; tory by September 10, and the German threatened second blow was a greater army was hastening toward the Aisne surprise what might happen if they wait- ; with the French and British in close pur- ed for further developments none could suit. guess, and no one was too anxious to The retreat of the Germans from the discover by experiment. Marne was marked by similar tactics to So they decided to retreat. those characterizing the retreat of the al- Drilling Belgian recruits in the bayonet charge. The Belgian soldiers efficiency with the bayonet whenit came to close quarter fighting was due to incessant drilling. Meantime the British and the French lies from Mons and Charleroi except Fifth army, under DEsperey, had come that they were reversed. General von into action, smashing a hard blow against Kluck narrowly escaped the clutches of Von Klucks front. The combination the British, and the crown prince, who was too much. The retreat became al- had driven southward thru the Argonne, most a rout. was in serious peril from the pursuit of Von Kluck exposed to attack his the French. neighbor Von Buelow, and General Foch In days the Germans reached the six now came into action with great dash and Aisne, where defensive positions had been vigor. He had suffered heavy losses in prepared and the terrain afforded advan- defensive action the day before, but, ral- tage for resistance. Here they made their
  • 64. ImSSIAN PLANS l,o ASTKAVst;md. to aid in the defense. In was miite in- The struggle now became an on effort adequate for the task, however. On Oct.the part of tin- allies to outflank them on three of the Antwerp forts fell under .")tlu-ir right, and tin- fighting moved north the German bombardment. By this timeand cast along the Oise, the German line there were skirmishes on the Belgianslowly extending in a reach for the pro- frontier, and two days later there wastection of the seacoast. and forcing a simi- fighting near Ypres. The homhardmentlar stretching of the enemys front. The of the City of Antwerp itself began Oct.French reoeeupied Hheims and Amiens. 8. On Oct. 10 it surrendered, the Bel- Meantime the Belgians were harassing gian army escaping and reaching Os-the Germans by sorties from Antwerp. tend by a detour along the coast. Hereand the continued advance of the allies it joined the allies, later evacuating the Covered with mud and glory. Tired out and weary Belgians bespattered with the mud from theirinundated fighting ground.northward toward the Belgian frontier cityand falling back toward Xietiportdeveloped a new danger in the possible and Dixmude.junction of the Belgian troops witli" the The race to the coast had been won,French and British. On Sept. 20 the Ger- and a wall of steel was built across themans began moving siege guns toward corner of Belgium from Nieuport toAntwerp. By Sept. 2i> they were shell- Ypres thru which the enemy was nevering the outer forts of the city. On Oct. able to drive a path of victory in spite ofJ the allies had readied Arras, where they the most desperate efforts.met a check. Two days later a detach- A battle front now extended fromment of British marines entered Antwerp Xieuport. on the Belgian coast, thru
  • 65. 68 PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY f^m*mm.wmmi*aKJ^^ : ~>^-~---7immBa*>*i**,ttaiJr+ w^t.*^ ?.*-- JMS> ^m i ~ -W~>-^^WL A stricken city What was left of Ypres, utterly devastated by Germans. A remarkable panoramic view of Ypres at the end of the war.Ypres and Arras to the junction of the possible,and the frontal attack was theOise and the Aisne, and thence eastward only means of open warfare, so bothalong the Aisne, thru Soissons and sides intrenched and prepared for theRheims, across the Champagne and the greatest siege in history.Argonne to the north of Verdun. From During the period of the race for thethe region of Verdun it ran southeasterly coast, however, there had been violentto Belfort and into Alsace. It was near- fighting along the Aisne, in the Argonne,ly 400 miles in length. around Verdun and along the Lorraine Since one end rested on the seacoast and Alsace borders. The French for-and the other was against the Swiss fron- tunes in Alsace had fluctuated. Mulhau-tier, flanking movements had become im- sen had been taken, lost and retaken and lost again. The Germans had crossed the Meuse at St. Mihiel and occupied the town. They held it as the point of a wedge driven into the Verdun-Toul forti- fied front. Belgians check (Jhlans from behind barricaded street- Belgians camping in a church at Camptich. A church Firing over barricades in Willebrook Station near at Camptich converted into a camping place. Malines.
  • 66. <;E.I:KALWOLFES TO.MK IN WESTMI:XSTFK AP.UEY. WIIEKE TIIK COI.OKS OF < ANADIAN |{K(!IMKNTS WERE DEPOSITED WHILE THE KEGLMENTS SERVED AT THE FRONT.
  • 67. BELGIUM AND FRANCO -GERMAN| FRONTIER Scale of Miles Circles Denote Main Battles Farthest Ctrman Advance The Hindenbur* Line The Final Battle LM _X X German Retirement Liuc
  • 68. r r"""iWik v " x^T/ Any* en "tto^Tlc ,... {7(AiiX-a>ip A. ^s^/t^*^ ^m:s^^p^= ,. nlkmrl^A ^ ^J XcKlSV/r 1)2"! .^K>^VnA-Jlu^^A^ihnr K r 5 Ch /" y<fsJ ^ / /Piomblcrrt g.^|Si??"%rtrllr f ^5>{ /j ! Nfurtid ^T^p^lCTfe-aJ ^*&p*J}Ji AsuufJ r-^ ,-. X r^lrr^^aZ-JV k&JZTE 7 / t .._X 6 ^^N^^^Q
  • 69. VICTORIA CROSS (Army) (Navy, Blue Ribbon) The Victoria Cross was Distinguished Service Naval Distinguished Serv- The Military Cross. In-Instituted during the Order. Instituted for the ice Cross. Instituted by stituted in 1914. A decora-Crimean War for the pur- purpose of recognizing dis- King Edward in 1901 as the tion conferred on captainspose of rewarding- indi- tinguished services of Offi- Conspicuous Service Cross and officers of lowerviduals of the Army and cers of the Army and Navy, to reward "distinguished grades, and warrant offi-Navy "for valor." recommended In despatches. service before the enemy." cers of the Army. The Military Medal. In- Distinguished Conduct Naval Distinguished Serv- The Royal Red Cross.stituted by King George in Medal. Replaced that "For ice Medal. Instituted in Institutedby Queen Vic-1916, as a reward to non- Meritorious Service," for- October, 1914. Awarded toria in 1883. Awarded tocommissioned officers and merly issued as a reward to Petty Officers and Men ladies or nursing sistersmen for bravery in the for distinguished gallantry, of His Majestys Navy, and for special attention tofield. to N.-C. Officers of the sick or wounded sailors or Royal Marines. soldiers in peace or war.
  • 70. IHISSIAN PLANS (,() ASTKAY To recount all the incidents of the French gains in the Champagne intrench siege that followed winningthe March and the French offensive againstol the coast would be an almost endless the St. Mihiel salient in April. The outstanding features of it Ontask. April 22 the second battle of Ypresalone need be related. Of these the two began with the German surprise attack infirst were the battle of the Yser and the which gas was first used. It was in thisbattle of Ypres. The former was an at- battle that the Canadians saved the daytempt of the Germans to drive in the left after the French line had been driven in.in<r of the allies where it stretched from After five days fighting, the German at-Dixmude to the sea, and thus to make tack was checked, the allies being com-an opening thru which they could pour It began on pelled to yield ground and reform theirin a flanking movement. lines on their new positions. Ypres, how-Oct. 20 with an attack on Nieuport that ever, remained in possession of thetemporarily succeeded. British gunboats,however, drove the Germans out of the British.city, and the attack was renewed near In the early summer there was a not-Dixmude. Here again defeat was met able French offensive on the front norththru the cutting of dikes and flooding of of Arras, in which the Germans hadthe canal region. On Oct. 28 the Ger- been slowly driven back toward their po-mans evacuated the south bank of the sitions at Lille and Lens. This offensiveYser, and the battle ended. ended leaving Souchez as a German Three days later the battle of Ypres salient projecting into the French front.began. The British were defending this Early in July there was a desperate ef-position with an army that had been re- fort of the crown prince to advance induced to about 100,000. Their front was the Argonne. His first onslaught car-some thirty miles in length. They were ried several French positions, but wasattacked by vastly greater numbers. The soon checked.fighting lasted fifteen days, culminating But after a year of trench siege thein an assault on the British front by the front showed little change, and the endfamous Prussian guard, under the eyes seemed as far distant as ever.of the kaiser. The assault failed. Ypresitself was destroyed, but the position wassav,ed. These two battles of Flandersare said to have cost the Germans 150,000men. From Nov. 16 until April 21 there wasno fresh drive for Calais on the Ypresfront.But in the interval there was tre-mendous fighting in Argonne, the inChampagne, east of the Meuse, and inthe Vosges. No great gains followed theseterrificencounters, altho there were ad-vances here and there by both sides. The -imost marked were the German advance ..at Soissons in the middle of January, the Immense Ammunition Dumps Captured by Allies.
  • 71. 74 PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY I CO ^= 1 (X) u ss U-o rt > ! 1 "C _c 3
  • 72. The Era of Gigantic Battles CHAPTER V NEW FIGHTING METHODS USED -- TRENCHls HARBKI) WIRE ENTAN<;i.r.MKNTS - POISONED GAS - - BATTLE OF VERDUN - HATTI.K or so.MMi; AI .11 :n (;AINS. i When the eighteen months of the first and estimates of natural resources.war had passed and the entrenched lines Statesmen and generals got a new visionon the western front showed no signifi- of the wars significance; they saw thatcant change, the world began to wonder it was a war of nations, and not of armieswhether the allies and the central powers merely a war in which the civilian washad not reached a state of deadlock from to be as important as the soldier.which neither could extract a decisive vic- While some men turned their thoughttory. to plans for increasing the resources and At first there had been much confident stimulating the resourcefulness of their countries, in order that they might be fittalk of breaking the enemy line. Ger- to stand the test of a long struggle, othermany was certain she could reach Paris,the channel ports or men gave themselves to thinking out any other goal uponwhich her heart was set until she tried. methods by which the problems of theHer failures to go thru to Calais on the new warfare could be solved, and the de-two occasions when she hurled vast forces fenses of the trenches overcome. The traditional tactics and traditionalagainst the allied front in Flanders musthave discouraged her, even as it encour- weapons were manifestly inadequate. Already the achievements of theaged the allies. worlds inventive genius for the last fifty Men who were on the Yser and at years had been requisitioned and adaptedYprcs in the allied armies said afterward to the service of the armies. The tele-they could not understand why the enemyhad not simply walked thru their lines phone and the wireless, the automobile, the aeroplane and the submarine all ofto the sea. They were outnumbered, ter- these things were playing undreamed ofribly outgunned, and the Germans had parts in the great conflict and creatingtwenty shells to their one. conditions for which the history of the These enemy failures, and the failures world had no parallel.of the British at Xeuve Chapelle and the For these conditions, almost wholly un-French in the Champagne, the St. Mihiel foreseen and certainly in no full sensesalient and the Artois, aroused doubts appreciated by strategists and tacticiansas to the possibility of smashing thru an prior to the actual experience of the war,army fortified in trench positions for new plans of attacks and defense had togreat gains that might lead to victory. be worked out and new weapons invented. Military writers began to talk about One of the first marked tendencies waswar by attrition that is by the gradual In strengthen the artillery. It soon be-wearing down of the enemy. There was came clear that attempts to take en-much calculating concerning man-power, trenched lines, protected by barbed wire
  • 73. 76 THE ERA OF GIGA^ TIC BATTLES T Admiral Wemyss, whose appointment as First Sea Lord was considered a wise step, for he was familiarwith the navy from the ground up. and was classed as an "old sea-dog."
  • 74. TIM. KKA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 77entanglements and the fire of innumer-ahle maehine guns, involved a certain andIrrrihle expenditure of life, unless therhargi- of the infantry was preceded hy amost thorn and destructive artillery bom-bardment. The cutting of the enemy barhed wirewith nippers proved an enterprise far toocostly to be continued. The high explo-sive shell was substituted as a more effi-cient and less costly method. It was in the experimental fighting ofthe year and a half that the "bar- firstrage" was discovered. The barrage is amethod of directing the combined andsimultaneous fire of a number of batteriesso as to create a barrier of shrapnel, high-explosive or other shells thru which theenemy dare not pass, or, should he ven-ture, must suffer a terrible loss. In process of time the barrage was de-veloped so that there came to be a num-ber of ways in which it was used for Earl Kitchener, Great Britains former War Min- ister,better known as Kitchener of Khartoum, whovarious purposes. There was the creep- was drowned on his way to Russia.ing barrage, that moved slowly forwardlike a curtain of fire in front of the ad- exceptional opportunities for advancingvancing infantry, holding the enemys on their immediate sector, were in dangerfirst line trench until the attackers were of getting far ahead of their supportingwithin a few yards of it, and then lifting comrades on either side, losing contactsuddenly to fall on his support and re- with the main body, and so in the veryserve trenches. There was the rolling bar- hour of victory becoming cut off disas-rage, by which a certain area of the trously. This happened more than once.enemys line was subjected to a systematic- Moreover the barrage, and the increas-shelling that moved back and forth, as alawn is rolled, until everything was flat- ing use of artillery generally, made it of utmost importance that there should betened out. And there was the box bar- the closest cooperation between the gunsrage, laid down so as to form an almostimpenetrable protection for a threatened and the infantry. This could only be en-position, or thrown about the enemy so sured by giving the infantry definite ob-as to prevent his movement laterally as jectives, to be reached at a certain hourwell as frontally. and beyond which it must not go without Another discovery of the experimental explicit orders, however promising the op-stage was the impossibility of an unlim- portunities might be. Once the plan ofited objective under the new conditions. the limited objective was adopted, toIt was no longer safe to say to a mili- ignore it meant slaughter for those whotary unit "There is the enemy line. Go took chances meant that the venture-as far as some unit was certain to come under the you can." Operations were ontoo big a scale. Single units, that found own devastating barrage of its guns.
  • 75. 78 THE ERA OP GIGANTIC BATTLES c c ri .E U PQ
  • 76. TIIK KKA <;K;ANTIC BATTLES Hence the fighting of l>attlcs becamea matter of great precision as to thedi isimi iif labor, the assignment <>! ohjcc-tics. the scheduling of attack and ar-rixal. Battles were frequently plannedmonths in advance and rehearsed behindthe lines on fields where the enemy posi-tions and trenches were reproduced asnearly as possible. Ultimately a battle became an intri-cate affair in which the functions of heavyand field artillery, mine throwers, trenchmortars and machine guns had all to becarefully weighed and related to the par-ticular task to be done. In the same waythe use of gas, of hand grenades and riflefire had to be skilfully calculated and theproportion and manner of each deter-mined. Aeroplanes and tanks added twofurther factors of ever increasing import-ance. The year 1916 brought two greatbattleson the western front that exceed-ed anything the world had conceived to General Byng, Hero of Cambrai in Famous Tankbe possible the battle of Verdun and the Charge.battle of the Somme. The former lastedfrom February 21 until July 1, and the effort, which, they hoped, would lead tolatter from July 1 until March of the fol- the occupation of the great and famouslowing year. Each battle so called fortress of France, and, possibly to thewas a series of bitterly fought engage- reduction of the whole Meuse line of de-ments, any one of which alone would have fense, and the opening of the Marne val-been considered a notable event in pre- ley route to Paris.vious wars. Never before had there been seen such The battle of Verdun was the first Ger- a massing of artillery. It had never en- tered the mind of a military commanderman attempt to put into effective use the that so vast a number of guns could belessons learned in the year and a half of used on a comparatively limited front.entrenched warfare. The war correspondent of the Niewe Rot- Two striking features characterized the terdamsche Courant, thus described what he saw when he visited the German linesbeginning of this battle First, its sur- at Verdun:prise nature; second, the amazing pre-liminary bombardment. The French "Over the roads leading towards Ver-knew that something unusual was in dun artillery and ammunition wereprogress in and behind the lines north of brought up in such quantities as the his-Vcnlun, and they were on their guard of war has never seen on such a lim- toryagainst attack; but they did not know ited area. The country seemed to be cov-how strong was the force concentrated bythe enemy under cover of the hills and ered with an incredible number of guns.woods. Not less than 500,000 men were We could hardly believe what we sawassembled by the Germans for this mighty around Verdun. Lo^g rows of guns, as
  • 77. THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLESAustralian Premier and Family: An attempt was made to assassinate William M. Hughes, the Australian Premier, at his home in New Victoria, Australia.
  • 78. I UK KKA 01 (,l(, ANTIC HATTLKS 81in did kittle pictures, set up in open fieldswith gunners standing about them, andon tin- hill-tops observation posts withtheir great telescopes uncovered. WhenI shut my eyes I still see before me thecurved lines, row upon row of guns,endless array, with gunners moving aboutt lu in in the open battlefield." To tell of Verdun in detail the storywould require a volume of several hun-dred pages. It was from its first hour ademonstration of German strength andFrench resistance. Never was the spiritof France more gloriously displayed thanin this long and terrible conflict. Twothrilling watchwords rang around theworld from the battlefields of the Meusehills and valleys "They shall not pass!"and "We shall get them!" Following the intense and protractedbombardment with which the Germans Herbert Asquith, famous British Statesman. Charge of Heroic Scotch Highlanders. The hardiest of the British troops are >se Highlanders composed of the brawny sons of Scotland.
  • 79. 82 THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLESopened the Verdun campaign, came a attack was repulsed by the French, but,charge of their infantry on a front of inch by inch, they gave ground on bothtwenty miles. The first day they gained sides of the Meuse, drawing ever a nar-ground to a depth of two miles, acquiring rower circle around Verdun. In Junepositions of advantage from which to con- the Germans drove up the valley and thetinue the attack. hillside leading to Fort Vaux, and, in a On the last day of February the Ger- bitter fight, captured it. Douaumont andmans entered Fort Douaumont, northeast Vaux were now both in the enemysof Verdun, and one of the most important hands; a fe days later Thiaumont fell,of the outer ring of fortresses. It had almost due north of Verdun, and on JuneA German Zeppelin flight over British fleet, which the fleet destroyed with three well placed shots.been reduced to a ruin before the enemy 24 the Germans entered Fleury, pene-occupied it. During March they cap- trating the inner circle of Verduns de-tured Forges, on the west bank of the fenses. It was a critical hour for France.Meuse, and occupied Vaux, southwest of For a week the fate of Verdun hung inDouaumont. The long struggle for Dead the balance.Mans hill began, the bloodiest struggle Then on July 1 almost without warn-and the ghastliest battlefield on the whole ing British and French smashed theVerdun front. hard against the German lines on a front Thruout April and May the fighting of ten miles, north and south of thecontinued incessantly. Many a terrific Somme river.
  • 80. 11 IK KKA OF (,!(,. T1C BATTLES The second great battle of the war wasbeginning a battle worthy to stand sideMy side with Verdun. Tlu- success of the allied attack on theS inline,altho not measuring up in its ear-ly stages to the hopes of the British and1rench commanders, was enough toalarm the Germans and to relieve thepressure on Verdun. The Meuse cityu as never again in peril. Germany, firstand last, spent 500,000 men in a futileeffort. France came out of the great testof strength and spirit her confidence for-tified, and forever certain of the worldsadmiration. The battle of the Somme was, for the what Verdun had been for the Ger-allies,mans an attempt to put into effectivepractise the lessons of warfare learnedduring the first year and a half or twocars of war. The massing of artillery,the employment of the barrage, the useof the limited objective, and the develop-ment of the tactical nibble into the big, Gen. Vassitch Commanded Serbia Second Army.strategic bite, were all phases of thisbattle. the victory home, the open season for When began the British and French it fighting ended and the rainy season setbelieved they could smash thru and break in. The Somme became an almost im-the enemy line and the theory was gen- passable mire. Infantry movements wereerally held that if the line could be broken exceedingly difficult, and the transport ofon a considerable front a decisive victory big guns impracticable. Operations hadmight be gained by pressing the advan- to be abandoned, and the enemy, who wastage with unfaltering vigor. On this theory and with this hope heavy getting exceedingly uneasy about thesacrifices were made in the storming of security of his lines, obtained a respite The that allowed him to revise his plans andenemy positions. enemy was madeto suffer heavy losses, and his tenacious prepare for a new program in the spring.defense indicated that he regarded seri- When the drive halted in Novemberously the possible consequences of the 1916 the British had conquered the ridgeFranco-British drive. overlooking Bapaume, and the French But the Somme battle had been begun had pushed forward to the outskirts oftoo late in the summer. No time margin Peronne. It was estimated the Germanshad been left for the possible failure ofthe original schedule, and when the had lost 700,000 men, of whom 95,000 hadBritishwere held up for weeks at Thiep- been taken prisoner. The allies countedvaland north of the Ancre, the schedule among their gains 135 heavy guns, 180was thrown out of gear. field and 1,438 machine pieces guns. Before the full value of the Somme From standpoint the Somme battle thissuccesses could be realized by pressing had been the most successful battle.
  • 81. THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES u o K & -if I
  • 82. Hindenburg Retreats CHAPTER VI LLOYD GEORGE FORMS NEW BRITISH CABINET - GERMAN PEACE I|{<>|<)SAL8 - - GERMAN ATROCITIES - GERMANS Kl.TKKAT - I MOUS HINDF.MHIU; RETREAT - r NKKSTRKTKI) U-BOAT VAR- i Ain (,i:x. BYNGS TANK DRIVE AT CAMHRAI BRITISH ARTILLERY OVERWHELMING - - CANADA AND OTHER BRITISH COLONIES TAKE PART. Hadthe British and French resumed forming a cabinet. Heinvited represen-their drive on the Somme front when tatives of all political parties to join him,favorable weather made further opera- and succeeded in creating a coalition ortions possible in the spring of 1917 great union government in which many ofand important results might have been Britains ablest men accepted office.realized. The answer of this government to the They had driven a wedge into the ene-my lines, twenty miles in width and nine enemy peace proposals was to authorize the enlistment of 1,000,000 more men, andmiles in depth. They had made thedeepest impression on an entrenched to ask parliament for a war credit offront that had been made anywhere or $2,000,000,000. Thru Premier Briand France warned the world to beware ofby either side since the war began. If the wedge had been pushed only a Germany seeking peace, and General Nivelle celebrated his appointment tofew miles further east it would have cut succeed General Joff re, now made a Mar-lines of petrol and steam communication shal of France, by taking 11,000 pris-absolutely vital to the security of the oners and advancing two miles on aGerman line. North of and south of it seven mile front north of Verdun.it were German salients, occupied by Germany continued her efforts, but themany thousands of troops whose posi-tions were menaced by the wedge, and alliedgovernments gave the world to un-would have been seriously endangered by derstand that they were in no humor toitsfurther progress. consider the enemys proposals, and had no faith in the enemys word. Premier Germany had suffered so heavily to no Lloyd George declared that allied peacepurpose in the battle of Verdun, and had termsbeen forced to pay so high a price for the were, "Reparation, Restoration and Security."defense of her Picardy positions on theSomme, that she was not in a position to Germany had no intention whatever oflaunch a big offensive. making peace on terms involving repara- tion and restoration. Indeed, during the winter of 1916, shemade an attempt to promote negotia- So, finding it useless to pursue hertions for peace. She had just finished the peace efforts further, Germany turnedconquest of the greater part of Rounia- her attention to obtaining a more securenia, and she considered the moment op- position on the western front.portune to suggest that a settlement During months an elaborate the wintermight be reached. trench system, fortified as no trench sys- Just before her proposals were made tem had ever been fortified before, wasthere had been a change in the British constructed along a front extendinggovernment. Mr. Asquith, the Liberal roughly from the region of Douai to theparty premier, resigned, and David Lloyd Aisne, with Cambrai and St QuentinGeorge accepted the responsibility of marking its main positions.
  • 83. 86 HINDENBURG RETREATS if. a bn ffl U
  • 84. EINDENBURG KKTKKATS 87 Belgian civilians, deported from Bel-gium, and allied prisoners were employedin the construction of this trench systemthat became famous thruout the world astin Hindenburg line. Early 1917 the British began to feel inout the enemy lines north of the Ancrebrook on the Somme front. They foundan encouraging situation and pushed for-ward. Presently they were regainingvillage after village, capturing strategicheights, and advancing with unexpectedrapidity. It became evident that theenemy was retreating according to plan,and engaging only in such rear guard ac-tion as was necessary to protect his re-tirement. He was withdrawing his im-perilled salients from their positionsnorth and south of the allies Sommewedge. The British took Bapaume and the Admiral Sir David Beatty, of the British Navy. After the fight with the Huns near Rheims. The Black Watch, which contains some of the best fighters in the British Army.
  • 85. HINDENBURG RETREATS British and Canadian Troops in the Most San
  • 86. HINDENBURG KKTKKATSBattle Against the Germans in Yprcs Sector.
  • 87. 90 HINDENBURG RETREATSridge extending south from it towardPeronne. Then things moved rapidly.The Germans fell back on a front of 60miles, burning, blastingand pillaging asthey went. In all history there is noprecedent for the work of wanton de-struction the retreating armies wrought.Evacuated cities were mined and reducedto utter ruinsby internal explosions timedto take effect after the German troopswere well away; in some villages build-ings were wrecked by fastening cables totheir corners, and then attaching thecables to steam tractors, that literallypulled the buildings to pieces. Orchards were chopped down, or valu-able trees scarred so as to ensure theirdeath. Vines were cut at the roots. The population of many a civiliansmall town was driven out and carried Horses, too, wore gas masks. Both men and horsesalong with the armies for service behind wore gas masks at the front. Scottish fighters in a bayonet charge. 2nd Battalion "London Scottish" is an interesting study.
  • 88. HINDENBURG RETREATStlu- German lines. The retreating armies reached the newHindenburg March, and positions late inthere established themselves none toosoon for their own safety. The allies wereclose upon their heels. It had been the belief of Von Hinden-IHI rg that bymaking the great retirementIK would destroy the program of the al-lies for a spring offensive. He supposedthat they had concentrated vast numbersof guns, and assembled immense quanti-ties of munitions on the Somme front,and that they would not be able to bringthese supplies up to his new line in timeto launch a serious drive before certainother events occurred upon which he wascounting. One of these events was the success ofunrestricted U-boat warfare, proclaimedby Germany on January 31, 1917; the Lt.-Col. William A, Bishop, V. C., D. 8. O., M. C., of the Britishother was Russian surrender or revolu- Royal Flying Corps, greatest living war aviator The British Cavalry. They arc seen charging over the top of a ridge galloping at full speed.
  • 89. 92 HINDENBURG KKTKKATS The British Battleship "Iron Duke," Flagship 9f the Home Fleet, Has Been Present at All Battles Be- tween the British and German Armadas.
  • 90. IIINDKXBURG RETREATStion, for either of which Germany had over the ridge and several miles to thebeen working by every secret and corrupt east of it, the enemy was manifestly sur-means at her command. prised. The British attack and subse- happened, however, that General It quent progress threatened the security ofIlaig and (ieneral Nivelle, the British the Hindenburg line at its northern end,and French commanders, were not quite and there was a frantic effort of theso simple as the German general supposed enemy to construct new and stronger po-then to be. i sitionscovering Douai and protecting (icneral Haig, for example, instead of Cambrai before Haigs men could menaceattempting to move all his big guns and these important points.stores of munitions across the Hinden- In the meantime the French underburg wilderness, simply ran them up the General Nivelle carried out an ambitious Evidence of the good shooting of the Canadian Artillery, A direct shot from a Canadian artillery piece put this German gun out of commission.line a few miles to the region behind Ar- attack along the Aisne front, with theras and Vimy ridge. In like manner Gen- Craonne plateau and the Cheinin deseral Nivelle made his concentrations in Dames as their primary objective, and thethe Aisne region. From neither of these St. Gobain plateau and city of Laon asfronts had the enemy retired. their ultimate and chief objectives. The quick pursuit, and the vigor with They gained their primary objectiveswhich the British and French attacked in part, at least;but the price paid wasSt. Quentin, threw the enemy off his so heavy that the political leaders ofguard. Hence when on Easter Monday, France were panic stricken, and -so theApril 9, the British stormed Vimy Ridge, story goes ordered the attack abandonedtaking 6,000 prisoners and advancing at a time when a great success impended.
  • 91. 94 HINDENBUBG RKTKKATS H <x> 2 o a
  • 92. HINDENBURG KKTKKATS General Nivelle soon thereafter lost positions from Mcssincs to 1assclicn-his command, and was .succeeded by Gen- daele.eral IVtain, a man of strict military mind On the Camhrai front General Hnnand spirit, who had no ears for the poli- made a dramatic attack that came as aticians, and was inclined to move care- complete surprise to the enemy.fully, rather than spectacularly. For the Tanks had been first employed by therest of theyear there was little offensive Somme. They had proved British on theaction on the part of the French. They wonderfully effective in smashing downfought a hard and successful duel with barbed wire, field fortifications andthe forces of the German Crown Prince trench they had done great parapets;for possession of the Chemin des Dames, work in cleaning out machine gun nests. British troops in France captured 657 German guns, including over 150 heavy guns. Machine guns to the number of 5,750 have been counted as have over a thousand trench mortars. and late in the year, by a clever bit of But on the Somme tanks had been com-I tactical work on the part of Petain, theyousted the enemy from road and plateau,and won positions commanding the ap- paratively few in number. An effort had been made to use them in Flanders, but the ground was so muddy, so horriblyproaches to Laon. churned by shell fire, that the tank was The at a disadvantage. British, having exploited their suc-cess on Vimy Ridge as far as seemed pos- But General Byng swept the enemy sible, opened a new campaign in Belgium, temporarily off his feet by a tank attack result in <r in the capture of all the ridge on an extraordinary scale. Hundreds of
  • 93. 96 HINDENBURG RETREATS
  • 94. HINDENBURG RETREATS 97 Australian troops on parade just before leaving for the front.the monsters rolled suddenly down on the In eighty days of fighting the French( i cm mil trenches behind a screen of and British troops used on a front of lesssmoke from the British guns, their rumble than 25 miles 15,000,000 artillery shells,drowned to the hearing of the enemy by or an average of between 150,000 andthe roar of the cannon. They smashed 200,000 a day not less than 6,000 anii wide path thru the enemy lines, open- hour for every hour of the twenty-four.ing the way for the infantry. The suc- And this is exclusive of trench mortarcess was too big was bigger than the it shells and other projectiles, such as handBritish expected, bigger than they were grenades.prepared to support. Many of these shells weighed over a The infantry advanced within three ton; many more over half a ton. It is safe to estimate that 5,000,000 tons ofmiles of occupying Bourlon Cambrai,wood on the crest of Bourlon hill. But metal were hurled against the Germanthe enemy counter attack caught the defenses in little more than ten weeksBritish insufficiently supported in their time.new positions, and they were forced toabandon about two-thirds of the groundthey had gained. Thefailure of General Byng to holdhis advance was a great disappointmentto the allies. However there were greaterresults from the venture than appearedon the map. had demonstrated the value of tanks, Itand had proved that the enemy line itcould be broken a possibility long doubt-ed by many. The battles of 1916 and 1917 wereamazing demonstrations of destructivepower. Royal Horse Artillery going into action at the This remarkable British official photograph The Somme bombardments were the gallop. taken on the British Western front in France showsmost intense known in the the Royal Horse Artillery approaching a history of war- batteryfare to that time. position at a gallop. The R. H. A. are the most up mobile branch of the artillery.
  • 95. 98 HINDENBURG RETREATS
  • 96. II I DKIU K<; RETREATS This, of course, was only part of the quantity used in the same time on theMasting urk. Unestimated quantities of Son nne. Instead of 6,000 an hour theyhigh explosives were used in mining oper- discharged over 12,000. As a consequenceations, and ast craters were created in the British captured four times as big anwhich i-nt-iny soldiers and guns were en- area as they had in a like period of thetomhed. Somme offensive. It was tlius that Thiepval, the Regina Along the Aisne the French exceededrrdonht and other powerful German the British record in quantity of shellsworks were reduced to ruins, and their used. The strong defenses of the Ger-garrisons driven from the chaotic heaps mans, in the caves and tunnels of theof earth and masonry and molten metal. chalk and limestone cliffs, required a tre- Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada, making rousing speech to Canadian fighters at front. But if the Somme drive outrivalled all mendous pounding. The French literallyprevious records, became a comparative- it shattered the solid rock, and forced thely moderate affair in the light of what enemy to flee from his quarried shelterstook place on the Arras front and along as men will flee in the day of Gods judg-the Aisne in 1917. ment. It is estimated that the British in the The part played by the over-seas Do-first ten days of their fighting on the Ar- minions of Great Britain in the world warras front deluged the enemy with is one that will long be remembered to4,000,000 shells, or more than double the the glory of the British race and the
  • 97. 100 HINDENBURG RETREATS
  • 98. HINDENBURG KKTKKAT.spraise <>! those free institutions that were frontier because of the century of friendlyrradlrd in Kngland. relations that she had enjoyed with her great American neighbor. She had no From Canada, Zealand Australia, Newand South Africa there was an immediate army only a few militia battalions. Men of the colonies rallied to But when news came that Belgium theresponse.tlu- call of the empire. It should he home had been invaded and that Great Britainin mind that the people of these self -gov- was at war with Germany, there flashedern ing dependencies were under no con- across the Atlantic the message "Eng-straint of constitution, law or force to send land can count on Canada."their sons to Europe, or in any other way In seven weeks Canada had created a British Tommies returning from the trenches on the Flanders front after several days of fighting.t<> share in the sacrifices of the great con- magnificent camp at Valcartier, near theflict. They were as free to choose as was ancient city of Quebec, and was gather-the United States, and they chose at once ing the nucleus of as fine and as fit a littleto stand with the mother country, with army as fought on any front in the fourFrance and with Belgium for the cause years of war.of liberty against the central autocracies. The governments first call was for The story of Canadas response is 20,000 men. It got 40,000, and the firstcharacteristic of that of the others. Can- contingent sailed from the Gaspe Basinada was essentially a non-military coun- on October 3, two months after the wartry, happy in the security of her own long began, numbering 33,000 picked men.
  • 99. 102 HINDENBURG RETREATS Collision of this vessel, the S. S. Imo, with the S. S. Mont Blanc caused the Greatf Halifax disaster. Indescribable horrors and ruin caused by great Halifax explosion. This most remarkable photo tells the story of suffering and misery caused by the great Halifax explosion with graphic realism.
  • 100. HINDKXBURG HKTKEATS 103 A period of training was necessary inKnuland, but four months from the dayof departure a Canadian division landedin F ranee and was sent to the Flandersfront. From that hour to the end of the warCanada always had a place in the line.To her credit stands one brilliant victoryafter another and many a stout defense. Langemarck and names St. Julien areon the Canadian honor was there roll. Itthat the sons of the Maple Leaf savedthe day when the enemy, in April 1915, Armenians defeated Turks in the siege of Van. The Turks were compelled to withdraw after abroke thru the line of the French colonial heavy loss inflicted by the Armenians.troops by the use of gas. Canada closedthe gap, and, at terrific price held the were their comrades, brought them undy-enemy at bay for over 72 hours until re-enforcements could arrive. ing renown. The world remembers them as the men who fought naked to the waist, In the battle of the Somme the names in cotton knee breeches and bare legs, andof Courcelette and the Regina redoubtare remembered among the names of fought with the fury of demons, and theplaces that are forever identified with courage of young gods.Canadian courage. On many a western front sector the The taking of Vimy Ridge will be one Australians did magnificent service. Theof the great and often told stories in the demoralized retreat of the enemy fromhistory of the Dominion. the Amiens front in the late summer of It was the Canadians, who, after other 1918 is ascribed to the work of thesetroops had tried for weeks to capture sinewy giants from the antipodes. It isPasschendaele, northeast of Ypres, did said that their habit of raiding the enemythe job and came back from victory a trenches in broad daylight, often whilemere tattered and wounded remnant. the German soldiers were eating their Canada, by voluntary enlistment and noon-day meal, completely unnerved theconscription, raised an army of about foe,and made him yield easily when the500,000 men. Her population is barely main counter attack was launched.more than 8,000,000. An army of like South African troops participated inproportion in the United States wouldnumber over 10,000,000. the west front fighting, but the great Australia did even better in proportion work of South Africa was done in con-to population,and Australian troops were quering the German colonies in Africa.abreast of the Canadians in the bravery No less loyal than the self-governingand daring of their efforts for freedom. colonies was India still the domain ofIn the early stages of the war they were alien rule. Her turbaned sons took Bag-mainly engaged defending Egypt from inTurk attack and holding tribesmen of the dad and helped to take Jerusalem; theydcsc-rt in check. redeemed Mesopotamia and Syria; they were represented on every front, and Their campaigns on the Gallipolipeninsula, in which the New Zealanders everywhere with honor. to themselves.
  • 101. "The most daring adventure in naval history": The attack on Zeebrugge. In this picture is visualized the sceihistory." In the foregroand is the Vindictive, which had been fitted with prows to land men on the great half-moto block the channel, are seen in the distance. The Thetis came first, steaming into a tornado of shell-fire from tin the mud and blown up. The Iphigenia was also beached, according to plan, on the eastern side, her engines beiithe defenders and the flasjh of the British and German guns made the dark and artificially fog-laden scene specta
  • 102. ttack on the Mole on which Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge describes as the "most daring adventure in naval April 22. Mersey ferry boats Iris and Dr.ffodil being shown at each end of her. The three cement-laden cruisers, designed batteries ashore. The Intrepid, smoking like a volcano, and with all her guns blazing, followed, and was sunkoin- to hold her in position till she became bedded well down at the bottom. The searchlights and star shells ofbehold.
  • 103. 106 HINDENBURG RETREATS Man Masked Dispatch Riders Pick a Safe Road. English Advance Scouts Con- or Beast? sulting Road Masked Dispatch Riders on the Salonica Front Well Guarded from the Plans. Fumes of Bulgar Gas Shells, Examining a Map in Order to Pick Out a Safe Road Back to Headquarters.
  • 104. Russias Tragic Story CHAPTER VII RUSSIA AT FIRST SUCCESSFUL HINDENBURO STAYS THE RUSSIAN ARMIES - - RUSSIA RETREATS - - VON MACKENSEN VIC- TORIOUS RUSSIAN OFFICIALS TREACHERY -- RUSSIAN REVOLU- TION TAKES PLACE -- KERENSKY BECOMES LEADER -- KERENSKY DEPOSED - - TROTZKY AND LENINE IN POWER - - RUSSIA MAKES SEPARATE PEACE. Russia came into the war as an auto- There were some differences of opinioncracy. She left by the wide gateways of in the military councils of Russia whenanarchy, along a road lurid with flame the war began as to whether the armiesand crimson with blood. should advance across Poland and attack Imperial Russia was actuated by the Germany, or whether the Vistula shoulddesire to prevent the extension of Im- be held as a line of defense, while the at-perial Prussias sway to the Balkans, tack was made on East Prussia andConstantinople and the regions that lie Galicia, to the north and to the south ofbeyond. Poland. Always the eyes of Russia had been This latter idea prevailed. It was de-on Constantinople. She was a mighty cided to hold the Warsaw- 1 vangorod for-empire whose coasts in Europe were tified line of the Vistula, while an advancewashed by the waters of land-locked seas, was made across the Baltic provinces,or, in the north, were barred by the Arctic against East Prussia, and thru Bessara-ice for long months in every year. For bia into Galicia.her developing life she needed better ac- Before the Germans had completedcess to the rest of the world. It seemed their drive thru Belgium the Russiansintolerable to her that the Dardanelles were over the East Prussian frontier. Asshould be controlled by Turkey, apt at they advanced against an insufficient de-any moment to become the tool of some fending force the people of the invadedunfriendly or rival power, and thus the region sent up a loud cry for help, thatwarden who would lock the only door thru reached the ears of the conquering armieswhich her mighty neighbor could emerge sweeping toward Paris. It became neces-from the Black Sea. sary to send back to the eastern front On the Black Sea was the great Rus- troops that had been intended to cooper-sian port of Odessa, the port where the ate in the humiliation of France. The ast harvests of southern and south- Russian giant had moved with swifter estern Russia the incomparably rich strides than the German general staff hadblack soil country were gathered for believed to be possible, and when it re-shipment thruout the world. Thus the quired re-enforcements to stay the threat-freedom of the Dardanelles was vital to ening disaster on the Marne, they werethe life of Russia. Desire to get Constan- already far distant, hurrying to check thetinople, or at least to keep it from Ger- Slav armies in a remote corner of theman control, was more than a mere de- empire.sire for empire. It was prompted by the The service of the Russians in the criti-fundamental principle of self-preserva- cal hour that held victory or defeat fortion. the western allies should not be forgotten. 107
  • 105. 108 RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORYThey paid a heavy price for their prompt armies were early placed upon the de-and courageous flank attack on the foe. fensive. On the day of the defeat at Tan- nenberg, in East Prussia, the Russians On September 1, General Von Hin- won a great victory over the Austriansdenburg met them in East Prussia with . at Lemberg. Thousands of the enemypowerful re-enforcements. It was his were taken prisoner.first dramatic appearance in the role of The Austrian demoralization was sodeliverer for the German people. great that Berlin became alarmed. At the The battle took place at Tannenberg. western end of Galicia stood the city ofThe Russians were routed, with a loss of Cracow, once capital of Poland. It was80,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners, the gateway into Germany. If the Rus-and were compelled to make a hasty re- sians reached Cracow the immensely valu- Cleaning Up Sackville Street, Dublin, After Rebellion. It Had Been Shelled by Field Artillery.treat to their fortified line on the River able industrial and mining region of Sile-Niemen. sian Germany would be exposed to inva- sion. The Hindenburg victory was hailedwith great acclaim in Berlin. It was dis- Vienna was urged to strengthen its ar-appointing news for the allies, but the mies and exert a supreme effort to checkdisappointment was quickly turned to re- the Slav advance. But the Russiansjoicing by the success on the Marne a could not be held at Lemberg, nor yet atsuccess to which the Slav reverse had con- the San river, seventy miles further west,tributed materially. where the Austrians made a desperate stand against them. Better fortune attended the Russianinvasion of Galicia, where the Austrian On September 7, as the German arm}
  • 106. HI SSIA S TRAGIC STORY 109was falling hack to the Aisne in France, Thus, two mouths after the beginningthe Russians routed the Austrians agaii. of the war, the Russians had conquerednt Ravaruska. A little more than a week Galicia, and were menacing Germany andInter theyinvested the great Galiciai: I hingary.f( rtress of Przemysl. Leaving besieged Karly in October the Austrians beganby their troops they pressed forward ana a series counter attacks. of German(xciipied Jaroslav on September 23. troops had been sent to their aid, and Withthese important strategic points with the trained soldiers of their l>ettercither controlled or held, they advanced great ally they were able to make appre-to the Donajec river, that crosses Galicia ciable progress.from north to south, and, by the end of The Russians were driven from thethe month, had pushed their vanguards Uzsok pass in the Carpathians and com-For this "military purpose" the Germans dropped bombs on England. The end of a perfect air raid by the German air men on England. The baby victims and women are being buried.to within cannon range of Cracow. pelled to abandon Przemysl. The cap- Here they were content to rest for the ture of Jaroslav followed and the Rus-time, while they spread out along the Car- sian armies fell back in eastern Galiciapathians, that separate Galicia from beyond the San.Hungary, in an attempt to get posses- A great battle developed along the Sansion of the chief mountain passes de- in middle of October. It lasted for tlibouching on the Hungarian plains. Here days which fortunes varied. Gradual- inand there they actually penetrated the ly the Russians gained the upper hand.harrier range and reached the plains, oc- The Austrians attempted a flank attack( asioning consternation in Buda Pest, thru Bukowina, but before it couldcapital of Hungary. threaten seriously the Slav line the Aus-
  • 107. 110 RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORYtrians collapsed on the San, and the Rus- established a strong line across Galicia,sians re-entered Jaroslav. Six days later protecting the rear of their forces in thePrzemysl was again besieged, and re- Carpathians. A long series of operationsmained surrounded by the Russian forces then began in the mountains battles inuntil its capture in the following March, deep snows and zero temperatures inBy the middle of November the Rus- which the Russians gradually forced theirsians were once more on the outskirts of way into the passes. On March 22 theyCracow. captured Przemysl, and under the im- London air raid. Mother and son inspecting their home. A mother and her little son have returned home from a visit and this mass of debris greets their eyes. Hungary was again raided thru the pulse of this success swept forward onmountain passes, and the Austrians were Hungary with Buda Pest as its goal.driven from Bukowina. The alarmed Austrians rallied again Germany was forced to send additional and again to defend their frontier, fight-aid to her ally. With this help the siege ing stubbornly for every yard of ground,of Cracow was lifted, and the Russians and then, with the coming of May ap-retired to the Donajec river, where they peared Mackensen on the Donajec.
  • 108. RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORY 111 The German offensive against Russiawas marked by three great efforts to con-quer Poland, sieze the Vistula defensesand crush the armies of the Czar. The first of these began in the openingdays of October, 1914, with Von Hinden-burg in command, fresh from his victoryover the Russians at Tannenberg, in EastPrussia. The German armies, admirablyequipped, swept across Poland to theVistula. They reached the outskirts ofWarsaw and Ivangorod by October 17.Aviators dropped proclamations in War-saw calling for the surrender of the city.The big guns began to shell its fortifica-tions. Then re-enforcements suddenlyattacked the left flank of the Teutons, it back anddriving compelling a retreatall along the line. In perfect order VonIlindenburgs armies withdrew, movingtoo swiftly for the pursuing Russians,who followed to the German frontier andactually crossed into Posen at one point. First picture of the actual surrender of Jerusalem This Russian success was brief. Von on December 9th, 1917. The only photo taken onHindenburg struck again. Early in No- the morning of December 9th, when Jerusalem sur-vember he began a movement against rendered.both flanks of the Russian army. Onecame down the south bank of the Vistula in serious peril of being outflanked andfrom the East Russian fortress of Thorn ; cut off from Warsaw and the Vistula.the other advanced northeast from Czen- They fell back toward Lodz. Here, atstochowa, whither it had retired after its themoment that threatened their destruc-failure at Ivangorod. The Russians were tion, re-enforcements from Warsaw sud- denly attacked the flank and rear of Von Hindenburgs encircling movement, and the battle of Lodz began. The tables were turned. The Germans were in peril of extinction. An entire army corps sur- rendered. But aid was rushed to them and they cut their way out of the Slav net. The Russians fell back from Lodz, and ultimately took positions along the up Bzura river, twenty miles west of War- saw. Thus began a long trench siege paralleling the Vistula from west of War- saw to the Galician boundary. The Maharaja of Patiala visited the Western frontThis photo shows the Maharaja of Patiala inspecting For months there was bitter fightingone of the big camouflaged British guns on the Westernfront. along the entrenched front in Poland, and
  • 109. 112 RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORYcampaign and counter campaign in the They crossed the San, abandoned Prze-Baltic provinces and East Prussia. The mysl, after an effort to rally and hold it,Russians met disaster at the Mazurian and back on Lemberg. They lost felllakes, but carried out a sweeping offensive Lemberg on June 22, and a week laterin Galicia and the Carpathians, already Mackensen turned his attack north, be-described, and it was this success that hind the fortified line of the Vistula.brought upon them the third and greatest Meantime Von Hindenburg was press-German drive. ing the battle hard in the Baltic provinces. General Von Mackensen came upon By the middle of July a tremendousthe scene as the leader of this final attack struggle was in progress on a 900 mileA busy scene on a road just behind the lines. The company at the right are resting prior to taking up their march again.upon the armies of the czar. He massed front, with Warsaw and Ivangorod as thethe greatest concentration of artillery main objectives of the Austro-Germanthat had been seen up to that time on the forces. They fell on August 5 and 6.eastern front against the Russian Donajec By the end of August the Germans hadline. On May 3, 1916, he opened fire with reached Brest Litovsk.all his guns. The czar suddenly came from Petro- The Russian front was shattered. grad to the battle front, removed theMackensen captured 30,000 prisoners and Grand Duke Nicholas from command ofdrove his enemy in hasty retreat eastward. the armies, and placed himself at their
  • 110. RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORY 113head. Hut it did not stay the retreat. In the hands of men entrusted with militarythe middle of September Von Hinden- administration.burg drove tin- HUSM.MUS across the Dvina, But worse than graft was the treacheryand Von Mackensen occupied Pinsk, on of officials, in some cases generals and samethe edge of the marshes that bear the lesser officials, who sold secrets to the foe.name. The knowledge of these things began to Then only was the Austro-German ad- reach the men in the trenches. They hadvance halted. It succeeded in gaining been forced at times to fight with nail-vast territory, and penetrating far into studded clubs instead of rifles. WhenRussia, but it failed to destroy the Rus- they learned that they were being robbedsian armies. They had escaped thru the and betrayed sedition spread thru theirmasterly leadership of the Grand Duke. ranks.Advancing over newly conquered territory held its djfficulties. As many as thirty Tommies were needed to move this big gun. They had escaped the enemy; but they Desertions were numerous during thehad not escaped the corruption, misman- winter of 1916-1917. The armies heldagement and betrayal that obtained be- their positions, but chiefly because Ger-hind their lines in the Russian bu- many did not care to press her advancereaucracy. further. She was busy fomenting trouble The Russian rank and file was hungry, in the Russian empire. Her agents dis-wearied, and ill-supplied with arms and covering the increasing dissatisfaction inmunitions. Graft reeked in Russia. Of- the army, were promoting it. Mutinyficials enriched themselves at the expense would serve equally as well as a victoryof their armies. Supplies often failed to won by direct attack.reach the soldiers, finding their way into A plot to induce Russia to make a sepa-
  • 111. fafaOUMQJi iffiUWSO nnktOQQhH I (dHH-IT.PwHwKH
  • 112. Kissi s Tiru;i( STOKY llorat- peace was being engineered fromBerlin with tin- aid of disloyal membersof llu- go eminent at lYtrograd. It issaid tin- e/arina was not wholly innocentof participation in tins conspiracy againstthe empire and its allies. Tlu- winter passed with much sufferingon the- front for the rank and file of theRussian armi- There was some activity in easternGalicia. Komnania had hecn invaded,and the Russians were looked upon as hernatural helpers, but intrigue preventedaid coining in effective form until it wastoo late, and the little country went theway of others that had felt the crushingheel of German militarism. First Tommies crossing the Somme over a roughly With spring then- came increasing un- constructed bridge into tnrt-d by the British. Peronne, which was cap-rest in Russia. The world heard onlyrumors of it, but persons in Petrograd from the Petrograd garrison joined thesaw signs of a coming storm. workers. The following day the Duma The first lightning flash from the gath- met in defiance of the czars orders, andering clouds was the killing of the Monk a message was sent to the czar, who wasRasputin, a mysterious and notorious in- then on the front with his armies, de-dividual who had for long been a courtfavorite, exercising a strange influence manding his abdication.over the czarina and, at times, over the Meantime the capital city was in tur-czar. It was believed that Rasputin was moil. The workers were fighting theintriguing for Prussia, and giving his aid police, who, armed with machine guns,to what were known as the "Dark held houses and on roofs, positions inForces," an unscrupulous cabal of court-iers and officials whose chief concern was from which they attempted to slay theto profit at the empires expense, and to clamoring mob in the streets. Cossackskeep themselves in advantageous posi- were called in to ride down the people astions for the purpose. They represented they had in many another such emer-the extreme of reaction, and opposed gency: but this time the Cossacks refusedevery movement of a liberalizing char- to do the murderous workacter. assigned them, and treated the crowd with smiling con- The news that the body of Rasputin sideration.had been thrown into the Xeva aroused The czar is said to have been servedimmense enthusiasm among those wholooked for the day when Russia would with the demand for his abdication while aboard train en route for Petrograd, aescape the clutches of its exploiters. It whither he was hastening to face the revo-seemed to be the spark in the powder, andthe explosion followed lutionary crisis that had arisen so sudden- quickly. He accepted the destiny prescribed ly. On March 11, 1917, a revolutionary for him without argument, and asked onlyMiovement started in Petrograd. Soldiers that he be allowed to go to his palace in
  • 113. 116 RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORYthe Crimea and spend his days among hisflowers. This request was denied. Hewas taken to Petrograd and there placedin confinement. A new cabinet was formed with PrinceLvoff, a Russian patriot of democraticspirit, as its leader. It was a coalitioncabinet, including the cadet party, a con-servative democratic element, and thesocialists of the less radical type, repre-sented by Kerensky. Its life was comparatively brief. Itmade way more thoroly for a cabinet so- under Kerensky.cialistic For a time the world hoped much fromthis extraordinary little man, who, in apuny frame, combined a fiery spirit andkeen intelligence. But the extreme social-ist element was not satisfied with theFabian tactics of- Kerensky, who at-tempted to hold Russia true to the allies,continue the war, and readjust internalconditions on a basis of representative Sir John French, former Commander of Victoriousgovernment similar to that of the United British Expeditionary Forces in 1914.States. The extremists, known as bolsheviki, aword that means simply majority, main- ernment; they did know the soviet, or local council, and the shrewd bolshevikitained a constant agitation, harassingKerenskys government at every step. appealed to this knowledge with theTheir attitude lent itself most conveni- promise of administration thru Soviets.ently to German plans, and Germany A returned expatriate, a Russian Jew,flooded Russia with agents who joinedwith the bolsheviki in an effort to pull who called himself Trotzky, was one ofdown what might have developed into a the most aggressive and influential bol-stable and efficient government. shevik leaders. He, like Kerensky, pos- The peasants and the soldiers were sessed great powers of eloquence. Asso-urged to demand peace and an immediate ciated with him was a man name Lenine,distribution of the land and other prop- a fanatic, whose only aim in life was toerty. Kerensky used all his eloquence to overthrow the capitalist systems of theimpel the armies to maintain the fight world. In this effort he was willing toagainst Germany, and to encourage the take help from any quarter. It is not nec-people in support of the war; but it mad It essary to question his sincerity.proved unavailing. was quite compatible with honesty of con- His convene a constituent as- effort to viction that he should accept help fromsembly for the purpose of drafting a new Germany in moneyor men, and there isconstitution was defeated by the bolshevik The ignorant peasantry of little doubt that he did. It was traitorousagitation.Russia knew nothing of constituent as- to Russia and freedom, but it was loyalsemblies and constitutional forms of gov- enough to his own lunatic dream.
  • 114. KTSSIAS TRAGIC STORY 117 Between these men succeeded in over- United States, the latter by now a bellig-throwing Kerensky, and seizing the gov- erent, looked with alarm on the situation.ernment. Anarchy followed, marked by The possibility of German control in Rus-bloodshed and destruction of property. sia constituted a new menace. AlreadyThe Russian armies, now reduced to a German troops released from service onhelpless strength by desertions, were or- the east front were appearing on the west-dered demobilized, and the bolshevik ern front, and Germany was replenishingregime opened negotiations with the her depleted stores from Russian gran-enemy for peace. aries. Some day, if the extension of her There followed a series of conferences power was not checked, she might even British Torpedo Boat Destroyer "Viking.at Brest Litovsk between the bolshevik recruit new armies from among the Rus- and the German, Austrianrepresentatives sian people. Plans were formulated toand Bulgarian delegates. They ended by stay her progress. Commissioners werethe enemy imposing terms upon Russia 8ent to help the Russian people. Theythat stripped her of the Baltic provinces, were able to do little. Finally it was de-Poland, the Ukraine, and the region of termined to send allied forces into Russia,the Caucasus. and troops representing the western allies, Russia lay open to German exploita- Japan and the United States landed attion, and itwas carried on with pitiless Vladivostok, while others were landed atenergy. The western allies and the Archangel and on the Murman coast.
  • 115. 118 RUSSIAS TRAGIC STORY Inspection of a destroyed tunnel entrance on the Western Front at Cambrai.
  • 116. Italy and The Little Nations CHAPTER VIII ITALY ENTERS THE WAR ITALY ENTERS AUSTRIA ITALIAN SUCCESSES AUSTRIA REINFORCED BY (.KKMANY HECKS ITALIAN DRIVE ITALIAN i ARMY DEMORALIZED STAND MADE AT PIAVE RIVER SERBIA ENTIRELY ()ER RUN MONTENEGRO CAPITULATES ROUMANIA SIGNS PEACE TERMS BRITISH FAILURE IN GALL1POLI CAMPAIGN GENERAL ALLENBY StvcESSFUL IN HOLY LAND CONSTANTINE OF GREECE FLEES GREECE JOINS ALLIES. Before the war began Italy was the Austria-Hungary, altho for years anally of Germany and Austria-Hungary. ally, was not loved. In the days of herThe was of a defensive kind. alliance victory over Italy, when the former Ital-Kaeh of the three nations was pledged to ian provinces were seized, she had delim- ited a boundary which gave her possessioni-o to the help of either or both of theothers in the event of an attack. of all the advantageous heights and im- portant passes thru the Alps. Thus she Immediately after the declarations of had been a menacing neighbor, and thewar made by Germany against Russiaand France, Italy declared her neutral- from Italys side, had been con- alliance, She took the ground that the central summated largely in order to safeguardity. the possibility of another attack and in-empires had been the aggressors, and that vasion.she was under no obligation to join theminanything but a defensive war. This The demand for war became so insis-prompt action destroyed the triple alli- tent in Italy that the government wasance, and in its place there gradually de- forced to yield. Xo doubt existed thatveloped the quadruple alliance of Ger- Italy went to war on the motion of hermany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and people rather than at the behest of herBulgaria the three latter countries be- king, or of her military leaders. On Mayin^, in fact, the vassal allies of Germany, 22, 1915, she declared war on Austria.executing her will and cooperating in her Her declaration of war on Germany didplans for a Pan-German empire of Mid- not come until more than a year later,dle Europe with an Asiatic annex in August 27, 1916.Syria, Mesopotamia and the remoter east. Italys plan of campaign was to hold Italy maintained her neutrality until the mountain frontier along the TrentinoMay 1JH.~>. In the interval the country region and the Carnic Alps, and to makewas disturbed by continual agitation. A her offensive against the Isonzo riverstrong and popular war party came into front of the enemy, with Goritz andexistence. It was provoked by the fact Trieste as her chief objectives.that Italy in earlier wars had been de- She had vast difficulties to overcome.prived of territory in the Trentino, in the The work of the Italian engineers in mak-region of the Isonzo river, Trieste andI stria. This territory, in which a popu- ing possible a warfare largely conducted in snow clad and cloudlation of Italian birth or ancestry capped mountains prepon- is one of the marvels of the great. struggle.derated, Mas known as Italia Irredenta,or Italy unredeemed, and there was loud The Isonzo river front presented greatelan ioi- fur Its recovery. . obstacles to successful campaigning. The
  • 117. 120 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS Latin retirement from the positions that threatened Goritz and Trieste. It began on May 16, 1916, and was checked by June 3. In that short space, however, the Austrians pushed through the moun- tains, captured the Arsiero region and reached the edge of the Italian plains. They were within twenty-five miles of their objective when the Latins brought them to a halt, and began a counter offen- sive that gradually reconquered all the lost territory. The Italians were aided in bringing this serious menace to a sharp conclusion by the sudden drive of General Brussiloff into Bukowina and Galicia. Austrian troops had to be withdrawn from the Trentino front to meet the new Rus- sian advance. There followed a period of more or less desultory fighting, and then Italy launched another great drive on the Ison- zo front. It began in early August, 1916. The Goritz bridgehead and the Carso plateau were the objectives.Edith Cavell, whose execution by the Germansshocked the world. The attack came as a surprise to the Austrians, who had their hands prettyAustrians held the commanding positions well occupied with keeping the Russiansand were strongly fortified. They had out of Lemberg. It opened on Augustto divert strength from the Russian front 6, the Latin guns concentrating their firein order to meet the new assault, but they on Sabatino, San Michele and the bridgewere able to maintain a defense that de- across the Isonzo that was protected bymanded supreme these mountain positions. On August 8, efforts on the part of in a great chargeItaly. they stormed and crossed the bridge, took the mountain for- The campaign went slowly. Italian tifications and reached Goritz. The cityforces reached Austrian soil on the west fellthe following day, while the Italiansbank of the Isonzo, and nibbled at the drove forward routing the Carso posi-edges of the Carso plateau, over which tions of the enemy.lay the road to Trieste. A small advance Across the Carso plateau, south of Go-was made into the Trentino, but was soonhalted. ritz, lies the road to Trieste. On August 11, the advance continued along a twelve- Then Austria summoned its strength mile front. The whole Doberdo plateaufor a counter offensive. A great effort was .occupied, and further gains made onwas planned to destroy the Italian armies, the Carso. Oppacchiasella was taken theand end the menace that was interfering next day. The advanced line of the Latinwith the operations against Russia. The army reached positions within thirteenAustrian offensive in the Trentino was a miles of Trieste. The offensive restedwell conceived plan to reach the Italian with this for a few weeks, to be resumedplains and cut the rail communications in September, when morewith the Isonzo front, thus ground was compelling a gained on the Carso plateau.
  • 118. ITALY AM) TIIK LITTLE NATIONS 121 In October and November the fightingshifted to the Trentino and other sectorsof the Italian front, but the wedge hadbeen driven far in toward Trieste, and theItalians were well placed for further suc-cessful operations. They resumed their attacks in May,1917, after a winter and spring that wasmarked by no significant events on eitherside. Under the leadership of GeneralCadorna they made amazing progress,sweeping over the Bainsizza plateau,northeast of Goritz, and taking practical-ly the whole of the Carso plateau. Trieste and Laibach were both men-aced by these victories. Austrian collapseseemed a not improbable result of thegreat defeats suffered by the Hapsburgarmies. Then came a sudden reversal of affairs.Victory had thrown Cadorna off hisguard. On the northern end of his Isonzofront enemy agents had been surreptiti- Lieut. H. T. C. Walker, of the British Royal Navy,ously corrupting and demoralizing his troops. hero of the British naval attack on Zeebrugge. Like lightning from a sky uncloudedthe bolt the region of Caporetto. fell in enormous numbers of guns and quantitiesThe enemy struck with large forces and of ammunition. Cadorna /ell back fight-important elements of the Italian second ing delaying actions until he had crossedarmy, instead of resisting, threw down the Piave. Here he made his stand untiltheir arms and allowed the foe to advance he was disposed of and succeeded by Gen-unhindered. eral Diaz. This disaster threatened to overwhelm Then followed a long siege and a stub-the Italian forces, whose greater numbersand most effective troops were on the east- born defense.The allies sent aid to Italy. British and French troops left the west-ern front, holding the two plateaus and ern front, and later some American unitsthe intervening valley beyond the Isonzo.The enemy was on their flank and headed joined them, and took up positions in the Italian line.with little to check him toward the mainlines of communication upon which the For a long time the situation was peri-Italian armies were absolutely dependent lous. Atplaces the Austrians crossed thefor safe retreat. Piave. They attempted to drive down from the Asiago plateau, and repeat their The situation developed into a race be-tween the enemy and the Italians for earlier success. German aid was freely extended to them. They had indeed beenUdine, the main railroad center. TheItalians won in sufficient numbers to save helped by the Germans in the original drive that compelled Italys retreat.a large part of their great force. But atragic part was lost. The enemy cut off But repeated offensives failed to shakeand captured some 250,000 prisoners and the Italian line, and in the summer of
  • 119. 122 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS
  • 120. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATION * 123 c (4 u V o tt o. > _<_ O
  • 121. 124 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS claiming the right of independence and self-government. The Germans and Magyars parted company; the Czecho- slovaks and the Jugo- Slavs established republics. When the full story of the war is writ- ten there will be no more brilliant chapter in it than that which tells of how Serbia, in its early months, routed the Austrian forces and drove them from her soil. With the Belgians, the Serbs have earned title to be considered among the bravest of peoples. Belgrade was under bombardment by August 1, and in the third week in Aug- ust an Austrian army that had crossed the Drina was routed at the Jedar, and driven back to its own territory. Then the tables were turned. Serbians and Montenegrins swarmed into Bosnia, and approached Serajevo. This continued through Sep- tember. With the coming of October, the It may Austrians regained the initiative. Their German dead in their front line trenches.be horrible and that but all it was the only way of army had been re-enforced. They haddefeating the Kaiser. some German aid. Crossing the Drina again they moved forward until they had1918 Italy countered. She cleaned the reached the Oriental railroad, runningwestern bank of the Piave of all hostile from Belgrade to Constantinople, throughforces and regained important positions Nish and Sofia. Belgrade was caught onon the northern mountain front. Then flank and rear, and the garrison had toshe halted. evacuate it and retreat. The great climax came late in October The Austrians reached Valievo. Theyand early in November of 1918, when, were on the high road to conquest. Thenwith the Germans in full retreat on .thewestern front, Italy struck again. The happened one of the most dramatic eventsAustrian lines broke; demoralization in the whole war an event never to bespread thru the ranks the armies fled be- ; forgotten. On December 9, 1914, withfore the pursuing allied forces, and thus the shattered forces of the Serbians giv-routed their commander was forced to ing way before the enemy, there rodethrow up his hands and ask for an armis- the erect and Venerabletice. upon the field figure of King Peter. The white haired It was granted. Its drastic terms were monarch rallid his discouraged troops, andequivalent to a complete surrender. Italy leading them in person, swept forwardoccupied the Trentino, the Isonzo region, against the enemy. The astonished Aus-Trieste, Istria and the Dalmatian coast. trians were beaten, routed, driven back In the debacle that followed for thedual monarchy the emperor abdicated, and from Valievo, from Belgrade backthe patchwork empire of central Europe across Drina and Save and Danube, untilbroke up into several parts, each the soil of Serbia was free from the foot
  • 122. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 125of her foe. It was a scene belonging tothe warfare of centuries gone a scenewe are not likely to see repeated in thehistory of the world. Serbia remained free until the Great.Mackensen drive began in October, 1915. Von Mackensen had displayed hismilitary talents in the campaign againstRussia. He was fresh from the scenes ofvictory. With an army of 400,000 menhe hurled himself against the Serbs. TheAustrian force that had unsuccessfully at-tempted to overrun the little country ofpeasant heroes was greatly strengthenedby German troops, and the leadership ofGermanys most brilliant strategist gavethe new campaign an element of dangerfar exceeding the earlier effort. The Serbs fought courageously, but The British Advance in the West. Trenches captured from the Germans during the great British offensive inthey were outnumbered and outgunned. the West.Moreover by the middle of the month theywere treacherously struck on the flank by bia. Nish was captured on November 7,Bulgaria, who entered the war as a Teu- and the Bulgars sweeping west reachedton ally. King Constantine of Greecemade a scrap of paper of his treaty Monastir by November 19. month A later the Anglo-French forces, that hadpledging aid to Serbia, and, although theallies landed forces at Saloniki, they were attempted to push up the Vardar valley,unable to advance with sufficient strength fell back to Saloniki. The conquest ofand rapidity to afford the Serbians aid. Serbia was complete. But a large part of the Serbian army Belgrade fell on October 10. By Oc-tober 28 the Bulgars and Teutons had had escaped in one of the most terribleeffected a junction in northeastern Ser- retreats of history, across the snowy mountains of Albania. That army, reor- ganized, was now back on Serbian soil, fighting with a magnificent courage for the redemption of its fatherland. Mona- stir, that fell into the hands of the Bulgars in November, 1915, was once again in pos- session of the Serbs inNovember, 1916. Serbia remained, except for a narrow fringe in the Monastir region, a con- quered land until the late summer of 1918. Then began an attack by the allied armies, in which the Serbs played a mag- nificent part, that routed the Bulgar troops, left to hold the Macedonian front, Britishoutposts ever on watch for enemy attacks, and brought the surrender of Bulgaria.This photograph shows an alert outpost in the YpresSalient. A few weeks later the Serbs were back at
  • 123. 126Belgrade, and when Germany and Aus- Russia, but Russia was in the hands oftria signed armistice terms, they had traitors and German agents, and the helpcrossed the Danube and stood on Austrian she sent was wholly inadequate. Vonsoil. Mackensen threatened Bucharest from the east, and Von Falkenhayn attacked Roumanias participation in the war the Roumanian armies in Transylvania.was a tragic disappointment to herselfand to her allies. She hesitated a long Between two fires the little country was Its forces that hadtime under pressure from both sides, and helpless. intrepid crossed the Carpathians began a retreatfinally reached decision in August 1916to join the entente countries against the before Von Falkenhayn. They foughtcentral empires. Once the decision was courageously every step of the road, and Duke of Connaught, accompanied by General Currie and other Canadian officers, inspecting Canadian soldiers.reached she acted with more precipitation gave ground only when defense was nothan wisdom. On August 27 she began longer possible. November was a monthan invasion -of Transylvania, throwing of repeated disasters, and on Decemberher armies across the Carpathians and 6 the enemy entered the capital.making swift advances. Russian aid then screened the shattered Then the redoubtable Von Mackensen Roumanian army while it retired beyondwas sent to subdue her. He struck her the Sereth, and for months thereafter,in the flank, using Bulgaria as a base and until the revolution ended Russian re- sistance, the Slav forces held the Danube-driving north into the Dobrudja, betweenthe Danube and the Black Sea. She tried Sereth front against the foe.to hold him. A distress call was sent to When Russia entered the peace con-
  • 124. ITALY AM) TIM: LITTLK NATlOVs 1L>7 King of Belgium and Ptafl".ference of Brest Litovsk and thru its bol- March Harsh terms were imposed 4.shevik agentsmade terms with the enemy, upon Roumania by the enemy. TheHoumania was forced to follow in a like littlecountry could only pray that alliedhumiliating surrender. The Brest victory in the west front would bring herLitovsk treaty was signed on March 2, deliverance.1918, and the armistice of Bucharest on The little nations of Europe were not
  • 125. 128 The Magnificent Cathedral at Reims, France.
  • 126. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONSthe only ones affected by the war. The{u-ople of Armenia and Syria and Meso-potamia pressure under the felt its tragiccampaigns of the Turks. Turkey, as an ally of the central em-pires, served the important end to themof keeping the Dardanelles and Constan-tinople out of the hands of Russia andthe allies, and thus preserving the bridgefrom Europe to Asia over which Ger-many planned to construct her greatHamburg to Bagdad highway. Great Britain was vitally interested inthis phase of the struggle. Her posses-sions in India and her suzerainty inEgypt were menaced by the Prussian am-bition, and by the vassal aid that Turkeywas giving to Berlin. Hence, early inthe war, she made two efforts to checkthe Turk and his German master. One of these Was the Gallipoli cam- Photograph of M. Raymond Poincaire elected president of the French Republic, January 17, 1913. His term of office is seven years. paign, in which France joined her. It was a daring but disastrous adventure. It had for its object originally the forcing of the Dardanelles by a naval attack. The and French warships pene- British trated the Narrows for some miles, but under the fire from the shore batteries, and facing the subtle perils of mines and submarines, they were compelled to de- . . sistafter several great vessels including the Bouvet, the Ocean and the Irresistible had been sunk. Then it was decided to land troops on the Gallipoli peninsula, constituting the northern side of the straits. The plan was to take the shore batteries, occupy the peninsula, menace Constantinople from the land, and, with the straits freed from enemy control, to enter the Black SeaMadam Poincaire, wife of the President of France. with the navy. Had the plan succeeded
  • 127. 130 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS fighting qualities and great daring earned for them the admiration of the world. These troops known as the Anzacs oc- cupied positions near Suvla bay. The Turks had been allowed time to occupy and fortify the peninsula, and they made a stubborn resistance. There are no better fighters when they are well officered than the soldiers of the Sultan, and they were organized and under the command of Germans in many instances. Month after month was marked by a bit- ter and costly conflict. Allied gains were slow. Left to right, Marshal Joseph Joffre, one of the Early in August 1915 the British had French Commissioners Ambassador Jules Jusserand. ; a great opportunity to win a decisive vic- tory. In the Suvla bay region, where theTurkey would have been utterly crushed. peninsula is narrower than at some other On April 21, 1915, troops were landed points, the Turk had been defeated andunder heavy fire at various points on the was in retreat. Had the retreat been fol-peninsula. British and French troops lowed up by an instant renewal of attack,cooperated. A large element of the Brit- the British might have cut across theish force was composed of Australians peninsula, isolating the Turks on itsand New Zealanders, whose magnificent western end from their base. But thereThe destruction of Louvain. A view of the famous Cathedral cf St. Pierre known the world over its famous chimes.
  • 128. l/J rt ""o Vu 53.= at si </> u15 ,.E< c/i *C
  • 129. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONSas some failure on the part of tin com-mand, and tlie opportunity was lost. Tin-Turks were given time to rally and obtainre-en foreements. As a result of this fail-ure General Sir Ian Hamilton was re-called, and Major General Munro sentto succeed him. Butthe change in command did notgreatly help the situation. In December1915 it was decided to abandon the cam-paign, and the British were withdrawnfrom the Suvla bay region. The follow-ing January the remainder of the alliedforces bade farewell to the peninsula,leaving behind many a wooden cross tomark the graves of heroes who had diedin vain. Concurrently with the Gallipoli cam-paign the British had begun a campaignin Mesopotamia and had been compelledto defend their Egyptian front. The Mesopotamian campaign openedin November 1914, when Basra wasseized at the northern end of the PersianGulf. The British were impelled by theneed of preventing Germany securingaccess to the Gulf, where the establish-ment of a naval base would have been adirect threat to India. They were alsointent upon blocking Germanys roadthru Bagdad to Persia. Already Germanagents were busy in Persia instigatingrevolt. By seizing Basra a base was obtainedfrom which Great Britain could controlthe Arab tribes, whom Turkey, as Berlinsagent, was attempting to enlist in a "holywar." Operations went slowly at first, A Zeppelin over Paris. A Zeppelin sighted over Paris boulevards. It can be plainly seen in thisbut successfully. In November 1915 the picture.British had occupied Kut-el-Amara onthe Tigris, about half way north to Bag- General Aylmer and Sir Percy Lake at-dad, and General Townshend was nearingthe ancient city of the tempted to reach the city with re-enforce- caliphs. ments and raise the siege, but failed before Then came a serious reverse. Within the On powerful Sannayat position.eighteen miles of Bagdad the British were April 29, 1916, after 117 days, Generalrouted by the Turks, and forced to re- Townshend surrendered to the Turks.treat. They fell back to Kut, and there His garrison had been starved into sub-stood. The Turks besieged the city. mission.
  • 130. 134
  • 131. Heavy Gun Supposed to Have Been the Type to Shell Paris, a Distance of 7"> Miles. It was a humiliating termination to the advance against them was continued with-firststage of a promising campaign. But out interval. On March 11 he enteredthe British gre not easily daunted. In the Bagdad. From that time on the Turkfollowing December, with a new army , was always in retreat. Expeditionaryunder the command of General Maude, forces drove many miles north beyondthey resumed the campaign. On Feb- Bagdad, and northwest along the Eu-ruary 24, 1917, they re-entered Kut. The phrates toward Aleppo.Turks were badly demoralized, and the In the meantime General Allenby was conducting his Palestine campaign. The Turks had been routed on the Egyptian front, and the British had crossed the des- ert of Sinai, and entered the Holy Land on its southern border. On March 27 they met the main forces of the enemy near Gaza and defeated them with heavy losses. For some months thereafter progress was slow. Roads had to be constructed and communications maintained across the desert with the base in Egypt. All the fresh water for the British army was brought across the des- ert in conduits. In the autumn of 1917, however, Gen- eral Allenby got his movement under way. Beersheba was taken on October 31. - Gaza and Jaffa, the latter the Medi- terranean port of Jerusalem, fell in Copper hands on the gigantic shell used in the November. As drew near tht Christinas .?; ^ ^1^" ofparu -rl<l awaiU-,1 with expectancy news that
  • 132. 136 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS H~ M . <j 8 I- i bo c S 8.1 V 3 sl . o ** c rt X M ^ " w rt _: ^2 ^="5 w o
  • 133. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 137the Holy City itself had returned toChristian occupation and control. It wasthought General Allenby might time itscapture for Christmas day, but beingmore of a soldier than a sentimentalist, hetook it at the first opportunity and en-tered it on modest recognition of foot, inits sacred character, on December 11. The fall of Jerusalem marked the be- Elongatedginning of the end for Turkey in Syria. Fals* Cap of sheet- ironDuring 1918 General Allenby continuedhis northward progress, slowly overcom-ing natural obstacles and enemy opposi-tion. Aleppo, the gateway to Asia Minor,was his goal. Once at important thisjunction point, where the railroadbranches to go east toward Bagdad and Riflingsouth toward Mecca, he knew the whole AYof Syria and Mesopotamia would be in xtm keJt ,;-i over the DiaphragmChristian hands. rifling Early in October his long journeyended. He reached Aleppo, and the Rif.mjTurkish armies still left in northern Meso-potamia were cut off from Constantinople. -Fust rtopperOn the last day of October Turkey sur-rendered. Armenians and Thus theSyrians were freed from the tyranny of - - . Bottom "** *rc*"r,~- the Ottoman empire, but not before un-told thousands of them had suffered hor-rors that cannot be named, and multitudes A diagram of the mammoth shell, probably the one used immense gun located in St. Gobain woods in thehad perished from starvation and abuse. which bombarded Paris a distance of seventy-five miles. The destruction caused by these gigantic shells was very great, and the Parisians were continually in a In the indictment of Germany must be state of terror until the Allies made a concentrated attack and drove the German forces beyond the Parischarged not only the atrocities she per- range.petrated on the people of Belgium andFrance, but the brutal massacres in Ar- Germany violated a treaty to enter Bel-menia, carried out by her vassal allywithout a word of protest or a restraining gium.finger from Berlin. The allies entered Greece to keep a treaty. Thepart that Greece played in the warwas not understood by many people. Germany entered Belgium by violence.There were those who charged the allied The allies entered Greece by invitationnations with treating Greece as Germany of tin- constitutional government, ofhad treated Belgium. Here are the facts: which Venizelos was then premier.
  • 134. 138 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS O a >. H
  • 135. ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 139 Germany killed Belgians and burnedtheir towns. The allies respected the lives and prop-erty of the Greeks. Germany bled Belgium white withtaxation. The allies kept Greece alive with loans. Great Britain, France and Russia werethe three powers that gave Greece its in-dependence and placed the father of Con-stantine on the throne. They were obli-gated by treaty to preserve the dynastyand the constitutional government ofGreece. The treaty further providedthat they might land troops on Greek soilby common agreement among themselvesin order to fulfill their treaty obligations. When Constantine refused to recognizethe vote of the people that returned theVenizelist government after its forcedresignation he over-threw constitutionalgovernment. This fact justified the pres-ence of the allies in Greece, aside from Capt. George Guynemer, the leading French avia- tor, and Lieut. Vossc, (in oval), a leading Germantheir invitation, and aside from the fact aviator, meet death at almost the same time.that they were there to fulfill for Greeceher treaty pledge to Serbia, which Con-stantine refused to keep. In the last year of the war the Greeks, freed from the incubus of a Berlin-con- When Constantine fled from Greece he trolled monarch, joined with the Serbs,knew that evidence of his base treacheryhad been discovered. He was the con- Italians, French and British in drivingscious tool of Germany. His plea to be the Bulgar from the soil of Macedonia.permitted to remain neutral was a dis- The spirit of Greece was always with thehonest plea. He was never neutral. allies. French Troops Going Over the Top and Entering the Enemys Wire Entanglements,
  • 136. 140 ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS ho rt "c w 3 u E <
  • 137. (x. c8I
  • 138. u- u > o "5 ^p - 6 Jf H w a
  • 139. BRITISH MACHINES CHASING THE GERMAN SCARLET SCOUTS..Our fighting planes have intercepted and caused to turn tail a squadron of German Scarlet Scouts.
  • 140. 1 J Ou - - "- - c bo 3 O O *- O O.:. < S3OS.Or -- bo NoO o rt j= C ^ fc -0-5<u <u rt^3 O. O,-t a aHV < <n C3 " urt 3
  • 141. The War On The Sea CHAPTER IX BRITISH FLEET MASTER OF SEAS GERMAN SEA RAIDS STOPPED - U. S. AUGMENTS KKITISH SEA FORCES - BATTLE OFF JUTLAND U-BOAT WARFARE I USITANIA SUNK. In no war since the beginning of the to Archangel. To reach the Macedonianworld has the sea played a part so im- front she had to travel the length of theportant as in this war. most dangerous of all the seven seas the Consider a moment the position of the Mediterranean. If the Mediterraneancentral empires, and then the position of had been created for the express purposethe allied nations. of making things easyfor the U-boats, itsconfiguration could not have been im- There was no fighting front of decisive proved upon. In order to reach the Meso-significance that Germany and Austria- potamian front Great Britain had to riskHungary could not reach by land, and these same waters, and continue thru thethere was none, except the Mesopotamia!! Red Sea to the Persian Gulf a distanceand Syrian fronts, more than 500 miles of 9,000 miles.from Berlin. Half a million soldiers came 3,000 miles The central powers and their vassal al- across the Atlantic to fight with theirlieshad land communication. The trans- British comrades, and were kept contin-port of troops and materials could be done ually supplied by transport between Can-wholly by rail, and without risk of attack ada and the front for four years. Halfby the enemy, or of any enemy interfer- a million came round Good Hope or thruence. the Suez from Australia and New Zea- For example in shifting her armies land, and were in like manner provided.back and forth between the French andRussian fronts France sent troops to the and risked east Germany ran no danger the perils of the sea. Italy, washed by theof loss thru hostile efforts. She couldmove men and guns to the Macedonian Mediterranean, was dependent upon seaand Mesopotamia!! fronts without consid- transport for food and coal and almost every other essential.ering the possibility that her enemieswould block their road of travel or de- And all these countries relied uponstroy them en route. America as a source of supply, and upon the Atlantic as a line of communication But Great Britain could not reach any with the food, and munitions and raw ma-trout without crossing seas or channels. terials of theAmerican market.Every man she sent to war, every ton offood and munitions, had to be protected Filially, the great crisis of the war whenagainst submarine attack. In order to developed, and the life and death strugglekeep contact with her Russian ally Great on the plains of Picardy and the banks ofBritain had to travel thousands of iniU-s theManu was being watched breathlesslyaround the North Cape of Scandinavia, by the world, the whole issue depended 146
  • 142. 146 THE WAR ON THE SEA
  • 143. TIIK VAK OX THE SEA 147N IMIII whether America could get 1, ."><)<),- the great ocean highways with power andooo men across the sea in time. promptitude. It is evident, therefore, that the sea It happened that the British fleet wasconstituted one of the biggest problems mobilized for maneuvers when the warthe allies had to face. They had to make cloud gathered in Europe. Instead ofthe sea safe for transport and serviceable demobilizing it slipped quietly up to aas a line of communication. If they failed rendezvous in northern waters, andin this the war was lost. awaited developments. Thus it was ready As obviously the sea presented to Ger- the instant war was declared to meet andmany her greatest opportunity. It was fight the enemy.the most vulnerable point at which to The enemy, who probably entertainedFrench soldiers moving up to the front. This British official photograph shows a detachment of stocky French poilus marching up to the front lines to meet the Huns.strike her enemies. hopes of a swift descent upon the shores of Great Britain and a sweeping cam- Hencethe struggle for the sea became,in many respects, the supreme struggle paign by fast cruisers against enemy com-of the war. merce, modified his plans. He did not dare to challenge the British fleet to do In this struggle Great Britain played battle.the part that saved the world from a Several enemy cruisers were at largetriumph of Prussianism. Weak as shewas numerically and in material equip- when the war began, notably the Emden.ment for land warfare at the beginning of These engaged in raiding tactics. Theythe war, on sea she was mighty, and she sank many thousands of tons of alliedmoved to the defense of civilization and shipping, ignoring wholly the requirement
  • 144. 148 THE WAR ON THE SEAof international law that their prizes countered a British squadron of lightershould be taken into port to have their armament in the Pacific, off Coronel onstatus determined by a prize court. the coast of Chile. Rear-admiral Crad- dock was in command of the British However commanders of these the squadron. He was maneuvered into anraiders were humane. They made pro- unfortunate position. After a courage-vision for the safety of passengers and ous fight against odds in which he wentcrew, and this consideration entitled themto the respect which even the allies felt down with his flagship, the Good Hope,for their daring and courage. Ger- Had the rest of his squadron, excepting themany confined herself to such operations Monmouth, managed to disengage itself.as the Emden conducted she would not The Monmouth followed the Good Hope Shell from big German gun kills many in Paris nursery. One of the shells fired by the big German gunin the forest of St. Gobans, a distance of about eighty miles from Paris, fell in a nursery and created theawful havoc shown above.have sunk in the eyes of the world to the to the bottom.level of national degradation that now This was the first important naval en-marks her. counter in the war, and it naturally gave But the raiders were pursued and cap- great satisfaction to Germany and hertured one after another. An Australian whom, at this time, she had friends, ofcruiser, the Sydney, ran down the Emden not a few in America and thruout theoff Cocos Island in the Indian ocean on world. The von Spec victory was a blowNovember 9, 1914. at thesupremacy of Britain on the sea. Prior to this, however, a German A month later, on December 8, 1914,squadron, under Admiral von Spec, en- von Spec was cruising north on the oppo-
  • 145. THE WAR ON TIIK SKA 149site sideof the continent. He was look- on allied commerce was left to the U-boat.ing for victims in the region of the Falk- Thestory of the U-boats depredationsland Islands British islands off the coast is too long to tell in detail. The historyof Patagonia. of the war, exhaustively related, will need Concealed in one of the deep harbors a large volume devoted exclusively to theof the Falkland group lay a British U-boatcruiser squadron under the command of It became, at the climax of its destruc-Vice-admiral Sturdee. It was waiting tiveness, the most serious peril the alliesfor the Germans, and as they steamednorthward past the islands, it suddenly had to face, and, in the end, it was thesallied out and attacked. Before the utter undoing of Germany. French warriors on horseback. General Joffre had kept these and nearly all his other mounted men fromwithin rifle range of the Germans. These men, who were photographed while reconnoitering in Sommeregion, were as fine cavalry as the world ever saw. In their two years of service back of the trenches theyhad time. to master the technique of their kind of warfare.enemy fully realized what was happening The U-boats had enjoyed several nota-he had lost his flagship, the Scharnhorst, ble successes in the opening months ofand the battle cruisers Gneisenau, Leip- the war. A number of British war shipszig and Nurnberg. had been sunk, and there was no little un- easiness lest Germany should be able to That incident just about finished the nibble down the strength of Britainssurface efforts of the German navy.Such activities as were later engaged in navy ship by ship.by German battleships took place in On September 5, the light cruiser Path-waters immediately adjacent to Germany finder was sunk by the U-2 at the en-op Great Britain. The waging of war trance to the Firth of Forth; on Septem-
  • 146. 150
  • 147. THK VAK ON TIIK -I. A 1*1her 22 the U-bonts had a fieffl day. Theycaught the armoured cruiser Aboukir inthe <irtli Sea just after she had partedfrom her sister ships the Hogue and theCi-cssy. The Ahoukir was seen to be indistressby the other cruisers, and theywent to her aid. This was exactly whatthe enemy had hoped would happen. Asthey neared the sinking ship each of themreceived in her hull a torpedo from thehiding submarine. All three cruiserswent down with the loss of 1,400 lives.The cruisers were old and almost obsolete.The loss of life was the most serious phaseof the incident. Germany was jubilant.She saw the destruction of the Britishfleet by "attrition". The U-boat com-mander responsible for the coup OttoWeddigen was decorated and became anational hero. But the British had learned a lesson.Instructions were given that in case of aship being torpedoed other ships must notgo to the rescue, but must take every pre-caution to ensure their own safety. Fur-thermore plans were considered andagreed upon for protecting thenavy fromthe war of attrition without in anymeasure lessening its efficacy as a menaceand a blockading force against the enemy. Losses to battle ships in North Sea andAtlantic waters became rare events. Theenemys successes were largely confined tothe Mediterranean, where the problems ofdefense were exceedingly difficult, and thetreachery of the King of Greece mademurder easy for the U-boat. Germany soon realized that she had a Marshal Petain, the Defender of Verdun.long and probably disappointing taskahead of her in an effort to pick off the Germany had scattered mines in thegreat British fleet one ship at a time. Her waters adjacent to the British Isles. Ger-naval experts began to turn their atten- man ships carrying neutral flags had en-tion more definitely to the destruction ofallied commerce. This was wise policy. gaged in this murderous work. It was aTo attack the allied lines of communica- clear violation of international law. Notion and cut off the armies in France, Ma- nation had the right to make the commoncedonia, Egypt and Mesopotamia from highways of the sea unsafe for neutraltlu-ir sources of food supply and muni- shipping and noncombatant merchanttions meant to compel the vessels of the capitulation of enemy by the indiscriminatethe allied countries. placing of mines.
  • 148. 162 THE WAR ON THE SEA
  • 149. TIIK V.U OX Till-. SKA 153 As a consequence of this action (ireat safety crew and passengers. Neutral <>fBritain in November 1914 announced ships were told that they ran danger inthat a safe channel lor neutral shipping entering the zone, as a result of "incidentswould he maintained in the North Sea inevitable in sea warfare."for all ships entering and leaving it by That was the beginning of Germanysthe Straits of Dover. That meant Brit- great U-boat campaign to starve Englandish ships would sweep up enemy mines into submission, Predictions were madeand guarantee safety in the swept and in Germany that Kngland would be com-guarded waters. Ships taking the north- pelled to yield in a comparatively shortern passage did so at their own peril. time.Kemmel Hill Before the Germans Attacked. This was the French commanders post on Mount Kemmel the battle of April 24, when the Germans stormed and captured part of the hill. Von Tirpitz characterized this action of Further was the beginning of the itGreat Britain as the closing of the North long controversy between the UnitedSea to neutrals, and hinted at reprisals. States and Germany over her attempt toThe reprisals came in the announcement make piracy and murder legitimate onof the German government on February the high seas. The declaration of U-boat4, 1915, that the waters surrounding warfare was followed almost at once byGreat Britain and Ireland were a war President Wilsons note warning Ger-region, and that every enemy merchant many that America would hold her toship found in these waters on and after "strict accountability" for offenses againstFebruary 18 would be destroyed, without the law of nations and humanity.guarantee of warning or provision for the To continue the story of the U-boat
  • 150. 154 THE WAR ON THE SEAwar in detail would be merely to relate "Whoever cannot prevail upon himselfsinking after sinking, crime after crime to approve from the bottom of his heartagainst the innocent and the helpless. the sinking of the Lusitania whoeverFrom the torpedoing of merchant ships cannot conquer his sense of the giganticwithout warning the Germans passed to cruelty to unnumbered perfectly innocentthe diabolical practise of shelling open victims, and give himself up to honest de-life-boats with women and children in light at this victorious exploit of Germanthem. defensive power him we judge to be no true German." No brutality was too terrible, and thebrutal deeds were met with rejoicing and was such utterances as these that Itapproval by the German people. To this arguments of men later arose to refute thehour no voice has been raised in Germany who tried to draw distinction between theReal dogs of war on duty in the trenches. People often talked of the "dogs of war" but the dogs they thought of then were far different from these real dogs in the trenches.to condemn the massacres of the seas, or German and the German people. rulersto regret such offenses as the torpedoing After the sinking of the Lusitania moreof the Lusitania and the Sussex. notes were exchanged between the United When the Lusitania was sunk, with a States and Germany, and America beganloss of 1,154 lives, a medal was struck in a long season of waiting for an "overt" act on the part of the enemy an act ofGermany to commemorate the occasion,and Pastor D. Baumgarten, a prominent open and deliberate hostility.German clergyman, in the course of an In August the White Star steameraddress on the Sermon on the Mount, de- Arabic was sunk, struck by a torpedoclared : without warning of any kind. There
  • 151. THE WAR ON THE SEA 155were 424 persons on board of whom 26cre Americans. While the lives of allwere endangered only 80 were lost, ofwhom two were Americans. After some argument Count von Bern-storff,on behalf of his government, dis-avowed the sinking of the Arabic, andassured President Wilson that a recur-rence of like incidents was considered "outof the question." On February 9, 1916, Germany senther last note on the Lusitania affair, inwhich she declared she was willing to paya full indemnity for the lives of Americanvictims as tho that were possible andrepeated the pledge that "unarmed mer-chantmen shall not be sunk without warn-ing and unless the safety of the passen-gers and crew can be assured." And a little less than a month latercame the sinking of the Sussex, with aloss of some 80 lives. The Sussex was a This shows the appearance of some of the fragments of shell found in a street of Paris.channel steamer carrying passengers fromFolfctone to Dieppe. She had 25 Amer-icans on board, some of whom were in- To this Germany replied with the an-jured. The U-boat attacked without any nouncement that the German naval forceswarning and made no effort to save the had received the following orders :victims of its torpedo. "In accordance with the general prin- Germany attempted to evade the Sus- ciples of visit and search and destructionsex issue. She suggested a mine might of merchant vessels recognized by inter-have caused the disaster; she raised the national law, such vessels, both within andpoint that the Sussex was armed, or thatshe was a mine-layer or a without the area declared as a naval war warship of somesort. These assertions and allegations zone, shall not be sunk without warningwere all disproved. and without saving human lives, unless these vessels attempt to escape or offer President Wilson on April 26 sent Ger- resistance."many a note that practically informedher she had been caught in At the same time Germany suggested repeated liesand deceit, and concluded with the omi- that now the United States should exer-nous declaration: cise her influence to make the British gov- "If the Imperial German Government ernment observe the rules of internationalshould not now proclaim and make effec- law, and added that if the British govern-tive renunciation of its present methods ment did not follow the "laws of human-of submarine warfare against passengerand cargo ships, the United States Gov- ity" the German government would feelernment can have no other choice than to it was facing a new situation in which itbreak off completely diplomatic relations must reserve to itself "complete libertywith the German government." of decision."
  • 152. 156 THE WAR ON THE SEA no plate in the controversy. Matters drifted along under this ar- rangement until the beginning of 1917, and then, as elsewhere narrated, the crisis came and the rupture in diplomatic rela- tions as a result of Germanys proclama- tion of unrestricted U-boat warfare. That proclamation was the beginning of a new and serious chapter for the allies. The rate of destruction went up at once. In March, April, May and June of 1917 ships were sunk in such numbers that it looked as if the enemys intentions might be realized, and the surrender of Great Britain and France forced by starvation. The United States, entering the war on Good Friday, brought the help of her genius and industry to the problem. De- vices were invented for detecting the presence of submarines and for destroy- ing them. The depth bomb began to prove of great value. When the arming of merchantmen failed to lessen the sink- ing of ships materially, the convoy system was adopted. It proved the most effec- Camouflaged Big Gun. Mounted on a specially tive method of rendering the U-boatconstructed railroad carriage, this big French 400 harmless.m/m, gun was ready to bang away at the Germanforcesmaking the drive on the Somme front. It wasexceedingly well camouflaged to prevent detection Gradually the U-boat was mastered.by Boche aerial forces. Allied ship-building efforts gained upon the ship-destroying efforts of the foe. The British navy had not occasioned America transported 2,000,000 soldiers tothe loss of a single neutral or non-com- France with practically no losses. Bybatant life. Even in battle with German the summer of 1918 the earlier alarm that the central empires might win the warwarships had uniformly done everything it with the submarine was dissipated. In-in its power to rescue enemy sailors. It stead it was felt that the submarine couldhad bombed no open ports and sunk no do nothing more than delay the issue.merchantmen. It had most scrupulouslyobserved the rules of visit and search, and During the period of the submarine war the British navy had two clashes withthe enemy had beep given his day in the the enemy on the high seas. Vice-Ad-prize court. Its offense was the effective miral Beatty, in command of a Britishblockade of Germany at a point remote patrolling squadron, encountered a Ger-from the German coast and beyond the man raiding squadron in the North Seareach of the U-boats. on January 24, 1915. There was a sharp little fight, in which the enemy battle The impudence of the German reply, cruiser Blucher was sunk, and two otherhowever, lay in making the fulfillment of of his big ships badly damaged. Theher pledges to the United States depend British cruisers Lion and Tiger suffered,upon the conduct of a third party who had but were able to make port under their
  • 153. T1IK AK ON TIIK SEA 157own .strain. The biggest naval battle of the war oc-curml off the coast of Denmark on May V ire-Admiral Beatty, commanding thebattle cruiser squadron, discovered theenemys high sea fleet steaming north and the rcginu of Jutland. It was late rst inin the afternoon, and the weather washazy, but Beatty at once closed in andgave fight. It was his purpose to engageand hold the foe until the British dread-naught fleet could arrive on the scene. The battle raged mightily until dark-ness set in, and the enemy, realizing hisperil, succeeded in slipping away in nightand fog and reaching his own shelteredwaters behind Helgoland. The British lost three battle cruisersthe Queen Mary, Indefatigable and In-vincible; three armored cruisers the De-fense, Warrior and Black Prince, andeight destroyers. The enemy admitted at French Submersible Torpedo-boat Signalling Fleet at Biserta.the time the loss of one battleship, thePommern, one battle cruiser, the Lutzow,four cruisers and five destroyers. glory. She landed storming parties on the mole while being hammered with shells When war ended it developed that the from the enemy shore batteries. A noblehis losses had been far heavier than he wreck she managed to reach port. few Ahad admitted or than the British had weeks later she ventured forth again, andclaimed, and that from May 31, 1916, allowed herself to be sunk at the entranceuntil the hour of final defeat official Ger- to the harbor of Ostend.many knew that its fleet could never again In all the history of the world there hasrun the risk of meeting the British. been no more wonderful spectacle, nor In British naval history, however, no any surrender more utterly humiliating,incidents will live longer or redound more than that which ended the long struggleloudly to the praise of Britain than the upon and beneath the seas.intrepid raids on the submarine bases of When in late November 1918, theZeebrugge and Ostend, on the Belgiancoast. The former took place on the pride of the German navy, great dread-night of April "22-23, 1918. Vice Admiral naughts, battle cruisers, armored cruisersSir Roger Keyes directed the daring ex- and destroyers, steamed sullenly acrosspedition that undertook to destroy the the North Sea and gave themselves up tofortified mole of Zeebrugge and block the waiting fleet of Britain with its alliedthe channel by which access was hadto the canal. Six obsolete British cruisers squadrons of American and French war- took part in the enterprise the Brilliant, ships, thereended the dream of Wilhrlm Iphigenia. Si Hi is, Intrepid, Thetis and Ilohenzollern, the dream of a vast world Vindictive. The last named won great empire, mighty on land and sea.
  • 154. Americas Long Patience CHAPTER X - AMERICA NEUTRAL - - BELGIUM STARVING - - GERMAN PLOTS - - RELATIONS WITH LUSITANIA SUNK KXCHANGE OF NOTES - - AMERICA^ ULTIMATUM. AUSTRIA BROKEN little delay. All over America was slow to discover that she practically and withlived in the world rather than in the west- the country funds were raised for the re-ern hemisphere alone, and that she was liefof Belgium, whose people had beenneighbor to Europe as well as to Mexico, reduced to misery and starvation in a A by the cruelty of the foe. brief space of time When the war began in Europe the ,American people looked upon it as a , When it became apparent that the rr . . f r ~^ c proper administration of American boun-strange and tragic madness of monarcns . .., u- u 4.u u A tv depended upon direct American super-land subject nations, with which they had f ^ an American Commission for the j 1,1 u ^n*w, , t vision,nothing to do, and could have nothing to , . , . . ? Relief of Belgium was named, with Her-do, except as intermediary in an effort to , bert Clark Hoover, an Iowa Darning engineer, as chairman. Mr. Hoover Millions of Americans were shocked proved a won derful organizer, a man ofand outraged by the ruthless treatment generous ileart and grea t executive abil-of Belgium when Germany hurled herself Under his leadership millions of dol- ityacross the little countrys frontier in a lars were raised for the help of King A1 .franticFrance. effort to get at the throat of ^^ O p presse d people, and under his personal direction the money was dis- Some Americans wanted the United bursed for their salvation. For two yearsStates to protest and even to threaten a he labored incessantly, handicapped bydeclaration of war if Germany persisted the frequent refusal of the German ad-in her violation of Belgiums rights and ministrators of Belgium to cooperate orliberty. in any way to facilitate his work. No was taken by the American action The ministry Belgium was Amer- forgovernment, however, and it is probable icas main means of contact with the warthe government faithfully reflected the zone during 1914-15-16. There weresentiment of a majority of the people, at other contacts, but they were all of thethat time. There was very general sym- same sort relief work for the sufferingpathy for Belgium, and wide-spread in- of Serbia, Syria, and Armenia, or ambu-dignation against Germany, but the old lance driving and Red Cross service intradition that America had no lot or part France.in the politics and quarrels of Europe America was neutral. The Officiallyobtained thruout the land, and few would p res de nt i issued declarations of neutral-have been willing to go beyond sympathy new ity as eac h belligerent appeared inand indignation. Europe. Immediately following the first Americas sympathy was shown most outbreak of war, in August 1914, he ap- KA
  • 155. 160 *-*>
  • 156. AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 161 I- t> ** " 2 -S 5^1 u - o t: - o . rt C L. Si x II j g .2 se-f- t>2- s s vs o % 3 _Q <A V V </>" , 2* = 5J.S - K f. o *-*. Z H w oli- -/ * -^ x c? . 8- rtvT^- E * > 5^0 S-B* - - *i5dO b & -^ - t^ ** o w. J3 C O CuC r9 , 4J U ^ a a C .= -r . ,? *^ > i w 51 wi Is 5 l. 13 T- ** J^ o * O ^" s|g rt u r-i C. 2 u c c II Sf g-2- K O c. O KO W^C O il c. t =T3 C -s^ o-E A = fc l-g w w X *- o c 3 t T tn " 8 ^-^k C c * " > * " v ts s^ u - S.T3 ""S^i- III -if .ti w ** 2 B if ,5*5 c _ be o "" ^ w 0> C _*J If* OJJ ag CC - E E EE K/ 2 *rf u TT - fc . . g^^ w -H x o c w v o.2 ^ * - = So oU 3 -^ = 52 E J= fe.-5 * & t j oJ^ ^ 6C J=-5 C. g * t i O j? *- ** 0-f 18 ~ u tf < i c <n , a . w 5 ^ = JS H .Si IS g-23-S 03" "C T3_N O^5 .r- <c x c.r *< x o,w o -
  • 157. 162 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCEpealed to the American people to main- ment, the pride and even the fear oftain a strict neutrality in word and act. German- Americans. Secret organizations The American people made a loyal ef- were formed; oaths of loyalty to thefort toacquiesce in the Presidents kaiser were taken; reservists were drilled.request, and a very large proportion ofthem succeeded admirably but the Amer- ; Agents were hired to go into American and provoke and persuade the industriesican of German birth or descent proved workers to strike. These efforts werein many instances an exception to the loy- directed chiefly to the demoralization ofalty of the majority. the munition factories, or other concerns The United States did not realize at producing goods that were of value tofirst that its citizensof German blood the enemies of Germany. French Advancing Behind a Barrage Fire.were being made the objects of continued At same time agents lobbied in theincitement by German agents in Amer- Congress, while subsidized or misguidedica; but this was true. Had they been newspapers thruout the country sup-left to themselves there is little likelihood ported their efforts to obtain an embargothat any serious trouble would have devel- on the export of munitions, and even onoped. But men on the pay-roll of the the export of foodstuffs.German Ambassador, Count Bernstorff, The propaganda of the BernstorfF-and in the employ of Dr. Dumba, the Dumba organization attempted to makeAustro-Hungarian Ambassador, main-tained a ceaseless propaganda thru chan- the American people believe was unjust itnels and agencies of varied kinds by and, indeed, unlawful to sell guns andwhich they played upon the racial senti- and food to the enemies of shells Germanv
  • 158. AMKKK ANS CO TO FKAXC K jv I u! "rt
  • 159. 164 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE than accidents, or at worst the work of irresponsible fanatics. Then came a day May 1, 1915 when there appeared in the New York news- papers an advertisement. It read as follows: NOTICE! TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain arid her allies;that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, ves- sels flying the flag of Great Britain, or of any of her allies, are liable to destruc- tion in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY Premier Orlando directed Italys War Committee. Washington, D. C., April 22, 1915. Not many people saw this extraor-when Germany was unable to buy them. dinary advertisement, in which a foreignThis was, of course, ridiculous. The government ignored the government ofmanufacturers and producers of the the United States, and talked directly toUnited States had a right to sell to any- the American people in threatening wordsbody who could reach their market and and tone. Those who did see it paidpay their price. It was not their faultthat Germany could not come to New little attention to it.York or Boston or New Orleans and But there were individuals to whomtrade. The obstacle in the way was not came mysterious warnings to avoid sail-American prejudice so much as the Brit-ish fleet and that was an obstacle that ing from New York on the Lusitania,Germany would have had to remove for that was due to steam out of the harborherself. the day after the appearance of the Ger- The refusal of Congress to follow the man Embassys menacing notice. Somepromptings of the kaiser thru Count of them heeded these warnings. OthersBernstorff and his agents, provoked these The laughed at them. idea that Germanygentlemen to more desperate efforts. would sink a great passenger liner, with Explosions became frequent in muni- American citizens on board, seemedtion factories; bridges were blown up; absurd.trains were wrecked. It was true that German submarines But of these things, altho vexing the allAmerican people, did not greatly stir had been very active and had occasionedthem. Many of them simply refused to considerable loss, but, aside from the sink-believe that they were anything more ing of several allied battleships legiti-
  • 160. A.MKKIC.VS LOXG PATIENCE 165mate prey there had been no appal- as werelingly dramatic happenings suchsoon to come. In February the German governmenthad proclaimed a submarine zone aroundtlu- Hritish Isles, and announced the es-tablishment of a U-boat blockade of(in -at Britain. President Wilson followed the enemyproclamation with a note addressed toBerlin, pointing out the perils of Ger-many s plan of blockade and its threat tothe freedom and security of neutrals.This note closed with an emphatic decla-ration that if Germany violated the rightsof the United States upon the high seas,the United States would hold her to a strict accountability." was with this phrase still clearly in Itmind that American citizens went onhoard the Lusitania, and sailed from XewYork, in spite of insulting advertisementsand mysterious warnings. Major Baracca, Italian Ace. The Lusitania carried in her hold somesmall arms ammunition rifle cartridges. icans.She had no dangerous cargo. In every re-speet her manifest complied with the law. The news of this tragic happeningShe was a British passenger liner. She shocked and horrified the world. Ithad no troops on board, and altho on the stunned Americans. It seemed impossi-naval reserve list, she had not yet been ble to believe it true. After the first in-called for active service. credulous amazement there came a surge At five minutes after two on the after- of anger, and had President Wilson noon of May 7, 1915, the Lusitania was declared war on Germany the day afterslipping along rather slowly off the Old the sinking of the Lusitania he wouldHead of Kinsale, Ireland. Suddenly the have had a large part of the nation withU-boat 39 appeared at her side, and dis-charged two torpedoes into the utterly him for vengeance on the cruel and cow- helpless vessel. ardly foe. Xo warning was given, no opportunity But President Wilson did not declare for the escape of the women and children, war. Instead he made a speech at Phil- and of course no effort was made to visit adelphia in which he said: "There is and search her, as the law of the sea such a thing as a man being too proud to requires. fight; there is such a thing as a nation The great liner sank quickly, carrying being so right that it does not need to to their death 1,154 persons, many of A score convince others by force that it is right." whom were women and children. of little babies died pitifully. The phrase "too proud was to fight" Among the 1,154 dead were 102 Amer- the most unfortunate the President had
  • 161. 166 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE -a a Q. > H
  • 162. AM KKK AS L<)<; PATIENCE 167( r used. ( Torn from its context it was Mist rate the righteousness of the Unitedcarried around the world, and wherever States to the German intelligence. I It-it was repeated there came back to Amer- went about his task earnestly, ably andica the laughter of mockery and the scorn patiently. He wrote two notes to Ger-of men. many, in the first demanding reparation, President Wilson did not know Ger- and, in the second, emphasizing the de- then. No man knew her as all mand, and insisting that Germany mustmany not sink ships without warning, and mustcame to know her later. Had he known not turn passengers adrift in open boatsher he would never have used the second at a distance remote from shore.phrase, about a nation being "so rightthat it does not need to convince others After these several of interchangesItalians had many anti-aircraft guns mounted on tractors. Italian anti-craft guns and light artillery pieces were mounted and hauled into position by tractors.by force." President Wilson learned notes, on September 1 Count Bernstorffthat there is only one way to convince the announced that Germany would sink noPrussian mind of anything, and that is by more passenger liners without warning,force. You might be as right as God and would otherwise comply with the con-Himself, and it would make no impres- ditions deemed by the United States gov-sion whatever upon the type of mind that ernment to be essential in the interests ofl)i rued i Louvain, sank the Lusitania, humanity, international law and neutralmurdered Nurse Cavell and wantonly rights.converted Northern France into a wilder- Public indignation subsided a little. Itness of death and desolation. was hoped that the Presidents concil- President Wilson attempted to dem- iatory plan would prove effective.
  • 163. 168 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE
  • 164. AMKKICAS LONG I- TIKCB 169 There were other provocations, how- made small difference as long as theever, that disturbed the peace of mind and shrewd, unscrupulous little agent of thegood temper of the average American Hohenzollern autocrat was still free tocitizen. The activities of certain agents, go as he pleased Washington. inwhose connections had been traced back Dr. Dumba had never been more than ato the vicinity of the Austrian embassy, tool for Count Bernstorff Dumba was a .made many people feel that America was business man and Bernstorff an aristo-much too tolerant of some of the repre- crat, hence Dumba was content to be asentatives of the central empires. This valet in conspiracy for his master, theimpression became so strong that the arch-conspirator.State Department at Washington, early However the expulsion of Dumba Italian Bersaglieri cycle regiment on their way to the Austrian frontier.in September 1915, requested the Aus- for such it was in all but technicality-trian government to recall Dr. Dumba. led to further discoveries and disclosures.This did not mean severing diplomatic As a consequence in December the tworelations, but merely a protest against German agents chiefly responsible forJie conduct of the particular individual outrages and plots in America Boy-Ed hen acting for the dual monarchy at and Von Papen were induced to followWashington. the former Austrian ambassador. The Austrian government it was did as It was on September 1 that Countrequested, and Dumba departed. But the Bernstorff gave the sacred word of Ger-departure of the Hapsburg ambassador many that she would not sink another
  • 165. 170 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE Austro-Italian Fighting in the Alps.
  • 166. AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 171passenger ship without full warning. Alittle less than six months later, on March25, 1910, the channel packet Sussex wastorpedoed off the French coast. She sankwith loss of life among crew and passen-gers. Several Americans were on board,but happily escaped death. The Sussexwas wantonly sunk. No warning wasgiven. No effort was made to save life.It was another instance of cold-bloodedmurder. America was on the verge of breakingdiplomatic relations with Germany. Theanger of the people was intense. "Strictaccountability" had been the words a yearbefore, and Germany had acted as thothey meant nothing of which she need beafraid. President Wilson sent another note,and made a speech to Congress emphasiz-ing the serious and perilous nature of thesituation. In his note he told Germanythat should she repeat this crime diplo-matic relations would be severed. Carrying a wounded Highlander to the ambulance In a few weeks Germany answered after he had received first aid.with new promises of good behavior, andonce again the United States swallowed sea-board states. They were inclined toits wrath and gave the Germans a chance. think that Americans should keep of the Thru the remainder of 1916 Germany sea when the sea was dangerous, and notavoided further provocation. President risk the provocation of international dis-Wilson was re-elected in November on a pute and war merely to gratify their de-platform summed up in the phrase "He sire for travel.kept us out of war." America, evidently,was happy to be kept out of war in spite Following the victorious campaign of the President on his peace platform,of all the injury that had been done her, there came a rather dramatic opportunityand the insults that had been heaped upon to act for a moment as a potential peace-her. Her anger had flamed up occasion- maker.ally, but there was no steady heat. Therewas certainly no heat intense enough to Early in December Berlin proposedrepudiate the pacifist slogan of the Demo- that the warring countries engage in ancratic nominee. effort to negotiate peace. Germany had This was in part due to the fact that just completed the conquest of Roumaniathe people of the great middle-west and by occupying Bucharest six days before. Russia was hors de combat. The hourfar west were not yet aware of the real seemed opportune to the Prussian leaders. to the nation involved in temporiz-perilsing with a power like Germany. More- President Wilson also thought theover the offenses committed by U-boats hour opportune for a definite effort todid not appeal with the same force to end the war. He addressed an identicalthem as to the people of the eastern and note to all the belligerents requesting
  • 167. 172 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE
  • 168. . .MKKIl AS LONG 1ATIKXC K 173them to make a clear statement of theten MS upon which they were willing toconsider peace. He based this requestupon the ground of Americas interest inthe restoration of peace. He argued thatthe prolongation of the war was endan-gering the security of the United States. The Presidents note was not favorablyreceived in the lands opposed to the cen-tral empires. Nevertheless they repliedwith definite statements of their war aims.From all of them came a declaration thatthey would enter into no discussion ofpeace with Germany until she had definedher terms. The British prime ministerinsisted that there could be no peace with-out assurance of reparation, restorationand security. Finally in a combined re-ply, just as the year ended, the allies em-phatically rejected the German proposalsfor a conference, and reminded the worldthat Germany looked upon sacred prom-ises as "scraps of paper," and approvedthe principle that "necessity knows no This photograph, one of the most remarkable madelaw." in the national army camps, shows a number of the soldiers in the trenches wearing their gas masks, fac- However opinions may differ as to the ing a gas attack of the "enemy "wisdom of the course taken by PresidentWilson, it can never be questioned that heexerted himself to the extreme limit of When his attempt failed to obtain from the belligerent nations an agreement topatience and tact in the effort to keepAmerica neutral and peaceful, and to en- enter upon peace negotiation failed be-courage a spirit of conciliation among cause of Germanys refusal to committhe belligerent nations over-seas. herself to any definite proposals he realized that he had gone as far as it was More ardent spirits would have entered possible to go. He had given the centralthe war when Belgium was invaded, the empires chance after chance, and theyLusitania sunk or the Sussex torpedoed had proved shifty, untrustworthy and in-excuses were abundant. But President different to honorable appeal. Now.Wilson was not seeking excuses to fight; altho the proposal for negotiation camehe was trying to avoid fighting. If from them, and, at his request, had beenAmerica had to fight he wanted it to be met by the allies with a clear forthsettingthe result of a situation that left no pos- of their war aims, the central powers de-sible alternative; he wanted every Amer- clined to go on record as to their basis ofican citizen, no matter what his ancestry bargaining. President Wilson was satis-or nativity, to feel that America was en- fied at last that if Germany gave any newtering the war only after she had ex- provocation to the United States therehausted every means in her power to re- could be only one answer to it. Reason,main neutral and because national safety persuasion and appeal were no longer ofand self-respect could not be preserved any avail. Force force to the utmostin any other way. was the only way left.
  • 169. 174 AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE
  • 170. The United Draws The Sword States CHAPTER XI GERMANY RENEWS SUBMARINE WARFARE - - NO HOPE FOR FRIENDLY RELATIONS - GERMAN-MEXICO PLOTS - - UNITED - STATES DEI I.AIU.S V.K ON UERMAXY - GEN. PERSHING ARRIVES IN FRANCE -- FIRST UNITED STATES EXPEDITIONARY FORCES REACH FRANCE - - FRENCH AND AMERICANS SHOW CORDIAL RELATIONS. It was on the last one of the champions of the rights of day of January inthe year 1917 that Germany announced mankind."to the world that she would Congress did not hesitate as to wage war on itsthe sea with unrestricted frightfulness. course. The revelation that the GermanThus she repudiated her pledges to the Foreign Minister, while his country wasUnited States and intimated that she at peace with the United States, hadwould torpedo without warning every urged the German Minister in Mexico toship that dared to sail the seas. At this arrange for a Mexican invasion of thetime she had lost faith in the efficacy of United States, promising to Mexico aher wonderful military machine and be- slice of American territory, and that helieved that the huge fleet of submarines also had sought to improve this plan byshe had been building seeking an anti-American alliance be- secretly would en-able her to starve Britain into submission tween Japan and Mexico, aroused the irewithin three months. She argued that of the whole country, and made theshe could afford to earn the of hostility people ready to plunge into the Old-all civilization won the war. so long as she World struggle. The Senate passed the The gauntlet thrown down by the Ten- war declaration on April 4 by a vote ofton warlords was taken up quickly, if 82 to 6 and the House of Representativesreluctantly, by the great North American P as sed it on April 6 by 373 to 50. At therepublic. On February 26th, President same time the President was directed toWilson went before Congress and asked employ the entire naval and military re-that diplomatic relations with Germany sources of the country to bring thebe severed. He knew, then, that the step struggle to a successful termination,he was taking was irretraceable and that President Wilson immediately afteronly a miracle could keep the United signing the war" resolution issued a proc-States from being involved in the fearful lamation concerning the conduct andEuropean struggle. His last hope, which treatment of alien enemies,was that the United States would be able All of these momentous acts that sweptto maintain armed neutrality, soon van- America from her traditional isolationished. Although the President authorized into the maelstrom of European strifethe arming of American merchant ships, took place amid profound emotion on thethe desperate German government pro- of those participating, and breathless partceeded to carry out its threat and soon a interest on the part of the people,whole series of attacks on the trading Beyond a display of flags flags of allships of the world, involving the loss of the nations at war against the central em-American property and of American pires there was no great public demon-lives. And so on April 2nd, the Presi- stration. Millions of Americans rejoiceddent went before Congress again and re- that the bonds of neutrality were broken,quested that a state of war with Germany that the obligation to silence and inactiv-be declared. In this utterance Mr. Wil- ity was removed, and that before it wasson took pains to say that "We are but too late America had taken her place IT",
  • 171. 176 THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD Only on the Roumanian front had any consolation been offered to the high Ger- man command. Russia, although she ex- hausted herself terribly by .her efforts, had carried off the honors on the east, the Italians had had a good year on the southwest and in the west the Verdun offensive had failed and the British and French counter-offensive at the Somme had made dangerous headway. Early in 1917, therefore, Germany was dreading events on all fronts, particularly on the east and the west. Her agents in the east were reporting that a revolution might occur in Russia but the hopes raised by her secret agents in other quar- ters had been sadly disappointed and she could not be sure that the downfall of the Czaristic regime, with its pro-German ele- ment, would be a help to Germany. For that reason she decided to order a retreat from the great Arras- Soissons salient, to dodge the attacks the allies were prepar- ing and to depend on her submarines to Commandant Bachkarova, the leader of the gain victory at sea while her armies Womens Death Battalion. evaded decisive conflict on land. That was the general situation in the beside the great democracies of the world world conflict when the United States be- for the final fight against autocracy and came a belligerent on April 6, 1917- the legions of oppression. Three days later the British forces gained In 1776 America had raised the flag of a brilliant success at Vimy Ridge, and freedom and the right of self-determina- tion and self-government. She had been they and the French scored time and true to these ideals that then began to again during the remainder of the 1917 revolutionize the world. She had fought fighting season but they had not sufficient to free the slave. She had given Cuba strength of themselves to overwhelm the liberty. She had redeemed the Phil- enemy and the United States was in no position to render appreciable help except ippines from the bondage of Spain. By all that she had held precious, by all that at sea. American dreadnoughts and de- made her history glorious she had a right stroyers were not long in finding their to stand with France and England and way to the North Sea and there, and around the shores of Ireland, they did Italy and Belgium against the Hun. little Her duty splendid work in curbing the piratical lay upon the frontiers of free- underwater craft of the common enemy. dom, and it was with a glad pride, count- The closest possible co-operation pre- ing well the cost, that America un- vailed between the British and American sheathed her sword, and sent across the seas to the older allies a admirals, and together they baffled the message of cheer and comradeship. supreme effort of the enemy to accom- Generally speaking, the year 1916 had plish the defeat that the enemys armies. been most unfortunate for the Germanic had failed to obtain. combination from a military standpoint. In the meantime the United States set
  • 172. TIIK rxiTED STATKS DRAWS TIIK SWOKD 177 ~
  • 173. 178 THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORDto work determinedly to improvise anarmy and to build transports in the hopeof aiding the allied nations to gain victoryin the year 1918. As the months passedby and the destruction of Russias mili-tary efficiency by the revolution becameclear, it was seen that the United Stateswould have to prepare to take a muchlarger part in the struggle than had beenanticipated. Twenty-two days after thedeclaration of war, Congress passed con-scription or the law providing for theselective draft. In a few weeks, the regu-lar army, by volunteering, was broughtup to a strength of 287,000 and the Na-tional Guard up to 625,000. On June 5,ten million young Americans registeredand became available, when required, forthe purposes of the national cause. Twoweeks later, two million men, by drawinglots, were chosen for military service.This number was greatly increased in1918. Among those enlisting were 300,-000 colored men, many of whom won A. F. Kerensky, Russias youthful Minister ofdecorations on the field of battle. War, formerly one of the greatest of the nations the end of June General Pershing, heroes. Bywho was appointed to the chief commandof theUnited States expeditionary since August 1914. It had been there as a promise and prediction that Americaforces, and the first contingent of Amer- would follow it. The story of where thatican troops were safe on the soil of flag came from and what befell it was toldFrance. Training camps for American in Current History by the Rev. S. N.troops soon were established midway be- Watson. And this, in part, is the story :tween Paris and the Swiss frontier. Under the burning skies of August,Within six months of the declaration of 1914, there was seen in the streets of Pariswar it became known that American a procession of soldiers of the Foreigntroops were fighting in the trenches on Legion. Over the heads of one of thethe Nancy front on the banks of the groups floated the Stars and Stripes. TheRhine-Marne front. A few weeks later, soldiers who formed this American groupin November, the Germans, in their Second Regiment of the belonged to the to gain precise information,eagerness Foreign Legion, and their devotion tomade an elaborate raid on the American France and to liberty had impelled themfront in which they killed three, wounded to enlist. Their flag was the first Amer-eleven and captured eleven men from the ican flag on the French front. Some oneUnited States. Germany did not realize had offered them this flag, here in Paris,then that not a year would pass before where the group was formed. They tookthe allies, with the material aid of a huge it with them to Rouen, where they hadAmerican army, would have beaten her their first camp. When Rouen wasto her knees. threatened by the enemy this regiment flag of America had been on the The was sent to Toulouse. Returning fromfront since the first month of the war Toulouse to Paris for active service at
  • 174. TIM I MTI-1) STATUS DHAWS THK SWOHI) 17!) So IE " o cs o 4* = II ^
  • 175. 180 THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD
  • 176. THE UNITED STATES DRAWS TIIK SUOKI) 181 ernment. The rector willingly accepted the task. He wrote to the Minister of War, telling of the request of his com- patriots, and received this cordial reply: "I accept with pleasure, in the name of the French Army, this glorious emblem, for which General Niox, Governor of the Invalides, has reserved a beautiful place in the Hall of Honor of the Musee de 1Armee. This flag will thus remain a striking witness of the devotion to France displayed by the American volunteers who, from the beginning of the war, came to fight in the ranks of our army for right and civilization." General Pershing was present on the occasionwhen the flag was presented to France. It was on July 4, 1917, in the Court of Honor of the Hotel des In- valides, Paris. The French president was there, and the minister of war and Mar-Foreign Minister Leon Trotsky, of the Bolshevik Russian Government. shal Joffre. In making the presentation the rector of the American church inthe front, its members draped the starry Paris said:banner over the side of the cattle car inwhich they were riding; and, arrived atthe front, they always found a place ofhonor for their idolized flag. When theyslept at night, or when they went "overthe top" in an assault, one man or anotheralways carried it with him. At last came the moment when theUnited States took place in the war. itsThe group of American volunteers littlewas dispersed. Three were dead, onewas grievously wounded, one was a pris-oner in Germany. Of one of those nowdead it is reported that he lay three daysin his bed without saying a word and thatsuddenly he seized the flag and waved it,crying "Im an American!" and expired. One of the survivors sent the flag to therector of the American Church in Paris,asking him to offer it to the French Gov- Oen. Dia/., Italian Victor, invited to visit America.
  • 177. 182 THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD "What a prophet this flag has been, the has come to pass, now that the great Re-first American flag that has floated over public beyond the sea is physically takingthe heads of those who were fighting on the place which it has always held inthe soil of France for the ideals which the spirit. We are rendering a service to thebanner represents, and which are the life comrades who died for France when weand soul of France It was not permitted ! ask you to accept this emblem for whichto our gallant boys of the Foreign Legion they gave their lives. It is also an inspira-to carry their flag openly, like the colors tion to the living to be worthy of thoseof a commander when he leads his soldiers pioneers who preceded them on the road "Battalion of Death" Made Up of Russian Women.to the charge, but they carried it just the that leads to eternal liberty and the re-same; one after the other, they carried demption of justice."this flag wrapped about their bodies as a So the was placed among the treas- flagbelt a life-preserver for the soul; one ured things of France in the heart ofafter the other, they were wounded some Paris, where it remains to this day. Andwere killed and it was in this way that General Pershing, with about his staffthe American flag received its first bap- him, stood before the tomb of Americastism of blood in this conflict where now it heroic friend and said:has its recognized place. "Lafayette, we are here!" "This flag has been the prophet of what W. R. P.
  • 178. The Decisive Campaign in the Year 1918 CHAPTER XII GERMAN REVERSES AND GAINS - - UNITED STATES SPEEDS UP KM AN GIGANTIC ATTEMPT AT CHANNEL PORTS - - ALLIES i, I. UNITED UNDER FOCH FOCH*S STRATEGY WINS GERMAN- RETREAT ENORMOUS ALLIED GAINS - - GERMANY ADMITS - - DEFEAT ARMISTICE SIGNED. To understand how Victory came to in 1916 the only consolation Germanythe allied and associated powers in 1918 could get out of the campaign was thatit is necessary that we shall see the main she improved matters near its close byfeatures of the war in the preceding concentrating all her reserve forcesyears. In 1914 the Germans tried for against Roumania and overrunning thevictory in the west and failed. In 1915 larger part of that country. Neverthe-the Germans tried for victory in the east less, she averted a disaster on the east inand failed again. In 1916 the Germans that year only by employing many hun-made their main efforts on the Italian dreds of thousands of German troops onand French fronts but their attacks broke that front which were urgently neededdown and allied offensives at the Somme, elsewhere. Germany realized that theon the west, in Galicia on the east and armies of Austria-Hungary were in analong the Isonzo on the southwest made exhausted condition at mid-summer inappreciable headway in spite of the most 1917, and that but for the assistancedesperate Teutonic resistance. The 1914 given by Germany the weary dual empireand 1915 offensives of the Germans, would have been overwhelmed, carryingwhile they fell short of complete success, down to ruin with her Bulgaria and Tur-carried the battle-fronts from one to key, and ultimately Germany, herself,three hundred miles away from the Ger- As we saw in Chapter XI, it was theman border on the west and the east and obvious inability of her armies underfor several years kept the devastation of existing conditions to wage victoriouswar out of the fatherland. Thus the offensives on either of the main frontsdefence of Germany was maintained at a that nerved Germany to resort to unre-safe distance from the towns and cities stricted frightfulness on the sea and incurof Germany which actually suffered less the hostility of the United States,damage than was experienced by those of Nineteen-seventeen was a peculiar yearthe various allied countries on the conti- in the war. It opened under the mostnent which were victorious in the great favorable circumstances the allies had en-struggle. Just so soon as the allies dem- joyed up to that time, yet it was a yearonstrated their ability to sweep over the of terrible disappointment of the mostfair country of the Germanic peoples, the unexpected sort. The setback exper-white flag went up and the enemy signi- ienced was not foreseen by Lloyd Georgefied that he would submit to any terms in January when he said "We are on thethe allies saw fit to impose. verge of the greatest liberation the world The year 191^5 was the first one in has seen since the French revolution."which the honors did not go to the Ger- Nor did the enemys submarine venturemans. In the two years next preceding, accomplish its purpose. Thanks to thethe Germans carried on extremely vigor- effective work of the allied navies, the<>us offensives, both of which came to conservation of food in America and thewithin an inch of complete victory. But speeding-up of shipbuilding programs, 183
  • 179. 184 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 Russian Armored Cruiser "Ruric." Austrian Coast Defense Battleship "Hapsburg" at Sea, Surrendered to Italy.
  • 180. TUB DEC I SI VB CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918along with the rejection of non-essential near Cambrai and almost simultaneouslycargoes, the enemys plan to starve the enemy inflicted a disastrous defeat onBritain and shut off military supplies the Italian armies on the Isonzo, captur-destined for France, was a miserable fail- ing no less than 300,000 men and a.oooure. The year also saw the great North guns, representing one-half of the artil-American republic, United States, the lery and one-fourth of the personnel ofand plucky little Greece under Venizelos, the Italian field armies.enlistwith the forces of civilization. The At the opening of the year 1918 theupset to the calculations of both the anxiety of the allied nations was inHuns and the civilized nations was pro- marked contrast with the jubilant spiritvided by the revolution in March which of the German warlords. The enemysswept away Czarism and crippled still highest command was convinced that itProvisional government troops guarding the central telephone station in Petrograd from the Bolshevikifurther the military efficiency of Russia would not be possible for the Unitedwhich already had suffered from the States to develop an army large andtreachery of Germans in high places at efficientenough to be any considerablethe court of St. Petersburg. The im- factor in the years campaign and it waspotency of the Russian armies from an equally certain that the armies of Franceoffensive viewpoint enabled the Germans and Britain, which had had to send helpand Austrians to move large numbers of to Italy during the previous Fall, wouldtroops from the east to the western and be unable to prevent the piercing of thesouthwestern fronts. Thus reinforced, the allied battle-front by new methods andenemy countered effectively when Brit- the defeat in detail of the separated alliedish troops under General Byng broke armies.through the German front with tanks Von Ilindenburg, the German gener-
  • 181. 186 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918alissimo, openly boasted that he would be strength by the enemy gave him a numer-in Paris in April. His chief lieutenant, ical superiority in March of but littleLudendorff, declared that nothing could more than one hundred thousand men.rob Germany of victory. The Kaiser but he knew that his advantage in unityWilhelm, himself, became so infected by of command, standardization of organi-the enthusiasm of his military advisers zation and the ability to concentratethat he permitted the attack that was reserves where they could be of the mostbeing prepared to be referred to as "The value, which the allies did not possess,Kaisers Offensive." Instead of pussy- was worth several hundred thousand men.footing for peace as he had been doing He also knew that more troops werethroughout 1917 he flaunted his political hurrying westward and by the middle ofadvisers, vetoed the no-indemnitv-no- May would bring his numerical superior-These Russian soldiers were made of the right stuff and when called upon to fight to down the enemies of democracy, willingly took up arms and fought a courageous battle.annexation policy of the Reichstag and ity in troops actually available for theimposed an oppressive peace on Russia firing line up to five hundred thousand.and Roumania, by treaties signed at Consequently, he had little doubt of hisBrest-Litovsk and Bucharest in Febru- ability to destroy the allied armies beforeary and March. the military power of the United States By the spring of 1918 the German could come into play. So great was hisarmies in France and Belgium were at confidence that he figured that he couldleast half a million stronger than they afford to take chances.were a year earlier while those of the Perhaps the best plan open to theallies, actually fit for the front, were little enemy was to concentrate against theif any more numerous. This accession of French. The morale of France was
  • 182. TMK 1)KC ISIYK CAMPAIGN IN TIIK VKAK 187 hakier and the army of France was more against the British and only reluctantlyexhausted than were those of Britain. did he yield to Petains request, whichIn April and May of 1917 the political was backed up by the Supreme Alliedsituation in France caused the allies con- War Council which had been formed tocern owing to the war-weariness of the tide the allies over the supreme crisis ofpeople. It was possible, therefore, that the war.even though the French army were not The plan that Hindcnburg actuallydestroyed by a smashing German attaek, did put into operation was to attack thethe morale of the nation would not bear British on the 50-mile front extendingthe tremendous increase in casualties in- from La Fere on the Oise river to thevolved in the French bearing the brunt region of Arras on the Scarpe river. Theof the German attack. enemys generalissimo knew that theA striking elimpse of Russias army of women. 2.500 :<1 nrjmber, drilling behind the trenches at the central western front. General Petain, the French command- southern third of this fiont was weaklyer-in-chief, seems to have expected held, that its rear defences were not com-Hindenburg to concentrate against the pleted and that the bulk of the BritishFrench. The most likely point of attack reserves were well to the north behind aagainst the French was in the Rheims vital portion of the line while the bulkregion and Petain strongly urged Gen- of the French reserves were well to theeral Haig, the British commander-in- east in the region of Hheims where thechief, to take over twenty-eight more French were awaiting an onslaught. Hemiles of front on both sides of St. Quen- argued that if he could make a hugetin but mostly south of that city. General breach in the allied front at the pointHaig was not sure that the Germans* where the British front ended and theconfidence would not lead to an attack French front began, the German armies
  • 183. 188 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918could push well through, turn, and thenroll up the lines of the separated alliedarmies, driving the British northwest-ward towards the Straits of Dover andthe French southeastward towards theSwiss frontier, in which case Paris wouldbe gathered in without trouble and theallied armies be destroyed at leisure. During her last bid for victory, madeon the western front in 1918, Germanyused 3,000,000 men. Of these 2,500,000were on hand and available when thegreat opening attack was made upon theBritish on March 21st. The Britisharmies at that time held a front of 125miles stretching northward from the Oiseriver in France, to a point just beyondYpres in Belgium. The order of theBritish armiesfrom south to north wasFifth, Third, First and Second, theircommanders, in the same order, beingGenerals Gough, Byng, Home andPlumer. Although the British held butlittle more than one-fourth of the entire Premier Nikolai Lenine of the Bolshevik Russianbattle-front between. Switzerland and the Government.North Sea they really were playing amuch more important part than the keep pace with the advancing infantry,length of line indicated for opposed to would feature the German onslaught.them were two and a half times as many This whole program was carried out asGermans to the mile as were to be found anticipated by the intelligence corpselsewhere. This was true even before the of the British army with the exceptionGermans massed their troops for the final that the German tanks played a veryoffensive. unimportant part. The methods theGermans would use All through the winter of 1917-18 thein their attack were known to the allies. British army prepared for a defensiveThe British army headquarters frankly in the first half of the 1918 fighting sea-published a statement in the middle of son or until sufficient troops from Amer-February in which the British officers ica were ready for offensive operations.said that the Germans, after training It was considered quite possible that atheir troops for a dash over destroyed retirement from St. Quentin to thetrenches and for open fighting beyond Somme bend at Peronne might be forced,were already bringing their men forward and the bridgehead at Peronne was verytowards the line and that after a few powerfully fortified and the whole line ofhours violent bombardment the assault the Somme prepared as a defensive posi-troops, which would stealthily enter the tion. It was felt that more ground couldfront trenches during the night after a be yielded safely here than farther northlong march, would "go over the top." It and it was in the Arras region that thewas expected that powerful tanks, shells "strongest measures were taken to checkcombining high explosives and gases and an enemy advance. Along the wholevast numbers of mobile guns that would front, the first two or three miles back
  • 184. THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 180from < Mans Land constituted an out- through and immediately it became nec-post line studded with redoubts and essary for the forces on either side tomachine gun nests. It was hoped that retreat in order to avoid being hopelesslythe Germans, after their preparatory outflanked.bombardment, would suffer staggering To say that the world was astoundedlosses iii trying to overwhelm the sur- and thrown into a state of consternationvivors of this thinly-held outpost area and by this German success is to state thethat when they reached the main battle- truth mildly. The average person hadpositions on the far side their assaults come to believe that siege warfare wouldwould collapse. be continued until the end of the war. All the weather conditions favored the People had been told so many times thatGerman attack. The season was excep- it was beyond the power of either side to Flight of Russians. The camera caught a handful of the thousands as they fled in disorder from *he foe.tionally advanced and extraordinarily break through and the slow variation ofdry but the enemy waited until he was the battle-line in other years had so de-sure that a heavy morning mist would stroyed their hopes that they looked foroverhang the battle area. Then after a nothing very spectacular on land andbombardment exceeding in fury anything certainly not a war of movement. Thethe world ever had known the storm fact that for years the British had nottroops dashed forward. On the first day lost a gun and that in 1916 and 1917 thethey broke well into the outpost positions British had conducted repeated offensivesbut made no alarming progress. The against the enemy with ever-increasingnext day, seeing signs of weakness in the success, had lulled them into a .sense ofSt. Quentin region, the enemy redoubled security which even the desertion of Ru-his efforts in that quarterand broke clean sia with one-half of all the allied soldiery
  • 185. 190 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THEand the disastrous defeat of the Italianarmy a few months before had not sweptaway. The German success in the closing daysof March were most impressive. Twodays after the battle began Berlin claimedthe capture of 16,000 British soldiers and200 guns. These figures soon grew to70,000 British prisoners and 1,200 gunscaptured. The efforts of General Goughto stay his retreat at the Somme were notsuccessful. The fortified British defenceson a 60 mile front soon were obliterated.The dryness of the season enabled theGermans to break across at unexpectedpoints and fearing that his somewhat dis-organized army was in no condition tomake a stand and that a debacle mightresultfrom a rash attempt to hang on,General Gough ordered the abandonmentof the great Peronne bridgehead. As the enemy advanced, gap after gapopened in the living battle-front the alliestried to present to the foe. The British, Real head of the Greek government and the com-aided by the French, had the utmost dif- mander of the Allied forces in Greece. Left to right:ficulty preventing the enemy from getting Eleutherius Venizelos, the prime minister of Greece, and the real head of the Greek government, withfar to the rear of their main forces. General Sarrail, French commander of the AlliedCavalry had not shown to advantage on forces in Greece.other occasions but the British command-er-in-chief himself bears testimony to the portant of the allies lateral lines of com-fact that on this occasion but for the munication, which ran through Amiens,heroic sacrifices made by the At the same time projectiles from a mar- cavalry thatdashed forward to fill the gaps as they vellous cannon were dropping on Parisappeared, it is hard to see how the tide from a point more than 80 miles away inof defeat could have been stayed. Labor the forest of St. Gobain, near Laon.units under Generals Grant and Carey, It was hoped by the Germans that thisCanadian and American engineers who new form of frightfulness, and the exag-happened to be in the line of advance, gerated stories of panic-stricken civilianand even Chinese coolies were thrown into refugees, would cause the complete col-the breaches. These, with the aid of lapse of the morale of France. In thistroops hurriedly detached from the near-est French armies and of Canadian cav- the enemy was disappointed. Premier Clemenceau rose to the occasion by a dis-alry, and some light tanks, performed The French play of sublime courage.invaluable services. Without them, never showed to better advantage.Amiens could not have been saved. army It quickly put into effect plans /or mutual Advancing at the rate of seven miles co-operation that already existed, anda day for six days, the Germans by March took over ten miles of British front which,28th, were 43 miles beyond their starting by the determined advance of the enemypoint at St. Quentin and their guns near soon was stretched to a length of fiftyMontdidier were shelling the most im- miles, extending easterly and westerly and
  • 186. THE DEC1S1VK CAMPAIGN IN TIIK YKAK 1918 191 south of the Snmme river definitely was checked, notwithstanding the fact that General Coughs Fifth Army virtually had been destroyed, and its commander assigned to the task of preparing field de- fences. On March 26th. the British and Trench government appointed General Foch as governments appointed General Foch as in the western arena. Tv<> days later General Gough was transferred and Gen- eral Ha wlinson was placed in command of the British forces south of the Sommc river. At this time the Fourth British Army, that Kawlinson previously had commanded, was in reserve. North of the Sommethe battle-front stabilized fol- lowing the crushing defeat of an attack launched against Arras on March 28th. Byngs Third Army had come through the ordeal with flying colors, although on several successive days it was dangerously menaced by German troops that kept fil- tering through and opening up new gaps. Ferdinand, King of Roumania. At last every hole was plugged up and every outflanking movement baffled and the enemy was forced to turn elsewherenot northerly and southerly as hefore. in the hope of gaining a new success. Innumerable deeds of gallantry per-formed by individuals and by units which It always will be a matter of contro-were performed in the path of the Ger- versy how much, if at all, General Goughman advance never will be chronicled. was to blame for the British reverse in March. His commander-in-chief empha-Only a few have been recorded. One of sizes the fact that while Byng with histhese is told by General Haig in his offi-cial report. The enemy had swept over Third Army held only 27 miles of front, with an average of one division to 4,700Roisel, Peronne, Ham, Nesle, Bray.Chaulnes and Hove and 100 men of the yards, Gough with his Fifth Army held61st Brigade, 20th division, were told off a front of 42 miles, with an average ofunder the command of Captain E. C. one division to every 6,750 yards of front. In other words, relative to its task, theCombe, M. C., to make-a stand at Ques- Fifth Army was one-third weaker thannoy and cover the retreat of their division.From morning until six at night the Third Army. On the opening day earlytins little detachment fought against ter- of the attack the enemy launched 64 divi- sions against 29 British divisions, of whichrible finally the order came for odds untilit to retire. By that time only eleven of only 19 actually were on the firing line,the gallant one hundred survived. The the others being in reserve. Before this first drive spent itself in front of Amiens.other eighty-nine had sacrificed them-selves that their fellows might effect their the enemy had used 73 divisions and theretirement and that the Great Cause for British 42 divisions.which the allies fought might prevail. The critical situation facing the allies Within ten davs the enemvs drive in the first week of April easily can be
  • 187. 192 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 drain on the French reserves and the weakening of the French front along the Aisne and elsewhere offered the enemy the alternative of making a drive south- ward towards Paris against the French or westward towards the Channel ports against the British. As the British were in much the more serious condition, the enemy elected to resume his offensive operations by a smash westward from the Aubers ridge on April 9th. Before the German drive in Flanders developed it became clear to most observ- ers that the decisive struggle then pro- gressing would continue throughout the spring and summer and that victory would depend on the speed with which the belligerents put their last reserves into the fray. The enemy, having failed to gain complete success in March, was sure to scour all Central for men. Europe Montenegrin Standard Bearer. The allies, on their part, sent out mes- for help to the outermost sages parts ofimagined. The Fifth British Army vir- the earth. In one of these the appeals,tually had been destroyed by the German British premier said to Canadas gov-attack. Probably between one-half and ernor-general "Let no one think thattwo-thirds of its numbers had been killed, what even the remotest of our Dominionswounded or captured. The remainder can now do can be too late." The allieswere in no condition for immediate fight- also made the most urgent representations to the United States toing and had to be sent to quiet parts of speed up thethe line or to reserve camps for rest and transportation of troops to Europe. Itreorganization. Even the Third Army was found that the United States waswas in a serious state, from fighting night making elaborate preparations for war inand day without sleep and sometimes for 1919 and 1920 and was far behind in itsdays at a stretch without food. Thus one- program for providing airplanes, gunshalf of the entire British forces in France and munitions in 1918. The Americanhad been destroyed or had its fighting army was without adequate divisional or-efficiency dangerously impaired. At the ganization for the troops when theysame time the length of battle-front that landed in France and the training of thehad to be defended, in the open and with- troops could not be hurriedly completedout the aid of elaborately fortified sys- on the continent. The allies, however,tems, had increased from fifty to one persuaded the United States to rush for-hundred miles. Obviously, the British ward troops without their full equipment,were in no condition to take care of all promising to make up all deficiencies,the new front, and the French army un- themselves, so far as possible, and to assistder General Fayolle rapidly extended its in the training. General Persning splen-front westward, and with the aid of other didly co-operated by offering to permitFrench troops concentrated 300,000 men trained American troops to be brigadedon the southern half of the huge salient for service with British and French troopsmade by the German advance. This and President Wilson agreed that if the
  • 188. 11 IK DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 193Prof. Thomas G. Masaryk, President of Czecho-Slovakia, Signing the Declaration of Independence of Czecho-Slovakia, in Independence Hall, Philadelphia.
  • 189. 194 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918allies would find sufficient vessels, Amer- ports of Calais and Boulogne. By Aprilican troops would go forward at the rate 3rd the world knew that trained Amer-of 250,000 a month. ican troops were marching down the roads By the opening of April the Germans of France to share in the great ordeal onalready had overrun 1,200 additional the German offensive front. The totalsquare miles of French soil and ttie hearts number of American troops ready forof the French people, who had been hop- service at that time was about 200,000.ing for nearly four years to see the enemy A number of circumstances favored theexpelled, nearly stopped beating. It ap- German drive in Flanders in April.peared to be likely that the second drive Part of the front to be attacked waswould be made in the north, and that the manned by Portuguese who had been Latest photo of Ex-King Constantine, Queen Sophie and their children at their castle in Switzerland. Inthe family group sitting from left to right are Ex-Crown Prince George, Ex-Queen Sophie, Ex-King Con-stantine and Princess Helene. Standing are Princess Katherine, Prince Paul and Princess Irene.enemy would try to crowd the allies out long without a rest period, who never hadof the 300 square miles of Belgian soil experienced a real offensive and who werethat they had managed to hold since the in course of removal from the trenchesbeginning of the war. Colonel Reping- when the attack was launched. Anotherton, the London Times correspondent, part of the front was held by hard-triedhad expressed the opinion that "grave veterans who had been put in this sup-strategic decisions may not be only due posedly quiet sector after being terriblybut overdue", by which he meant that per- decimated in the March fighting. Here,haps the allies already should have aban- too, the dryness of the season made pos-doned Ypres and the rest of Belgium and sible a quick advance over the usuallynorthwestern France and the Channel muddy lowlands on both sides of the Lys
  • 190. TIIK DEC IS1VK CAMPAIGN IX TIIK NEAR 1918 Japan honors late American ambassador, provides cruiser to carry body to United States. The first-classJapanese cruiser Azuma steaming from Tokio with the body of the late George W. Guthrie. Americanambassador to Japan. The body was brought to San Francisco. Solemn ceremonies marked the sailing ofthe vessel.
  • 191. 196 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918river. At a point so far north, also, itwas much harder for the French andAmerican troops to render assistance. Bykeeping after the overworked and partlyexhausted British army, the Germanshoped to break the backbone of the alliedresistance and gain a triumph that wouldrepay them for all their losses in thecolossal struggle. The fact that the British were antici-pating an attack on the Flanders frontor in the Artois did not save them from asecond serious setback. The Germanssmashed forward on a 35-mile front to adepth of 13 miles and in the first threedays of the attack captured more than20,000 men and 200 guns. The line op-posite Portuguese was completely thepierced and only by the most desperategallantry of various British units was thegap closed. The fact that the Australiantroops some weeks before had been movedsouth to the Ancre river region made itthe more difficult to redeem the situation.The enemy drove up the Lys valley and Japanese Officers Representing Japan at Allied Councils.turning northward menaced the line ofretreat of the British forces in the Ypres he stretched out his hand. By dodgingsalient. As they moved northward up the blow the enemy was preparing in Bel-the slopes of the ridge on which Mount gium, General Plumer threw the enemyKemmel stood out like an island, it be- off his stride and made it necessary forcame evident that the British had not the him to go several miles over shell-muti-power to wage an immediate counter- lated ground and prepare all over againoffensive and that it was advisable to re- for a great advance.duce the famous Ypres salient so as tobe in a better position to prevent a break- At this time General Maurice, thethrough that would give the enemy the director of British military operations, anChannel ports. Then on April 17th, official located in England, was so con-eight days after the enemys drive began, cerned about the course of operations andit was announced that Messines, Passch- possibly so prejudiced against the ap-endaele, Zonnebeke, Hill 60 and Holle- pointment of a generalissimo in thebeke, and all the high ground that the person of Foch, a military officer of aBritish, Canadian and Australasian foreign nation, that he broke into printtroops had taken at the cost of 150,000 with the question "Where is Blucher?",casualties in 1917 had been abandoned to thereby intimating that the allied com-the foe. It is known now that this was mander-in-chief was not properly andin accordance with plans drawn up some promptly supporting the British forces intime before. These were carried out with the field. For this extraordinary piece ofremarkable success, so that the enemy was presumption he was removed from office.full of chagrin when he learned that the It would have been impossible to retainenemy had eluded his grasp even before him and preserve sympathetic relations
  • 192. TIM DKCISIVK CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 197with the sorely-tried French republic.The answer to General Maurices ques-tion came in a few days lun Frenchtroops went into the firing line north ofthe Lys river and made vigorous localcounter-attacks. A month after the enemy had begunhis spring campaign against the Britishthe enemy still was going strong, but inreality he had shot his bolt against theBritish. Although here and there evi-dences of demoralization had been seen,on the whole the British army never hadfought better against terrible odds.Small groups of men stood their groundstubbornly when hopelessly outnumberedand died to the last man after taking anawful toll of the advancing enemy. Theenemy knew that this years campaignwas his last great gamble, with WorldPower or Downfall as the stakes, andthat having gone into the venture therecould be no halting betwixt two opinions,or counting of the cost. He was con-scious of the fact that his own people and Roumanias Queen Marie, a staunch supporter ofthose of his allies were weary of the strain the Allied cause.of war and that unless a completetriumph were secured at once they would became known that the Germans hadrefuse to go on with the struggle. And used 1,600,000 men in the attacks duringso the enemy frantically spurred on his the month, of whom more than 1,000,000devoted soldiery. had been used against the British, 300,000 The marvellous effectiveness of the against the French and another 300,000 against mixed forces of British andsteps taken by the British government tobaffle the enemys offensive campaign French.was evident within thirty days of the ini- On April 25th Mount Kemmel was intial attack. Perhaps the British setback the hands of the Germans but their prog-would not have been as great if the same ress had become painful and very slow.degree of energy, combined with vision, They held positions in a narrow salienthad been shown earlier in the year. At against which a punishing fire could beall events, the British were well supplied brought to bear from north, west andwith reserves of young and partly-trained south, and it seemed likely that their madtroops, and with reserves of ammunition, rush again was restrained and that theyguns and airplanes, all kept in England, would be forced elsewhere to obtain aand by miracles of transportation it was spectacular success. During the sevenpossible to say that within a month 200,- weeks between March 21st and April000 fresh troops had been put into France 30th, the armies of Britain were harderand the numbers and equipment of the pressed than ever before in their historyBritisharmy brought quite up to what and they came through with flying colors.they were before the German offensive Not in the days of Wellington or Marl-campaign began. By that time, also, it borough had they shown greater tenacity
  • 193. 198 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 Cfl
  • 194. TIIK I)K( ISIVE CAMPAIGN IN TIM. YKAH 1918 1 .).)or m:>re conspicuous gallantry. Fifty- at Ostend. Later, the best known of thefive Hritish divisions had fought to a vessels used in the raid at Zrrbrugge. tin-standstill no less than 109 German divi- Vindictive, which had put the landingsions. party on the Mole, was sunk as a block- It was about this time on April 2.Jrd ade vessel off Ostend. These brilliant that the Hritish navy essayed to do performances by British seamen werewhat the Hritish army in 1917 had at- undertaken because of the evidence thattempted, namely, to prevent the enemy for months the British land forces wouldfrom using the German submarine bases be in no position to deny the enemy theon the Belgian coast at Ostend and Zee- use of his submarine bases. Their suc-brugge. Actually there was but one sub- cess did much to stimulate the resolutionmarine base and that was at Bruges, of the British people to persevere until Roumanian army reorganized, ready to strike death Mow against Germans. The Roumanian army had been by the French, and made ready to fight again.some miles inland, from which canals ran German militarism was destroyed, noto Zeebrugge and Ostend. The spectacu- matter what the sacrifices.lar raids made on the canals at these When May was reached conflictingplaces, in which 150 vessels participated, opinions were expressed by various au-were very successful and for five months thorities as to the war outlook. It wasdenied to the enemy the use of the Bel- reported that Lloyd George was almostgian coast for the purposes of submarines. irritated by the quiet confidence of Gen-Three obsolete British cruisers, filled eral Foch and that turning to the alliedwith concrete, were sunk in the shifting generalissimo he asked whether he meantsands at the mouth of the canal at Zee- to be understood as saying that he wouldbrugge and two at the mouth of the canal be rather in the position of the allies than
  • 195. 200 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918in the position of the Germans. It is saidthat the allied generalissimo answered inthe affirmative. That may have been thecase, but General Foch undoubtedly waslooking at general conditions, the vastreserves that were hurrying towards the from America and to the final out-alliescome of the war rather than to the pros-pects for the immediate future. GeneralRobertson of the British army was com-plimented by the English press at thistime for warning the British people thatthey must expect a long war, which wasan unfortunate view to express because itwas the very one that had prevented theUnited States from being ready for thefray in the spring of 1918 and the one,which, if acted on, was most likely tocause the allies to leave undone thoseextreme things that needed to be done tobaffle and defeat the enemy once and forall during the seasons campaign. Whenthe middle of May was reached, the viewof the British headquarters staff, as semi-officially uttered through the AssociatedPress was that "for the whole summerthe situation must continue to be an anx-ious one." By the middle of May the worldlearned that General Foch had beenplaced in command of all the allied forcesbetween the Adriatic and the North Seas.Serious as matters were on the Frenchfront, there was no certainty that theywould not become worse because of the Last chapter in the famous Dumba incident. Good-British and French having to increase bye, Doctor Dumba. Doctor and Madame Constantinthe aid they had extended to the Italians Dumba aboard the S. S. Nieu Amsterdam, which car- ried fonmer Austrian Ambassador and his wife thetowards the close of 1917. The Italian back home on the request to his government by the United States that he be recalled.army was so weakened by the Isonzo dis-aster that the allies during the trying daysof the following March, April and May count was desirable that the reserves of ithad to ever bear in mind that the Italian all the allied nations should be pooled andarmies, although much improved in be located and used in the way calculatedmorale and equipment, might not be able to give the best results. When Foch tookto stand alone. It was clear that the over supreme command of the Italianmoves made on the western and south- forces, it was understood that he hadwestern fronts really would be part of under his control 1,200,000 British troops,one great campaign and that the allied 1,500,000 French, 250,000 Americans andcause was almost as much concerned with 1,000,000 Italians. These figures, par-one front as with the other. On that ac- ticularly of Americans and Italians, did
  • 196. Till: 1)KC ISIVK ( AMlAICN IX THK VKAK 1918 20<not represent all the troops in reserve and had been weakened appreciably by thein training. extension of its front westward and that On the -JTtli -of .May tin- (irrman com- the only place where the French weremander-m-chicf turned from the British prepared and awaiting attack was east ofto attack the French. He had been Rheims. They also may have emphasizedamazed to find that the British had 200,- the fact that the numerous spurs running000 men whom they speedily could bring from the Aisne ridge down to the riverover from England to the battle-front would facilitate the German plan of in-and the fact that the British had made filtration and permit large forces to passgood a large proportion of their losses in comparative shelter behind the spursand that the Germans had suffered cas- into the valleyand the bridgeheads be-ualties estimated at 5.50,000 as against yond, thus cutting off the allied troopsthe British 360,000 casualties, was quite remaining on the high ground. Another "Herzog Karl," Austrian Battleship Surrendered to Italy.disconcerting. There are some indica- consideration was the fact that near thetions that the Kaiser Wilhelm and Von point where the battle-front curved awayHindenburg were disposed to continue from the ridge and passed southwardall their efforts against the British but across the Aisne, some overworked Britishthat Lwdendorff, Von Hindenburgs troops had been put in for a rest.quartermaster-general and chief lieuten- Whatever led the German leaders toant, sided with the crown prince in change their plans, the fact is that afterdemanding that a terrific drive be made pounding the British for two months andagainst the French on the Aisne heights. six days they gave the British a much- In support of their views, the crown needed rest and turned their attentions toprince and Ludendorff probably urged the comparatively fresh French armies.that the French front north of the Aisne They were then sixty miles away fron
  • 197. 202 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918Paris and fifty miles from the Channel in March did not indicate that the moraleports. Obviously the allies had much of the British troops, which had beenmore freedom of movement when the good throughout four years of war,Germans turned southward than they had deteriorated, and whether the gen-had when the waters of the Channel were eralship was not even worse. It may beso close behind them. An advance of that this feeling was weakened by thetwenty miles westward at almost any developments following the German drivepoint and of ten miles at some points beginning on May 27. On that day theprobably would have made it advisable German troops swept across the Ailettefor the allies to abandon Dunkirk, Bel- river, stormed the Aisne heights on thegium and the Channel ports and take up far side and sweeping southward reacheda front along the lower Somme river. the Aisne river in the rear of many thou- The Great German Battle Cruiser "Moltke" among those surrendered to the Allies. On the whole it appears that the Ger- sands of allied troops. The Britishmans were guilty of a first-class blunder troops sandwiched in among the Frenchwhen they gave the British a breathing were put in a particularly precarious po-spell that lasted for nearly two months sition by the collapse of the French frontor until the allies were able to return to immediately west of them. The troopsthe offensive. The best that can be said of both nations, however, fought gallant-for their tactics is that they hoped by a ly. They were attacked by forces out-sudden change of front to catch the allies numbering them by two to one. at leastoff their guard. Four days after the Aisne attack be- Up were some people to this time there gan the enemy was in full possession ofin France who were wondering whether the famous Chemin Des Dames (Ladiesthe great reverse suffered by the British Walk) and the territory taken by the
  • 198. T1IK DKC1SIVK C A.MlAIGN IN TIIK YEAR 1918 jo.}French at the cost of well on to two hun- Marne river, sixteen miles apart. Thedred thousand casualties in the abortive check to the enemy administered by theiclle offensive in April of the previous Americans came at a critical moment.year. Not only so, but the enemy was The enemy for the second time in the war80 miles beyond his starting point, hav- was across the Marne river and headinging driven a mighty wedge into the allied for Paris. The Americans, with somefront that reached allthe way to the French troops, tackled the enemy atMarne river. The front of attack was Chateau Thierry and at Jaulgonne, onmore than forty miles wide. During the the east, and hurled the enemy back tofirst three days of his advance the victor- the north bank. The enemy was not iniousenemy captured more than 400 guns great strength, fortunately, but his lossand more than 4,>,()()() prisoners, and of the bridgehead held up his advance Types of Austrian Troops That Invaded Roumania.British papers printed statements to the and made necessary for him to make iteffect that the whole war situation had elaborate preparations for forcing thebecome one of "the utmost gravity." river. The general situation still causedDuring their advance to the Marne the uneasiness and Premier Clemenceau,enemy crossed two important lateral lines whose frequent visits to the front didof communication, including the railway much to inspire confidence on the part ofrunning to Verdun from Paris through both civilians and military, took the pre-Rheims. caution of ordering the creation of a June the 4th saw some signs of im- Committee for the Defence of Paris.provement from the allied viewpoint. On It has not been made clear as to whatthat day troops from the United States extent, if at all, the defeat on the Aisnecame into action at two points on the heights was due to the faulty staff work
  • 199. 204 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 were not of the best. The measures put into effect two weeks later when the en- emy tried to widen his offensive front and merge the new Marne salient with the Montdidier salient by attacking on both sides of the Oise river were extra- ordinarily successful and the local coun- ter-attacks were much more powerful and than on any previous occa- -effective sion. American troops near Montdidier . had some part in delivering these counter blows. While the enemy advanced a maximum distance of six miles on a front of thirty miles he did not gain a spectac- ular success, a fact which was not covered up by the declaration of the Prussian War Minister that as a result of the two blows a large part of the French army had been defeated. The Aisne attack was a most spectac- ular victory, bought at a very low price, but the attack on the Oise sector un- doubtedly cost the enemy more casualties than it cost the French and the enemy made no appreciable progress towards his goal, which was the destruction of the British and Freftch armies before the power of the United States could be made to tell. American troops continued to arrive at the rate of a quarter of a mil- lion a month and already those that had preceded them were rendering aid of some consequence. The severe check administered to the Germans early in June at the Oise gave the enemy something to think about. It forced him to take time to make more careful preparation for his next attack which, in view of the advance in the sea- son, necessarily had to be much more successful than any that had preceded it. This delay was imposed on the enemy when it was only too plain to him that A United States Soldier Completely Equipped for TheService. On his back this American fighting man speed was the essence of victory.carries his blanket roll, small shovel, bag, etc. His situation for the enemy was ^most exas-canteen is at his belt. He is armed with a 30 calibreU. S. Army rifle. Minimum weight for maximum perating. He was tantalizingly near toefficiency is the principle upon which his whole out- the Channel ports and tantalizingly nearfit has been designed. to the French capital, possession of eitherof the local commander. There are some of which would have given him a power-indications that the defensive measures ful lever in securing peace. No doubt he
  • 200. The Victorious Allied Leaders Oeorge ClMMMHMi David Lloyd-George French Premier. British Drearier.r en. John I. Pershing. commanderm chief of the American expedi- Marshal Ferdinand Foch. Woodrow Wilson.tio"*rv force*. generalissimo of the allied armies of the United States. King Albert I. of Belgium. Gen. Sir Douglas Haig. ccTr. Col. E. M. House, personal Raymond Poincare. also commander of armies. in chief of the British armies adviser to President Wilson. President of France Premier Venizelos. the man Crown Prince Alexander of who did most to bring Greece King Victor Emmanuel Gen. Diaz, commander in chief Serbia, commindir ef tbe in on the side of the allies. of Italy. of the Italian armies. Serbian army.
  • 201. 206 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918also felthe was tantalizingly near to Cheered by these developments, Lloydoverpowering the hard-pressed allied George declared that "there is not thearmies which, however, always seemed to slightest doubt in my mind, surveying thehave just enough strength left to baffle whole facts, that our victory will be com-his efforts to deliver the coup de mort. plete." A few days later, Von Kuehl- A circumstance that added to the irri- mann, the German Foreign Minister, wastation of the enemy was the tardiness of dismissed for stating that a military vic-the Austrians in striking on the Italian tory was beyond the reach of either side,front. The German warlords felt that a a view he probably was put up to expresstriumph on the Italian front, where the in the hope of evoking a favorableallies held vulnerable positions, would response from the allied side, and a viewhelp materially their campaign in France. that the Kaiser and Von Hindenburg are The great Teutonic drive into Russia. Austrian troops with arms stacked enjoying a brief rest in the mountains.In the middle of June the Austrians did supposed to have shared. The extremistsattack, but after an opening success of among the warlords were furious at thisconsiderable dimensions, nature opened moderate statement, which was not un-the floodgates of heaven and severed reasonable considering that the Germancommunication with the far bank of the losses of nearly a million men in less thanPiave river, and the Austrian offensive four months had not brought a decisive Almost simultaneously thecollapsed. success.Germans made a minor attack, with An estimate of the German and allied40,000 men against the acute salient casualties in the four drives of the Ger-around Rheims, and this, too, was a dis- man offensive campaign taking placemal failure. before the first of July is as follows:
  • 202. TIIK I)K( ISIVK c AMlAIGN IN TIIK VKAK 207 German AlliedOffeiism. casualties, casualties.March 31 3.50,000 200,000April 9 200.000 160,000May 27 12.5,000 150,000June 9 22.5,000 150,000 Total casualties Mar. 81-JuIy 1 900,000 660,000 The fifth and last of the drivesof theGerman offensive campaign in 1918 be-gan on July 1.5. The allied battle- front,which formerly had stretched in a generaldirection northerly to the North Sea fromthe Aisne, now appeared as a bent andtwisted thing. It bagged alarmingly inthree places as a result of the drivingforward of the German battering-ram.These huge salients were west of Lille inthe Lys valley, between Arras and Sois-sons and between Soissons and Rheims,the last two being referred to sometimesas the Montdidier and Marne salients.Between these two salients in the Germanline the allied line curved sharply awayfrom Paris around the forests of Vllliers-Cotterets and Compiegne. On the southend of this salient, between the Marneand the Aisne, French and Americantroops applied persistent pressure duringJune and drove the enemy back two orthree miles but without reducing theMarne salient to a degree dangerous forjthe Germans. The enemy, as we have seen, was veryanxious to merge the Marne and Mont-didier salients and acquire a broad frontopposite Paris from which he couldmaintain a continuous bombardment of A Inited States Naval Militia Bugler Sounding Call "To the Colors"the city with a multitude of guns capableof firing forty miles, but the allied resist-ance here was too strong, and he deter- he could surround Hhcims and sweepmined to wage east of K helms the offen- over Kpernay and Chalons with cast, andsive he had prepared earlier in the season, three days later be forty miles from hisattacking southward, at the same time as starting point and far to the southeasthe tried to move southward and south- of Paris. Such a success would haveeastward from the east side of the Marne placed the allied armies in a more serioussalient. lie was aware that Foch had position than they were in the openingmassed troops between the Marne front month of the war.and Paris and he hoped that by eluding The last German offensive in the warthese by going round them on the east. was doomed to failure from the outset.
  • 203. 208 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918
  • 204. I III. I)K( ISIVK C A.MPAK.X IX TI K I VKAH I.HX jn-.t The enemy used half a million men in U-iter. I i icier the skilful leadership ofthis effort and would have put in more General Gouraud, they withdrew fromhad his initialattack obtained success. the heights of Moronvilliers, evaded theHe made the cardinal error of putting blow dealt at them and terribly decimatedinto the Marne salient, which was 25 the enemy as he advanced across the shat-miles deep and only 25 miles across, hun- tered outpost positions. The enemysdreds of thousands of men with the vast advance here averaged only a mile and asupplies of material required for a great half on a 25-mile front. The enemy wasdrive. 1 1 is lines of communication within in such apparent difficulty in his isolatedthe salient were vulnerable to shellfire position south of the Marne and he hadfrom three directions and his thickly- suffered such heavy losses at all pointsmassed troops were sure to encounter a without compensation, that General Foch Canadian and French troops resting around a high velocity gun captured by the Canadians.punishing fire. The consequence was concluded that the time had come forthat the best the enemy could do west of snatching the initiative from the enemy.Rheims was to advance a maximum dis- And so on July the 18th, three days aftertance of five miles on a 25-mile front, the the opening of the Germans final offen-average being only three miles. This sive effort, the allied generalissimo letadvance enabled him to gain a precarious loose the allied thunderbolt and Frenchfoothold or bridgehead south of the and American the first troops beganMarne. Here the Americans did excep- allied offensive of the year by attackingtionally well and they and the French the 25 miles of German front nearest toalways were masters of the situation. Paris. In this onslaught the allies used Kast of Rheims the French did even 200,000 troops.
  • 205. 210 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 The Honorable Robert Lansing, Secretary of State by reason of the resignation of Secretary Bryan.
  • 206. TIIK DKCISIVK CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 211 The was successful beyond allied attackall expectations. the German storm Astroops facing eastward battered them-selves in vain against the allied defencesou the east side of the Manic salient theallied offensive troops, also facing east-ward, smashed in the western side of thesalienton which the Germans were stand-ing on the defensive. Thus an attackingallied army was moving in the same direc-tion, roughly, as the German attackingforces on the far side of the salient and ata distance of oidy 25 miles in their rear, asituation seldom seen in warfare. In thefirst two days of their attack the alliesadvanced eight miles, capturing 17,000Germans and 360 guns. Within twoweeks, notwithstanding the most frantic- Getting Ready to Pay the Boys at Camp Mcade. No less than $300,000 is in sight here.opposition, they had advanced 16 miles,the Marne salient had been reduced, 500 the Germans on to the Marne by pretend-square miles of the soil of France hadbeen redeemed, and 30,000 Germans and ing weakness and that he was sure of vic-500 cannon had been captured. tory when he struck back. The whole period from March 21 to July 15 was The turning back of the tide of Ger- one of genuine anxiety for the allied mili-man invasion in 1918 was due to the same tary leaders and statesmen and as latecauses as explain the ebbing of the tide as the middle of June the allies were dis-of German militarism in 1914. The cussing whether it would be better toenemy was overconfident and underrated evacuate Paris or the Channel ports.the offensive powers of the allied forces, When the Germans began their last of-and as a result, made inadequate pro- fensive on July 15, they had a superiorityvision for the protection of the right flank of half a million men on the western frontof his advancing armies. And so when or three times the numerical superioritythe allied shock troops attacked on July18 under General Mangin they turned they had on March 21st. A much larger proportion of their men, however, hadthe flank of Von Boehms army as Gen- become battle-worn owing to unparal-eral Manoury four years before, at the leled exertions. There is not the slightestprevious battle of the Marne, had turned doubt that General Foch was gravelythe flank of Von Klucks army. On each concerned about the degree of success theoccasion the enemy was taken at a serious in July. He felt that enemy might gaindisadvantage and had to retreat. By the allies could not afford to give moretremendous effort and at great sacrifice ground as any considerable German ad-immediate disaster was averted, but the vance would imperil the integrity of thesetback in both battles deprived the Ger- allied armies or at least put the enemy inmans of their chance of victory and a position where he could bring greatdoomed them to ultimate defeat. In 1914 pressure on the allies to make peace.the commander-in-chief of the German General Foch took terrible risks inarmies was Von Moltke; in 1918 it was July in preparing to prevent a GermanVon Hindenburg. advance on Paris. He concluded that the o greater mistake can be made than enemy meant to make an attack in thatto imagine that General Foch had lured direction and therefore he withdrew 200,-
  • 207. NAPLES J E N 1 A N ITALY AND SAN MAKING Malta Channt SCALE OF MILES E A MALTESE SvlSLA I v3kletu3 Lour/Hade 12 &ut 4 from Greenwich $
  • 208. THK DKC1SIVK CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 L13 men from positions north of theSommc and held them in readiness in theregion between Paris and the nearestpoint on the battle-front. Superior (i< iman forces under Prince llupprecht ofBavaria still were menacing the vitalnorthern sector and had the Germanstrategists learned of the secret move-ment southward of allied reserves theymight have made another dash forwardtowards the mouth of the Somme andimperilled all the allied troops in Flan-ders and the Artois. The enemy appearsto have been ignorant of the secret con-centration of allied reserves opposite Soldiers charge German dummies for Red CrossParis at the expense of the northern allied benefit at Fort Hamilton. Besides the event shown in this picture, there were artillery and machinefront and when at comparatively low cost gun drills by the soldiers.the allies on the Marne and in the Cham-pagne baffled the enemys blow on July tration against the sectors to be attacked.15, without employing the bulk of their This, also, was the real explanation ofreserves, an obvious opportunity to upset the advantages gained by the inhis plans and secure the initiative devel- enemy his four-months offensive campaign. Atoped. one time it was thought that the huge We have the authority of General Foch quantities of war material and the massesfor the statement that he had in his mind of men required for an offensive couldno grandiose plan for winning the war not be brought up to any front withoutwhen he turned to the offensive. In self- being seen by the enemy in time to givedefence he had to strike back at the ample warning. It also was thought thatMarne and later on he found opportu- weeks of bombardment were necessary tonities for waging a genuine offensive reduce the enemys fortified positions.campaign. The enemys stupidity in But as the quantities of munitions andputting his head into the Marne salient the number of guns along the entire frontnoose gave Foch his first chance, and multiplied, their significance became less Fochfinding his first drive so successful, obvious, as indicating the nearness of anthought he would try another, and the and in time it became apparent offensive,second led to the third, and the offensive that a bombardment of but a few hoursfront gradually widened out until the at- would suffice to obliterate the strongesttack extended to the whole 200 miles of fortified systems. Consequently, all thatfront between Verdun and the North remained to do to obtain the tremendousSea. The main idea of General Foch in advantage of surprise and bring about athe early weeks of the offensive was to war of movement was to have hundredsput the enemy into a new hole just before of thousands of men ready to hurlhe succeeded in getting out of another through the breach before the enemyhole. On each occasion the enemy had could discover the plan and make a simi-to engage additional portions of his re- lar concentration opposite the breach. Itserves until finally he lost his offensive was this new element of surprise due topower and even the defend him- ability to the artillery of the offensive masteringself. The factor that contributed most to the fortified systems of the defensive thatthe success of the successive allied drives revolutionized warfare on the western.ts the extraordinary secrecy of concen- front and that distinguished the campaign
  • 209. 214 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 Hon. Newton S. Baker, Secretary of War.
  • 210. Till. I)K( ISIVK C AMlAKiX IN TIIK YKAK 1918 _ I -,of 1018 from those that preceded it. without it heing necessary to employ Kurils second blow, delivered with a them, the Canadians were given a specialview to retaining the mueh-pri/ed initia- course of training hack of Arras. Whentor. as struck hy British and French the time came for the attack on thetroops south of UK- Soinme river on Aug- Somme front, Foch gave orders for theust Sth. In this attack most of the glory strictest secrecy and for elaborate meas-went to the Canadian and Australian ures for deceiving the Germans. Whiletroops, which with the ">lst Hritish divi- the bulk of the Canadian troops were Battleship Pennsylvania. Super-Dreadnaught.sion and a few others comprised the best smuggled under cover of night to theassault troops in the Hritish army. The Amiens region, some battalions wereCanadian army corps had been on the moved northward to Belgium, where theyYimy front in March and then were taken moved down the roads in broad daylightout and moved south so as to be ready to with colors flying and bands playing, andcope with the enemy in the event of a were put into the firing line near Mountdeadly break through. The crisis passing Kemmel. Here telephone conversations
  • 211. 216 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 The Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy
  • 212. TIIK DKCISIVK CAMPAIGN IN THK YEAR 1918 217 put on for the express benefit of the 18 miles on a front of 25 miles takingcirnnaii listeners and enemy spies. A 14,000 prisoners and hundreds of guns!<u American troops and British shock during the first day of their advan<< .troops also went through movements sug- Many units took more prisoners than thegesting that an attack was about to !< total number of their casualties. By themade. Then when the enemy was taking end of the first day the main line of com-steps to meet a tremendous attack on the munication and retreat for the enemyMount Kemmel front, the camouflage within the Montdidier salient was gravelytroops were rushed hack to their own threatened and the enemy was under theunits and the mighty drive tip the Somme necessity of evacuating it at a much fastervalley began. rate than he abandoned the apex of the Battleship Nevada, Super-DreadnauRht. on Speed Trial. The second battle of the Somme was Marne salient. By August 12, the enemya splendid victory for the British and was retreating on most of the 100-mileFrench. The Fourth Army under Gen- front between Amiens and Rheims. In-eral Rawlinson represented the British, stead of being in Paris as he had fondlyThe enemy was completely surprised and hoped less than a month before when heswept off his feet. With the aid of tanks attacked on the Marne the enemy wasand thousands of mounted troops, the retiring towards the Hindenburg lineallies advanced a maximum distance of after suffering at least 325,000 casualties
  • 213. 218 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 11)18 80,000 of whom were captives in the the great American war expert, also inti-hands of the allies and losing 1,400 guns mated that the enemy retirement to theand 850 square miles of French territory. Hindenburg line might be unfortunate It must not be thought that the world for the allies as it had been the year be-hy this time had formed the opinion that fore, that the allies would have to slowlythe enemy would lose the war in 1918. advance through innumerable fortifiedThe public simply felt that the period of lines before they reached victory, and thatthe most intense anxiety probably was the threat to German home territory inpast. Some of the highest military au- possible thrusts by the American armythorities reminded the public that the "will hardly be grave." He even went soAdmiral Rodman, U. S. N., visits Admiral Sir David Beattys Flagship. He is seen shaking hands with the Commander in Chief.Germans had sprung a come-back after far as to say that "our enemy has toothe Byng tank attack near Cambrai in many reserves and too many preparedNovember of 1917 and that the same positions behind his present front to be in danger of disaster this year and prob-thing might happen again. Colonel Rep-ington of the London Times expressed ably next." It is clear that a"t this timethe opinion that the Germans might re- some of the experts did not sense the realsume their offensive and he advised Gen- situation.eral Foch not to be imprudent and try On August 19 the French attacked onfor a knockout in 1918. Frank Simonds, the front east of the Oise river. Their
  • 214. TIIK DFXISIVK ( AMIAIGN IN TIIK YKAK IM* 219advance here linked up the allied of- allied attack in the 1918 campaign wasfensive fronts north of the Marne and the first signify that the German toeast of Amiens. At this time the Ger- armies would he overthrown in the fight-mans still i-liin^ to Knyr and Chaulnes ing season of that year. Some mentionand held positions in the old hattle zones the attack made on October 8, when theof 1915-16 west of the upper Somme. Hindenhurg line was breached betweenTwo days later the British Third Army Camhrai and St. Quentin. It is moreunder General Byng drove forward to likely that the attacks made by the Cana-the south of Arras, advancing five miles dians and other British tnx>ps east ofon a 17-mile front and securing 10,000 Arras in the week beginning August Arrival of President and Mrs. Wilson in Brest, France, on Board S. S. George Washington.prisoners. Here the British were moving 27th really determined that the enemyat right angles to their battle-front in the would have to submit. In the drives offirst battle of the Somme. The ease with July 18 and August 8 the allies surprisedwhich they filtered down the Bapaume an enemy who virtually was out in theridge between the numerous fortified lines open, protected by only improvised de-of the previous battle quickly discredited fences and occupying ugly salients. Onthe views then in circulation about the im- August 27th, however, he was expectingpregnability of the positions they were an attack and felt confident in theabout to attack. strength of the permanent fortified sys- Opinions differ as to which particular tems he had prepared with the utmost
  • 215. 220 TIIK DKC ISIVK C AIM PA Hi N IN TIIK YKAH 1918 Rear Admiral William S. Sims, Who Commanded U. S. Fleet Abroad
  • 216. TIIK 1>K( l.MVK CA.MlAK.N 1 TIlE YKAH 191 LliLcare during the preceding two years. rest that alone could stave off disaster.These included the famous Drocourt- German have admitted that the officersQueant switch line, with a section of the smashing of the lines east of Arras byIlindenburg line in front of it and another the Canadians dashed any lingering hopesline behind it. The Canadians, who had they had of averting defeat.been taken nut of the Somme front a few The grand work of the Canadians haddays, after that drive began and hy a wide appreciable results both north and south.del our of more than fifty miles had been It hastened a German retirement frombrought up to the Arras front, were sup- the Lys river salient which already hadposed by the enemy to be taking a rest, begun and it speeded up the retirementwhereas they were sent hurling through north of the Somme. On August 29theHindenburg line on August 27 and a Bapaume and Combles were taken, Mount American Artillerymen on the Marne Frontfew days later through the even more Kemmel was abandoned to the Britishpowerful Droeourt line. Each of these and the enemy was in retreat on the 70so-called lines consisted of several series miles of front between Vpres andof entrenchments, with elaborate under- Peronne. The general situation made itground tunnels and innumerable redoubts inevitable that the enemy also shouldand machine gun posts. The wonderful withdraw on the 80 miles of front betweensuccess of the Canadians, with little or no Peronne and Rheims.help from tanks, against the positions re- By September 12 it was evident thatlied on b the enemy to check the allied the Germans were losing ground muchadxanee. eon ineed the high German com- faster than they had gained it in themand that it bad no artificial defences spring campaign. That day was madethat could give its overworked armies the famous in bistorv bv the armv of the
  • 217. 222 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 A Depth Bomb need not actually hit a submarine to destroy it.
  • 218. TIIK I)K( ISIYK CAMPAIGN IN TIIK VKAK 1!MX 228United States launching its first imlt-pendent offensive effort. The work M-signed to it was the elimination of the St.Mihiel salient which had resisted the pres-sure brought against it by the French dur-ing four years of warfare. The salient;is in the shape of a foot. had beenItthere since September, 1914, when Ger-man militarism tried to stride across theMeuse south of St. Mihiel and trampleover prostrate France. The foot was ar-rested at St. Mihiel when poised for thenext step. The First American Armyunder General Liggett, acting under thesupervision of General Pershing, attackedthis salient from the north and from thesouth, and crushed it in as though it werean eggshell, taking well on to 15,000 pris-oners and more than 100 guns. TheFrench troops co-operating with theAmericans, took 7,000 prisoners. InAugust as many as 322,000 Americantroops landed in France and the numberof men available for the front was in theneighborhood of half a million. The wip-ing out of the St. Mihiel salient per-mitted General Foch to go on with plansfor attacks on the all-important Germanlateral line of communication runningthrough Sedan and Montmedy or for anattack in Lorraine, south of Metz. On the day in which the Americansstruck hrst as an independent army, theGerman Vice-Chancellor, Von Payer, an-nounced that "Strong and courageous inthe consciousness of our own invincibility,we laugh we should first at the idea thatpenitently ask for mercy before we areadmitted to peace negotiations." Thisspeech was made to give the allies an ideaof the terms the Teutons would want ifthe allies agreed to the request Austria-Hungary was making at that moment fora peace conference in some neutral coun-tr while hostilities continued. The mainprovision was that Germany should beallowed to retain her conquests in the Eastwhile abandoning her spoils in the West Gen. Allenby commanded victorious British forces in Palestine. General Sir Edmund Henry Hymanand restoring Belgium. A few days later, Allenby who commanded the British forces that have won successes in the campaign against the Turks inthe Serbians broke the Bulgarian front in Palestine.
  • 219. THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918
  • 220. THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 225 -o. A E CJ= c C 5 u" X ItE A O XC o c ^ 3 * j="2 5^= V C < .JS 10 W ~.> C U . i - 5 O. ; w.t: > p v _o -0 j= t "Ew --S-o , * c f _9 a . c = - CS m a w rt c "> bO J? 4> c " "O ** * " ^JEsI 6 i ! .E C *C t J= u 2 ** t> C 3 ^ ilE ** C"" t C c c S rt.= ** J= e c Eve
  • 221. THE YKTORIorS RETREAT" BACK TO THE RHINE.Huns struggling. not hopefully forward to Victory, but dejectedly backward to defeat, under bombing pi<ine> ceaselessly showering death upon them.
  • 222. BIG GUNS AT CHATK f TIIIKKKY. THE ARTII.I.KKV SfFMORTKI) THK tNFANTRY -ND MADE THE GREA1 XIiloKV l()ll{LE
  • 223. 228 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 Stretcher-Bearers Bringing Wounded Under Fire From the Enemy.
  • 224. TIIK DKCISIVK CAMPAIGN IX THK YKAK I.HH 229Macedonia and the British overwhelmed Dames, the Champagne and the northernthe Turkish army in Before Palestine. Argonne. In the north the Canadian*October opened Hulgaria, finding Ger- captured Cambrai. A few days later newmany was unable to give her help, sur- Belgian and British attacks led to therendered unconditionally. capture of Lille, Ostend, Bruges, Roulers The of September saw and Menin. Retreating on the south, the closing daysallied victories up and down the all enemy surrendered Laon, La Fere and Within three days the Vouziers.western front.American forces west of the Meuse On October 22, Germany gave thesmashed forward 10 miles on a 20-mile pledges required by the allies and thefront; the French to the west of them in United States agreed to forward Ger-the Champagne advanced 7 miles on a manys request for an armistice. Already20-mile front, taking 10,000 prisoners; the allies had redeemed 6,000 square mile*the British on the Cambrai front ad- of French soil and 900 square miles ofvanced 7 miles on a 35-mile front, taking Belgian soil. According to one estimate the German and allied offensives in 191822,000 prisoners and 300 guns, and reach- up to this time, as follows:ing the outskirts of Cambrai, and the comparedBritish and Belgians on both sides of German AlliedYpres advanced 10 miles on a 20-mile Offensive Offensivefront, capturing Dixmude, Passchen- 119 days 98 daysdaele, Roulers, Menin and Langemarck, March 21- July 18-10,000 prisoners and 100 guns. At that July 18 Oct. 24time the enemy was retiring on the whole Ground capturedfront between Verdun and Nieuport with in square miles . . 2,770 7,300the exception of ten miles of front next Guns captured 2,200 4,600the coast. Prisoners taken 200,000 300,000 The outlook now became so alarming Casualties inflictedfor Germany that on Saturday, October by attacking5, Germany intimated to President Wil- army 700,000 1,000,000son that she desired an armistice and u Casualties sufferedpeace conference in which the 14 points by attackingof President Wilson would be the basis army 1,000,000 700,000of discussion. The allies saw that Ger- According to this estimate the totalmany preferred to talk rather than to allied casualties from March 21, werefight and they insisted on Germany bind- 1,400,000 and those of the Germansing herself more specifically and also that 2,000,000. The allied losses had beenduring negotiations she conduct warfare made good by the increase of the Amer-according to the laws of nations and ican forces which now comprised twootherwise give evidence of good faith. In armies, the Second being under Generalthe meantime they redoubled their efforts Bullard. Including troops in trainingto destroy the German armies, and on the United States had 2,000,000 menOctober 8, with the aid of many thou- across seas.sands of American troops, the British The events during the last week ofcrashed through the powerful Hinden- October suggested that the war was hur-burg defences north of St. Quentin and rying to an end. The Italians attackedin two days advanced into open country on the Piave front and with British storm-beyond to a depth of 12 miles on a 20- troops and a small American force play-imle front, taking 200 guns and 20,000 ing an important role, broke through theprisoners, This success precipitated an Austrian army, capturing 100,000 menenemy retirement from the Chemin des and 600 guns, and placing the remainder
  • 225. 230 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 E c U o y.
  • 226. TIIK DKC IS1VK CAMPAIGN IN THK VKAH 1918 281 French entering Village after Armistice locating bomh trapsof the Austrian forces, which were handi- dashed forward 11 miles, south of alliescapped by revolutions in Bohemia and the Dutch frontier, and reached Ghent.Jugo-Slavia, at the mercy of the allies. One hundred miles away on the southeastOn November 4 the Austrians signed an the French and Americans did magnifi-armistice that represented absolute sub- cent work. The enemy, in trying to re- treat to his own country, had to passi ms%inn. Vhen this armistice went into through two "funnels," the one runningeffect 1,000,000 Austrians and 6,000 guns eastward through Liege and the other in reality the whole Austrian army- southeastward through Sedan and Mont-were in the possession of Italy. medy. The Ardennes forest and hills ly- During the first week in November the ing between these funnels prevented hasty
  • 227. JSJ THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 u I
  • 228. i UK DKCISIVK CAMPAIGN IN TIIK YKAK MM*withdrawal there, and the two funnels Germany submitted to the humiliatingwere quite unequal to the demands made conditions by which Germany securedupon them. Matters, therefore, were exemption from further attack.made doubly critical for the enemy when It was on the morning of Monday,the Americans advanced 14 miles on a "Jo- November 11, that Germany admittedmile front west of the Meuse and reached herself beaten and placed herself at thepoints only 10 miles from Montmedy and mercy of the allied and associated pow-!."> miles from Sedan ers. When the fighting stopped her Recognizing that the jig was up, Ger- armies had been forced across the frontiermany on November 8 applied on the bat- of France on a front of 120 miles stretch-tlefield to General Foch for an armistice, ing southeastward from the North Sea.as directed to do by President Wilson. The enemy still was west of the FrenchThis did not put an immediate end to hos- border along a stretch of 160 miles. Thetilities. The British went on and cap- area he occupied in France then was oftured Maubeuge. From Germany came varying width embracing about 1,500 Armistice Parties MeetingGermans Approaching*reports that the fleet, as a last resort, had square miles. He also retained more thanbeen ordered to give battle to the British 9,000 square miles in Belgium. Had hegrand fleet and that the German crews not cried quits, however, his armies wouldhad mutinied and joined a revolutionary have been overwhelmingly defeated withmovement that speedily swept over Ger- in a few weeks, for they were nearly in amany. The Kaiser and Crown Prince helpless condition and Foch had a tremen-had refused to sign documents of abdica- dous offensive in Lorraine south of Met/tion but on the advice of their generals ready to launch. Monster British air-had from their army headquarters at fled planes also were under orders to bombSpa to Holland where they were in- Berlin when orders arrived to cancel allterned. Vet still the allied troops pressed such undertakings. By a peculiar coinci-on. The French and Americans reached dence of history, Canadian troops, actingSedan and Mezieres and got astride one with the British army, who had takenline of retreat. Italian troops, which ear- Denain and Valenciennes, captured Monslier in the summer had fought in the themorning that the armistice ended hos-Rheims captured Rocroi. During salient, tilities, thus bringing the British back tothe lasttwo days of fighting the allies the point in Belgium where they beganadvanced 15 miles on a front of 100 miles. fighting more than four years before..And then the delegates of revolutionary W. R. P.
  • 229. 284 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH ii)i a i rt cr o
  • 230. The Aftermath of The Armistice tHAPTKK XIII AKMISIUI ll.KMS NOT SKVKKK (iKK.MAN NAVAL SURRENDER IMPOSING SPECTAl -OCCUPATION OF GERMANY BEGUN - I 1 EBERT BECOMES GERMAN LEADER LLOYD GEORGE SUSTAINED 1IU.S. WILSON HEARTILY RECEIVED -- POLISH INVASION OF GERMANY LEAGUE OF NATIONS RESOLUTIONS. The armistice terms imposed on Ger- began, Germany was with only 18, leftmany by the allied and associated powers as she necessary to scrap 20 had found itwere severe but not more so than was pre-Dreadnoughts after the Battle ofnecessary to ensure that Germany should Jutland. An additional Dreadnoughtnot resist any longer the will of the allies. was given up in December.The most humilating feature was the The original armistice terms wereprovision requiring the surrender of the amended from time to time. In mostbest fighting ships of the German navy cases the changes made with each month-without their firing a shot as a protest ly renewal rendered Germany more help*against the onerous terms of the peace lessbefore the allies. The number ofsettlement. The world never has wit- machine guns the enemy had to surren-nessed a more pathetic spectacle than that der, however, was reduced by 5,000 toafforded on November 21st, ten days 25,000 and the number of airplanes byafter the signing of the armistice, when 300 to 1,700. The number of motor lor-fourteen German Dreadnoughts, seven ries was reduced from 10,000 to 5,000.acont cruisers and fifty destroyers The reason for these changes was thatsteamed across the North Sea under the the Germans had less equipment than haddirection of their own crews and tamely been estimated. On the other hand thesurrendered to the allied fleet fifty miles enemy was called upon to turn over 150,-to the east of the Firth of Forth. These 000 railway cars or three times the num-surface warships later were interned in ber originally fixed. Without these thethe Scapa Flow, in the Orkney Islands. German army could not conduct seriousAlmost simultaneously scores of German military enterprises or the country be fedsubmarines were surrendered to the Brit- except by grace of the allies. The alliesish off Harwich. In the course of a few also stipulated that they should be freeweeks the number was increased to more to occupy the so-called neutral strip eastthan 120 and it became known that the of the Rhine, north of Mainz, if they sonumber of underwater boats that Ger- desired, and a small bridgehead east ofmany would be required to give up would Strassburg.exceed the original limit set of 160. Un- On November 14 American and Frenchcompleted submarines and surface war- troops crossed the Lorraine frontier inships not being surrendered were re- the rear of the evacuating German forces.quired to dismantle and the crews of the Four days later Belgian troops were inlatter to be paid off. To see that the Brussels and Antwerp, and Frenchterms were thoroughly fulfilled, the Brit- troops in Mulhausen and Colmar. Notish Dreadnought Hercules, accompanied a living German soldier remained onby torpedo boat destroyers, visited the French soil with the exception of prison-German naval strongholds after the Ger- ers. By November 25 British troops hadmans, themselves, had swept away the reached Namur in Belgium and all Al-mine harriers. Of 48 German warships forces. Ten days before Christmas thecapable of entering the line when war sace-Lorraine had been occupied by allied i
  • 231. 230 THE AFTERMATH OF THE AHMISTH K rt U _f^ d> ^ .c << o o ^ u *- rt p w ** S 41
  • 232. THK Al TK10IATII OF TIIK AK.MISTK K 237 allied troops rre safely entrenched in show heaitietmttl towards hundreds of their three great bridgeheads at Cologne, thousands of allied prisoners at the very Coblenz and Mainz, the British at Co- time that their country needed mercy atlogne, the Americans at Coblenz and the the hands of the allied peoples. The ex-French at Mainz. planation under the circumstances prob- By the end of November a consider- ably was stupidity and distraction ratherable number of Canadian prisoners-of- than deliberate cruelty stupidity be-war had reached Metz from prison camps cause for selfish reasons the Germansin the Khineland. American troops had should have made the care of their pris-passed beyond Metz in their movement oners their first concern; distraction be-eastward and joyfully greeted the Amer- cause Germany was in a terrible conditionican and Canadian prisoners whom they and her new rulers "Were overwhelmedCzecho-Slovaks at Vladivostok ready to leave for the Russian Interior. The armies of the Czecho-Slovaks that attempted to free Siberia from the Bolsheviki.had met tramping wearily towards the with the multitude of great tasks requir-west. Nearly 18,000 British prisoners had ing urgent attention.reached England. Of these 8,794 arrived A correspondent with the British forcesat Hull from Holland; 8,271 at Dover states that he was in Huy, 12 milesand 500 at London. The British Gov- beyond Namur, when the Canadian van-ernment sternly warned Germany that guard entered the place. One of our menshe would accept no explanations for the was asked where was the front line andill-treatment or criminal neglect of the answered, "In the centre of the highprisoners while on their way to the Ger- street, sir." The boys from Canada mustman border. One wonders what pos- have looked with .great interest at thesessed the German rulers that they should forts of Namur, perched on precipitous
  • 233. 238 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE
  • 234. THE Al TKR.MATII OF THK AK.MISTK I. 239cliffs, which quickly succumbed to the fire ting a released comrade. All wereof the mighty German LJ-ccntimct re footsore and weary and some were veryhowit/crs in August of 1914, bringing bitter over the inhuman treatment ofabout the fall of a great bastion in tin- which they had been victims, but theirallied front. It was at Huy, on the south passage through Belgium was made eas-side of the Meuse, that the Germans ier by the plaudits and comforts heapedforced a crossing to the north and began on them by the grateful Belgian people.their surprisingadvance north-westward The time limit for the evacuation byon Brussels and then south-westward on the Germans of Belgium, Luxemburg,Lille and Mons, where the British, who and Alsace-Lorraine expired on Novem-awaited them found themselves hopeless- ber 27. All German soldiers not out ofly outflanked on the left, their right those regions by that time were liable toexposed by the unannounced retirement capture and internment. It was amaz-Lanadian i loneers carrying split logs across a stream. A trench mat is used as a bridge. Each man wears steel hat and gas mask, pear Vimy Ridge.of the French from Charleroi and their ing. therefore, that the Dutch Govern-front menaced by forces superior by three ment should have allowed 08,000 Germanto one. All the way up the Sambre and troops to pass through the peninsula ofMeuse valleys from Mons to Liege the Dutch territory that prevented their( anadians met multitudes of allied pris- quick return to their homeland. The ex-oners pouring homeward from the hateful cuse that the Belgians wanted to get ridprison camps of the Hun. The majority of them and that the Germans were de-of them were French, English, Italian, prived of their arms at the border was notand Russian soldiers, some of them wear- sufficient. Holland was guilty of an un-ing parts of uniforms of nations other neutral act in allowing troops of a bel-than their own, but here and there, no ligerent country to cross her territoriesdoubt, the Canadians had the pleasure of to escape the consequences of warfare.
  • 235. 240 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE ; ; ^>> v- ^#;.5H --1 - * fe#5
  • 236. TIIK AFTERMATH OF TIIK ARMISTICE 241As a consequence she had to agree to o pc rationtheir view that the manualallow the alli< -s t<> scud supplies across her workers of the country should disenfran-territories to the allied army of occupa- chise and despoil all the other citizens oftion in (icrmaiiv. the country. Thousands of men and In Germany serious political trouble women were shot down during the dis-developed early in 1919. The Ebert orders in Berlin and elsewhere but finallyno( mineiit that had displaced the short- the government secured the upper handJived government of Prince Maxmilian and the elections were held. In these theof Baden, had been composed of three Majority Socialists made considerableMajority Socialists and three Indepen- gains and, although not having a major- Knights of Columbus Overseas Relief Hut. This hut is a copy of a relief camp close to the lines, con-structed of the driftwood of the battle area. The hinges and latch are made of shoe and harness leather.In it *he secretary gives free to American or ally tobacco, cigarettes, chocolate, first aid. etc.dent Socialists. The latter resigned or secured their position as ity of the seats,were dismissed from the government and the strongest party in the House.a wing of the Independent Socialists Premier Ebert set forth his positioncombined with the Spartacans, or Ger- about this time in a striking address toman Bolsheviki, and tried to prevent the soldiers who had returned to the capitalholding of elections for a National Con- from the front. This is what he said:stituent Assembly. They knew that the "Your deeds and sacrifices are unex-vast majority of the people were against ampled. Xo enemy overcame you. Onlythem and they attempted to put into when the preponderance of our opponents
  • 237. 242 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE
  • 238. THE AFTERMATH Ol I HK AHMISTH I 248in men and material grew ever heavier two leaders comparative quiet prevaileddid we abandon the struggle. You en- in Germany and the men who had beendured indescribable suflVrings, ucconi- called the Kaiser-Socialists, because theyplished incomparable deeds and gave, had voted for war credits and condonedvear after year, proofs of your unshake- war outrages, remained in power,able courage. You protected the home- Before the Peace Conference assem-land from invasion, sheltered your wives, bled general elections also were held inchildren and parents from flames and United Kingdom. the Here Lloydslaughter and preserved the nations George was overwhelmingly sustained soworkshops and fields from devastation. far as the number of seats was concernedWith deepest emotion the homeland although the popular vote showed thatthanks you. You can return with heads his Coalition government only receivederect. Never have men done or suffered 5,028,345 votes against 4,330,600 securedmore than you. by the anti-Coalition candidates. The "The German people ha,ve shaken off old Liberal party of H. H. Asquith wasthe old rule. On you, above all others, eliminated in this election and the Laborrests the hope of German freedom. The group became strong enough numericallyhard requirements of the victors are to be entitled to rank as the official Oppo-heavy upon us but we will not collapse, sition. The election results were a greatWe will build a new Germany. With personal tribute to Lloyd George as thethe strength and unshakeable courage you man who had led the British people tohave proved a thousand times, see to it victory. They ajso seemed to indicatethat Germany remains united and that that the British people desired that Ger-the old misery of a system of small states many should be made to pay the penaltydoes not overtake us again. The unity for her criminal responsibility in begin-of the German nation is a work of re- mng the war and waging it with extraor-ligion, of socialism. We must work with dinary barbarism.all our strength if we are not to sink to In France there were reports that Pre-the state of a beggar people. You are mier Clemenceau would be outvoted butlaying down the arms which, borne by the when he had explained his attitude to-sons of the people, should never be a wards the peace settlement and interven-danger but only a protection for the peo- tion in Russia he scored a great triumphpie whose happiness your industrious in the House, his budget going throughhands must build up from new founda- with a majority of 246.tons." The visit of President Wilson to Eu- There were few signs of repentance in rope to attend the Peace Conferencethese words. caused controversies both at home and Two days before the German general abroad as to the wisdom of this unprece-elections were held Dr. Liebknecht and dented move but the heartiness of hisRosa the leaders of the Luxemburg, reception in the various capitals beforeSpartacans, were arrested and killed the Conference met seemed to indicateunder very suspicious circumstances, that the masses largely were in sympathyLiebknecht was shot down as he was try- with his dream of establishing peace on aing to escape and Rosa Luxemburg was permanent basis. Later on his work intaken from her guards and beaten to behalf of the League of Nations furtherdeath. At least that is the official ex- justified his prolonged absence fromplanation. The circumstances strongly Washington.suggest that the officers of the guards Pending the decisions of the Peaceconnived at their assassination. During Conference, Jugo-Slavia and Czecho-the weeks following the deaths of these Slovakia set themselves up as indepen-
  • 239. 244 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICEdent states and the troops of both clashed sian Bolshevik government advancedwith Italian forces, particular those of westward for nearly two hundred miles,Jugo-Slavia in Dalmatia which had been boasting as they came that they wouldpromised to Italy when she entered the overrun all Europe and tear up any peacewar on the side of France and Britain treaty the allies might dictate. The alliedbut which was populated mainly by Slavs. nations became much perplexed as to theThe Czecho- Slovaks also clashed with the course to take towards the Russian Bol-First photograph showing the reading of the Terms of Armistice to the British troops immediately after hostilities ceased.Germans on the west and the Poles on shevik government as their peoples hadthe north, while Lemberg changed hands had enough of war without interfering inmore than once as Poles fought bitterly purely Russian affairs, and so at the sug-with the Ruthenians of the surrounding gestion of Premier Porden of Canadacountry. In German Poland, fighting they invited the Bolsheviki and all thetook place between Poles and Germans other Russian factions to meet in confer-and east of Poland the army of the Rus- ence on the Princes Islands near Con-
  • 240. 2..wXu55wOSHOHtfH2:O-92U14KujSxH
  • 241. ac
  • 242. TIIK Al TKKMATH OK TIIK AK.M ISTICK 249 i mtinople in the sea Marmora. war for .selfish purposes in which she was A great political figure in the war, one making a tool of France, and that Ger-better known to Europe than to this con- many in resisting the growing power oftinent, passed off the scene early in 1919 the United States, was really the cham-in Count Von Hertling. the person of pion of all Europe. Von Hertling for-This man was Chancellor of Germany, a merly was Premier of Bavaria and was aposition equivalent to that of Premier, Roman Catholic. He displaced Michaelisbut vested with greater powers, from as Chancellor, Michaelis l>eing a bureau-November of 1917 to October of 1918. cratic stop-gap. Von Hertling wasIn other words, he controlled Germanys chosen to succeed Michaelis because itdestinies from the time the colossal dis- was hoped he would detach the Centre oraster to the Italian armies took place until Clerical party from the Majority Partiesthe counter-offensive of General Foch who were demanding a democratic peaceforced Germany to seek an armistice on and because he was influential with theBarbed Wire Entanglements Failed to Stop Our Boys in the Great Drive. Americans Are Here Seen Going Through German Wire.the western front. Before and after he Vatican and likely to check the tendencybecame Chancellor he did his best to of Bavaria to break away from Prussia.cause dissension between the allies and to More than once he said that the questiontrap them into peace discussions. He of Alsace-Lorraine was the only barrierprofessed to favor peace without annexa- to peace. He favored adding Lorrainetions or indemnities but in February of to Prussia and Alsace to Bavaria, but1918 he put the screws on Russia and was bitterly opposed to returning theRumania, stripped them of territory and Provinces to France. He did not giveeconomic independence and made them up his office as Chancellor until PrinceGermanys vassals. In his day he taught Maximilian assumeoT power on benalf orthe divine right of military officers as well the revolution. Prince Maximilian short-as the divine right of kings and absolute ly thereafter became Prince Regent andsubmission to religious authority. He left the Chancellorship to Ebert, who waspretended that Britain was waging the termed premier.
  • 243. 2.50 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE
  • 244. TIIK Al TKKMATH OF THK AK.MISTK K 251 represented the best type of statesmen in the days when rivalry between nations was keenest. It cannot be said that he was peculiarly adapted for the work of laying a new foundation for the society of nations based on co-operation for the good of all. On Saturday, January 18, the first session of the Peace Conference was held in Paris. Forty-eight years previously, at Versailles, just outside Paris, the Ger- man Kmpire was proclaimed by the vic- torious King of Prussia, following the war of 1870. The Peace Conference of 1919 was called to determined the condi- tions ending The Great War and to veto ?ral thanking the American soldiers for the treaty of Versailles, restore Alsace- their bravery under fire. Lorraine to its rightful owner and write The death of Colonel Roosevelt syn- "Finis" across the inglorious history of the German Empire.chronised with that of Von Hertling andremoved a warm friend of Great Britain The first series of resolutions adoptedand one who never ceased to champion by the Conference were as follows:the justice of the allied cause in 1/ie war. On the League of Nations.It cannot be said that the United States "That it is essential to the maintenancewould not have intervened without the of the world settlement which the Asso-stimulating effect of "Teddys" propa- ciated Nations are now met to establishganda, for President Wilson secured a that a League of Nations be created tofree hand when he was returned to power promote international obligations andas the man who had kept his country out provide safeguards against war. Thisof the great struggle. Nevertheless, the league should be created as an integralwritings and speeches of Colonel Roose- part of the general treaty of peace, andvelt were a real factor in convincing the should be open to every civilized nationbest elements in the United States that which can be relied on to promote itstheir country should throw all her re- objects.sources into the scales against Germanic "The members of the league shouldbarbarism. So far as the military aspect periodically meet in international confer-of the allied cause is concerned the allies ence, and should have a permanent or-had no stouter champion. Perhaps the ganization and secretaries to carry on theredoubtable colonel was too virile or too business of the league in the intervals be-domineering a character to subscribe to tween the conferences.the idealistic features of the allied cause. "The Conference, therefore, appoints aHe probably believed that mankind committee representative of the Asso-gained something out of the rivalry and ciated Governments to work out thestrife between nations and that life would details of the constitution and the func-become too insipid were a League of tions of the league."Peace to straighten out all serious inter- On Responsibility.national disputes without recourse to "That a commission composed of twoanus. In one sense the Colonel belonged representatives apiece from the five Greatto the old school. He was a true friend, Powers and five representatives to bea formidable foe and a man of honor. He elected by the other powers be appointed
  • 245. 252 THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICEto enquire and report upon the following: Great Powers and not more than two "First The responsibility of the au- representatives apiece from Belgium, warthors of the ; Greece, Poland, Roumania and Serbia, to examine and report: "Second The facts as to breaches of "First, on the amount of reparationthe laws and customs of war committed which the enemy countries ought to pay;by the forces of the German Empire andtheir allies on land, on sea, and in the air second, on what they are capable of pay- ing, and, third, on the method, the formduring the present war; and time within which payment should be "Third The degree of responsibility made."for these offences attaching to particularmembers of the enemys forces, including On International Legislation.members of the general staffs and other "That a commission composed of twoindividuals, however highly plac id ; representatives apiece from the five Great Looking at First Sight Like a Group of Antediluvian Monsters Squatting in the Open Before Starting on Their Prowl. At a "Tankdrome" on the Cambrai Front. "Fourth The constitution and proce- Powers and five representatives to bedure of a tribunal appropriate to the trial elected by the other powers representedof these offences; at the Peace Conference be appointed to "Fifth other matters cognate or enquire into the conditions of employment Any from international aspect and to considerancillary to the above which may arise in the international means necessary tothe course of the enquiry, and which the secure common action on matters affect-commission finds it useful and relevant totake into consideration." ing conditions of employment and to rec- ommend the form of a permanent agencyOn Reparation. to continue such enquiry and considera- "That a commission be appointed which tion, in co-operation with and under theshallcomprise not more than three repre- direction of the League of Nations."sentatives apiece from each of the five On International Control.
  • 246. TIIK AFTERMATH OF TIIK ARMISTICE 253 "That a commission composed of two traliu, South Africa and India each beingrepresentatives apiece from the five Great allowed two representatives. The s!/e ofPOULTS and five representatives to be ap- the representation of each nation was de- cided upon not, as proposed by thepointed by the other powers enquireand report upon the international regime French plan, in accordance with the partfor ports, waterways and railways." played by the nation in the war, but fol- The delegates of the Great Powers on lowing the American and British plan,the Committee to plan for the League of in proportion to the extent of the interestNations were: For the United States, of each nation in the peace settlement*President Wilson and Col. Edward M. Bra/il, Belgium and Serbia were givenHouse; Great Britain, Lord Robert Cecil three representatives. Greece, Poland,and Gen. Jan Christian Smuts; France, Czecho-Slovakia, Roumania and China One of the various kinds of machine guns that were used against the Germans on the West- ern Front. This gun was invented by an American.Leon Bourgeois and Ferdinand Lar- were assigned two representatives each.naude, dean of the Faculty of Law of Portugal, and the states which did notthe University of Paris; for Italy, Pre- declare war upon Germany but merelymier Orlando and Vitterio Scialioa; broke off diplomatic relations with her, were given one delegate each. BrazilJapan, Viscount Chinda and K. Ochiai. owes her treatment to her historic position France, Britain, the United States, as a former empire and her population ofItaly and Japan were given five repre- more than twenty millions which workedsentatives each in the Peace Congress. against placing her seconder" to nationsThe British dominions were represented much less peopled.apart from Great Britain, Canada, Aus- W. R. P.
  • 247. 2.54 c. D pq
  • 248. The Price of Victory CHAPTER XIV A COLOSSAL TOLL -- LAR(JK PKHlKXTACK OF LIVKS LOST -- HALF OF ENLISTED NUMBER WOUNDED OR KILLED VALUE OF DE- STROYED PROPERTY ENORMOUS TOTAL WAR DEBT IMMENSE - LOSSES IN SHIPPING TONNAGE -- RUSSIAN PROBLEM - - VICTORY DUE TO COMBINED AID. The terrible price paid by humanity in form lost their lives, that civilians to ablood and tears and money to save Civ- number almost equally large were nms-ilization from the Hun cannot be told in sacred or died from famine and want,words. The struggle was of so colossal and that many other millions of potentiala nature, spread over so wide an area and lives were lost. As to the money cost ofaffected human life in such a multitude of the war, a rough and ready way of put-ways that it is impossible to record with ting it is to say that it used up more thanany degree of accuracy or in great detail one-third of all the wealth of the world,the sum total of misery that it entailed. Combining official with semi-officialMost of the estimates of the number of and unofficial statements we get the fol-soldiers who died from wounds and dis- lowing estimate of the numbers of menease are under rather than over the actual enlisted, the lives lost and the total cas-figures. It is an extremely conservative ualties of the principal belligerent conn-estimate that eleven million men in uni- tries: Men Lives Total Unlisted Lost Casualties United States :.... 3,764,700 72,738 262,693 British Empire 10,000,000 975,000 3,049,991 France 7,000,000 1,500,000 4,500,000 Italy 5,000,000 500,000 1,500,000 Russia 14,000,000 3,000,000 8,000,000 Belgium 500,000 100,000 350,000 Serbia 500,000 125,000 375,000 Rumania 600,000 150,000 400,000 Total for Allies 41,364,700 6,422,738 18,437,684 Germany 12,000,000 2,750,000 8,500,000 Austria-Hungary 7,500,000 1,750,000 5,000,000 Turkey 1,750,000 300,000 1,000,000 Bulgaria 1,100,000 200,000 550,000 22,350,000 5,000,000 15,050,000 Total for all belligerents 63,714,700 11,422,738 33,487,684 The casualties of the Canadian forces, Died of disease 220 5,185 5,405which were included in the above totals Wounded . -7,130 148,659 155,71 """ *,575for the British empire are officially given Presumed dead 142 4,529 4,671"follows: 41 384 425 Missing ^ . . Deaths in Canada 2,221 Officers Ranks TotalHilled in action 1,842 33,824 35,666 Totals ?. 9,989 204,397 220,182Died of wounds.... 614 11,806 12,420 The total deaths were 60,383. 256
  • 249. 256 THE PRICE OF VICTORY The Australian losses were slightly Wounded slightly 92,036heavier than those of Canada although Wounded 43,168the Commonwealths population is much Wounded severely 54,751smaller. Total U. S. wounded 189,955 The casualties for the United States Total U. S. casualties 262,693are given as follows: The number of men in the British navyKilled in action 28,363 who lost their lives was 33,361. TheDied of wounds . 12,101 number in the British merchant marineDied of disease 16,034 which were lost totalled 14,661, making aDied from other causes 1,980 grand total of 48,002 British lives lost atMissing in action 14,260 sea. The British casualties in the various Total dead for U. S... . 72,738 arenas were made up thus: Percentage Total of dead in Arena Casualties No. Dead total losses France and Belgium 2,070,000 560,000 20 Dardanelles 119,000 33,000 28 Mesopotamia 97,000 31,000 30 Egypt and Palestine 58,000 16,000 27 Macedonia 27,000 7,600 28 East Africa i 7,000 9,100 51 Italy 6,700 1,020 15 The above figures for the western arena Italy 15,000,000,000do not include the missing or the dead Rumania 3,000,000,000who died from wounds sometime after Serbia . 2,000,000,000being wounded. Bulgaria claimed her losses reached the T.ot.al Expendituresamazing figure of 1,353,000 made up as by Allies $200,000,000,000follows : Germany $ 52,000,000,000 Killed 101,000 Austria-Hungary " 30,000,000,000 Wounded 1,152,000 5,000,000,000 Turkey Prisoners .. 100,000 Bulgaria 3,000,000,000 Total 1,353,000 Total Germanic Ex- This total was easily double that of penditures $110,000,000,000most estimates. The number of wounded Expended by all bellig-also showed an unusually high rate as erents on the war $310,000,000,000compared with the number of dead. Bul-garias casualties in The Great War prob- In nearly every case the war debt ofably were under 600,000. the belligerents involves interest charges The war expenditures of the various of from two to three times the govern-belligerents have been estimated as fol- ment revenue before the war.. The 1919lows: French budget called for an expenditureBritain $ 60,000,000,000 three and a half times greater than theUnited States 50,000,000,000 pre-war expenditures or for an amountRussia 30,000,000,000 supposed to be equal to one-half of allFrance . 40,000,000,000 the earnings of the French people for the
  • 250. TIIK PRICK 01 VICTORY 257year. The billions of dollars Germanyhas to pay in reparation of course shouldbe added, properly speaking, to the Ger-man cost of the war. During the great allied offensive onthe western front in 1918, the alliedarmies captured 3<;j,.V>5 prisoners, in-cluding 7,990 officers, as well as 6,217cannon, 38,622 machine guns and 3,907mine throwers, or more than one-third ofthe enemys artillery. The allies during the month of Octobercaptured 108,343 prisoners, including 2,-472 officers, as well as 2,064 cannon,13,639 machine guns, and 1,193 minethrowers. The American forces inFrance during the strenuous campaign of1918 captured 44,000 Germans and 1,400guns. The British figures of air fight- official American Poles March to the Front in France. The the British Western front from regiment was raised and trained in the United Statesing upon and all the men and officers are citizens of the UnitedJanuary 1, 1918, to the date of the armis- States.tice show that the number of enemymachines destroyed in aerial combats by ish air forcewas the largest in the world.the British totalled 3,060, while enemy In August, 1914, the British naval andmachines driven down out of control military air services together musterednumbered 1,174. Germany is known to planes, 45 seaplanes and 7 airships, whilehave lost well over six thousand airplanes at the close of hostilities she had 21,000destroyed and surrendered during the airplanes, 1,300 seaplanes and 103 air-year. On the other hand, the resources ships. Besides this there were 25,000 air-of the allies were reinforced by 1,700 Ger- planes and seaplanes being built andman machines of modern type and in 55,000 airplane engines under contract.good serviceable condition. In 1914, 45 bombs were dropped on Great Britain was pre-eminent in the Paris. In 1915, 70 bombs, 62 of them onair at the close of the war, when the Brit- March 20, fell on the city. In 1916, the 185 officers and 1,853 men of other ranks. In November, 1918, there were 30,000 officers, 264,000 men. At the outbreak of the war Great Britain had 166 air- enemy employed 61 bombs against Paris, and in 1917, 11. During the last ten months of the war there were 1,211 cas.- ualties from 396 bombs. Airplanes and Zeppelins dropped 228 bombs on August 6, killing two persons and injuring 392. The long-range cannon fired 168 shells into Paris, killing 196 and wounding 417. In this photograph arc seen the American Artillery On Good Friday, 1918, more than 100before Metz. the capital of Alsace, firing into the Ger-man lines. persons were killed.
  • 251. 258 THE PRICK OF VICTORY American shipyards during November. In addition 63 smaller vessels of 18,108 gross tons were constructed during the same period. The triumphant close of the war waged on behalf of civilization by the allies provided enough glory to go all around. Each of the allied nations could afford to show a generous appreciation of the part played by the others. The truth is that individually all of the five first-class powers that fought on the side of the allies rendered service that was essential to the final success. These five included Russia, which made a most valuable con- Trophies Captured by the Americans from the Hunsat the Battle of Leichfrey. Among the other trophies tribution until she broke under the terrificin the picture may be seen a Boche gun, gas mask, strain of war. Several small powers ren-wire-cutter and canteen. dered most valuable service. For in- British merchant tonnage losses were stance, Belgium, whose little army for a9,031,828 gross tons from the beginning brief period stayed the advance of theof the war to Oct. 31, 1918. New con- German hordes and gave the British andstruction in the United Kingdom in the French a chance to assemble their forces.same period was 4,342,296; purchases Rumania and Serbia also interfered soabroad were 530,000 tons and enemy ton- seriously with the enemys plans as to at-nage captured was 716,520. The net loss tract the attention of large Teutonicwas 3,443,012 tons. In the last seven forces which might have been used else-months of the war the output exceeded where with great effect. Had the Britishthe worlds losses by more than 1,000,000 Empire, France, Russia, Italy or thetons. In the case of Great Britain, al- United States not participated in thethough the output had not overtaken the struggle, had any of them failed to givelosses, yet if purchases abroad were taken the help they afforded, it is hard to seeinto account, the losses of the last five how Germany would have been broughtmonths were balanced by the gains. to her knees by the fall of 1918. by It is no means certain that the non-participa- The losses merchant vessels by in tion of any one of them would not haveenemy action and marine risk from the permitted the Central Powers to acquirebeginning of the war to the end of Octo- greater prestige as a result of the conflict.ber, 1918, was 15,053,786 gross tons. Inthe same period 10,849,527 tons were con- At present Russia is under a cloud.structed and 2,392,675 tons of enemy ves- The allied peoples feel that she treacher-sels captured. This makes the net loss ously deserted them in a crisis, imperil-of tonnage during the war 1,811,584 tons. ling their victory, increasing their sac-One hundred and two ocean going steam- rifices and prolonging the war. Thatships of 330,336 gross tons, were built by feeling is natural and justifiable. Never-
  • 252. TIIK 1KK K OF VICTORYtheless, it is a fact that the educated andbusiness classes in Russia bitterly deploretlu- degradation of their country and arethe most unfortunate victims of the ruleof the Bolshevik. The masses of the peo-ple, ignorant, easily duped, grief-strickenwith their losses in the fighting, on theverge of starvation, freed from the des-potism of Czarism only to pass under thehateful despotism of Bolshevikism, arebewildered and distracted arid gropingblindly towards the light. What Russiahas done she did not mean to do. Russia American officers examining captured German howitzer. Officers of the 26th Division examining awill emerge from the bog and the black- German 210 howitzer captured by the 102nd Infan-ness and take a leading place among the try. 26th Division in France.great democratic nations. To-day she isto be pitied much more than she is to be sia during August of the first year ofcondemned. To-morrow, for our own war and caused the enemy to rail enoughsake as well as for hers, we must aid her divisions from the west to permit theto the full extent of our ability. In the allies to win the first battle of the Marne the only truly decisive battle in themeantime, we should recognize that whenthe war began the great military power war; that Russia struck again in 1916of the allied side was not Britain, France when Italy was hard pressed, won tre-or Italy, but Russia, slow-moving but ter- mendous victories and brought appreci-rible in her might; that the enemy able relief to the Italians, and that in 1917, after the revolution, Kerensky suc-planned to overthrow the French andBritish in 1914 so that he would be able ceeded in inducing the Russian army toto cope in 1915 with the deadlier peril on undertake an offensive which had mag-the east; that Russia struck in East Prus- nificent success until treachery developed at one part of the front. Russia quit be- cause her morale was broken and because her people, having rid themselves of the Czar, thought the war in which the Czar had taken them should come to an end. It is not unreasonable to assume that Russia inflicted one-third of the casualties suffered by the enemy powers in the war and endured as many casualties as the total suffered by Britain and France, or about eight millions. Thepart played by Italy is much L underrated. In 1915 the British and Gen. Plumer Reviews His Yanks at the Front. French were almost helpless before theGen. Plumer is seen in this photo reviewing his own"Yanks" who participated in the big British offensive. enemys fortified line in the west and in
  • 253. THE PRICE OF VICTORYthe east the German army was ridingroughshod over Russia. The interventionof Italy drew half a million of the enemyto the south-western arena, and may haveprevented the loss of the war then andthere. Italys casualties are one-third ofthose suffered by all the nations of theBritish Empire. She certainly inflictedmuch heavier casualties on the CentralPowers. There no occasion to emphasize the isessential part paid by France in the war.In proportion to population and wealthFrances sacrifices are much greater thanthose suffered by any other allied power,and the damage to her richest industrialareas runs up into the billions. The aid given by the United Stateswas of the utmost value in hastening theend of the war. The issue in this yearscampaign was whether the allies shouldwin the war at an early date or suffersuch a disaster as would protract the warfor years. The speeding-up of the ship-ment of American troops when the scaleswere in the balance enabled the allies to Photo showing lone French solidier in an enemysfrustrate the enemys designs and by re- trench signaling to his comrades.leasing veteran French troops from quietsectors and by providing good American years ago Britain was the mainstay of the forces of liberty. During the struggleshock troops in the later stages of the her military power caught up with andcampaign, brought Germany to herknees. The low casualties suffered by the passed well beyond that of France.millions of the American armies, but one- Without the aid of her armies, or thetwelfth of those of the British Empire, do work of protection and supply so gal-not adequately represent the exceedingly lantly performed by her mighty navy, or of the United the self-sacrificing performances of hervaluable contributionStates. In financing the allies when merchant marine, or her loans of billions and of dollars to weaker allies, the cause ofBritains resources were sorely triedin supplying devices for curbing the humanity would have been defeated During the war the United, Kingdomenemys submarine activities which attimes were greatly worrying the British provided no less than eight million men United States gave inval- and her Dominions overseas and Indiaauthorities, the raised another two millions.uable help. As in the Napoleonic wars a hundred W. R. P.
  • 254. How The Central Powers Fell CHAP T E H X V GERMANY WEAKENS BULGARIA SURRENDERS - - TURKEY SUR- RENDERS - - AUSTRIAN ARMISTICE AND SURRENDER FOLLOW - GERMANY SIGNS ARMISTICE - - KAISER ABDICATES AND FLEES - MILITARY AND NAVAL FORCES SURRENDER - - ALLIES OCCUPY GERMANY CASUALTIES. The iron defense of the Central Powers withdrawn nearly all of the Germanand their allies once pierced, the collapse troops which had supported the Bulgar-of the coalition came with a swiftness ians. Even the Austrian troops, menacedwhich surprised even the most optimistic earlier in the summer by the Italian cam-among the councillors and leaders of the paign which had cleaned them out of theentente nations and the United States. greater part of Albania, had withdrawnAnd strangely enough, while the eyes of from the Macedonian front. Bulgariathe world were turned toward the great fought it out alone.struggle in France, where it was believed About the middle of September the Al-the issue would be settled, the first breaks lies lines extended from Saloniki on thewhich brought the end came from all the east to southern Albania where they wereother fronts. Within six weeks after the in contact with the Italian forces. Underfirst hint had come that the hour of vic- Gen. Franchet dEsperey, a force oftory was about to strike, the war was French, British, Italians, Serbs andended. In the chronological order in Greeks began the drive northward. Towhich they were forced out of the war, the the Serbs fell the honor of the first vic-Teutonic allies surrendered as follows: tories. They were advancing to hurl the BULGARIA Armistice signed just enemy from their native land and sup-before midnight on September 29th, 1918. ported by French and Greek units, they drove northeast of Monastir. Victory was TURKEY Armistice went into ef- almost immediate. The first day of thefect in the afternoon of October 31st. drive the Serbs advanced several miles AUSTRIA Armistice, signed on No- and freed scores of villages. Within avember 3rd, went into effect in the after- few days they were threatening the chiefnoon of November 4th. railroads and lines of communication and the Bulgar right was nearly cut off. GERMANY Armistice went into ef-fect 11 oclock A. M., November llth. On September 24th, Prilep, one of the chief bases of the enemy, was taken and Bulgaria, the little autocracy in the the Bulgars faced annihilation. So rapidBalkans, whose czar had heeded the prom-ises made by Germany of a large share in had their retreat been, that Prilep was entered by French cavalry operating farthe territorial loot of conquest, was the in advance of the main French and Ser-first to surrender. Driven back, then bian forces. In the meantime the Britishcrushed, the first of the Allied invading own Czar Ferdinand was and Greek army operating in the Lakearmy on his soil,quick to sue for peace. His people never Doiran region, had advanced and had ef-had favored the war. The Kaiser had fected a juncture with the French and 261
  • 255. 262 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLSerbians and a united attack moved rap-idly toward the Bulgarian border itself.Within two days more the Bulgarianarmy had been split into several groupsand each one of these was in flight. Thegovernment at Sofia admitted they werefacing disaster. Far in the vanguard-fighting their way back home the Serbspursued the fleeing Bulgars across track-less mountain wastes and through theonce cultivated valleys that had been laidwaste by war. On September 25th, theBritish reached Bulgarian soil oppositeKosturino and the next day Strumnitzafell. The Serbs now were well towardthe great Bulgarian base of Uskub andFerdinands troops were fleeing in dis-order, hopelessly beaten. Nothing could save Sofia from possiblebombardment and the Bulgarian govern-ment sought peace. A commission bear-ing the white flag of surrender enteredthe allied lines. The Allied commandersleft Gen. dEsperey to impose the terms.The Bulgarians submitted to uncondi-tional surrender. They agreed to evacu-ate all territory they still held in Greece Frank Mayo, Rear Admiral, United States Navy.and Serbia, tp completely demobilize theirarmy; to give up all their railroads, and,what was most important of all, to allow Danube. King Ferdinand of Bulgariathe Allied forces a free passage through had abdicated in favor of his son, Boris,Bulgaria. and the Allies were in control of the Balkans. Thus was the first big gap cut into theBerlin to Bagdad project. The road to The developments in the Balkans hadVienna was open. Austria was in what surprised the Allies, but the victories inwas almost a panic and Vienna signified the Orient and the smashing of the Turkswillingness to discuss peace, though hold- came with even greater suddenness. Sinceing to the statement that they would stand his occupation of Jerusalem, Gen. Alien-by Germany on terms. The stock market by, with a force of British and Indianin Berlin felt the effects of the Bulgarian troops, reinforced by French and friendlydisaster and in both Berlin and Vienna Arab tribesmen, had moved slowly north-the socialists began open discussion of ward until in the latter part of Septemberconstitutional reforms. The Teutonic they occupied a line from the River Jor-Alliance was crumbling. With Bulgaria dan westward to the Mediterranean. Theout and the Macedonian region free from great stroke was delivered on Septemberdanger, the Allies could now turn their 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st. Over a frontattention to Constantinople from the of sixteen miles Gen. Allenby struck thenorth while the British were advancing Turkish forces and in less than a day theythrough the Holy Land on the south. were fleeing in full rout. They pushedSerbia was being evacuated and Austria through between Rafat and the sea forwould soon be attacked from across the nineteen miles on the first day and took
  • 256. IIONV THK CENTKAL POWERS FELL 2683,000 prisoners. Bodies of cavalry were By September 25th, British cavalry hadadvancing so rapidly that they threatened pressed along the coast for sixty miles and inpletely cut off the Turks retreat. taken Haifa and Acre, two importantRailway communications were cut and the ports. Step by step the Allies were rush-Turkish forces were trapped. Huge ing forward along the entire line, practi-stoirs of jriins and supplies were taken cally without opposition except fromand tin- Turk dead blocked the roadways. straggling bodies of the routed enemy,Caught in the valleys and lowlands, they and the prisoners now numbered nearlywere at the mercy of the British artillery, 50,000. The Fourth Turkish army alsoand airplanes, flying at low altitudes, had been caught in the trap and sur-raked the fleeing forces with machine gun rounded. The British had advanced toKre. the sea of Galilee which region they now U. S. Submarines Played an Important Part in the Guarding of American Coasts. By September 21st, the captured Turks dominated. Field Marshal Liman vonnumbered 20,000. An entire Turkish Sanders, who had been in command of thecolumn, attempting to escape into the Turks around Nazareth, had fled to Con-Jordan valley, was cut off and taken. stantinople.The whole valley was commanded by Al- By October 1st, Damascus was sur-lied artillery and two Turkish armies were rounded and taken. French detachmentsin the trap. The British cavalry captured were speeding toward Beirut. This portNazareth and the plains of Armageddon they took a few days later. Palestine hadwith more stores and guns. The Seventh been completely cleared of the enemy andand Eighth Turkish armies were practi- it was officially announced in London thatcally annihilated. Six miles piled deep Gen. Allenby had bagged 71,000 prison-with their bodies bore testimony to the ers. The Allies kept advancing north-deadly accuracy of the British artillery. ward and a Turk column north of Damas-
  • 257. 264 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL A German Liquid-Fire Attack Against British Troops.
  • 258. II()V TIIK C KXTKAL 1OWKKS 1KLL 265A Scene on a No-ManVLand "Quagmire" on the Western Front
  • 259. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 267ins was dit off and taken. British and dered. The remainder of the [TurkishFrench warships began cooperating along forces were demobilized except for enoughthe coast. The Aral) chieftain reported to serve for policing purposes. The fewthe capture of 10,000 Turks in their share vessels of the fleet were dismantled.of tlu- campaign and of the Ottoman Within a short time British and Frencharmies involved it was stated that only vessels had sailed through the Dardanelles17.000 had escaped to the northward. to The thousands of Constantinople. Thenceforth the Allied advance was British prisoners captured when Gen.rapid. Mosul, on the road to Constanti- Townshend was forced to surrender atnople, was reached by one expedition, and Kut-el-Aniara, were liberated. It was American Marines took a part in the rout of the Hun. Note the huild of these hoys.other columns moved along the coast to Gen. Townshend himself who had been sent to the Allied commanders with theSmyrna where they cooperated with the first plea for an armistice.fleets. Rioting had broken out in thecapital and the uprising was directed at In June, her drives in France laggingthe German officers and leaders of the to a halt, Germany goaded Austria-Hun-Young Turk party. Turkey was gary into making an attack and on Junecrushed. Facing destruction from the loth, the Teutonic Allies began a greatsouth, west and north, with open revolu- offensive over a front of 100 miles fromtion threatening, the Porte sued for an the Asiago plateau to the sea and alongarmistice under terms which meant sur- the lines on the Piave river. The firstrender. The Dardanelles were surren- force of the drive carried the enemv across
  • 260. 268 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLthe Piave in places and the Italians, whohad now been reinforced by a considerableforce of British and French and someAmerican troops, lost 30,000 prisoners.But any initial success was quickly offsetby a counter offensive. Within three daysthe Austrian drive both in the mountain-ous region of the north and in the lowlandsnorth of Venice had been brought to acomplete halt. The Austrians hurleddivision after division into the battle; re-gardless of heavy losses. Driven on bythe German high command, Austria wasstaking all on the final effort. Nature had intervened in behalf of theItalians. The Austrian and Germanforces had crossed the Piave on pontoons,bringing up with them many heavy guns.Torrential rains had fallen after their ad-vance and Allied airmen had bombed anddestroyed the bridges behind them. Cutoff, they were slaughtered in thousands.The only means of reaching them withfood was by airplane and the Allies held General Tasker H. Bliss, former Chief of Staffthe superiority in the air. Along the en- of the United States Army, one of the Americantire Asiago plateau the Austrians met delegates to the Peace Conference.defeat. It was estimated that they hadthrown half a million men into action and drawal of German forces back to the frontof these probably 200,000 were numbered in France. The influence of the Sepa-among the casualties. ratists had begun to be felt seriously and The Italians followed up with a vic- revolt was threatening to disrupt thetorious advance. Positions along the Dual Monarchy. Through Holland,Brenta river were taken and the heightsin the Mont del Rosso and Di Val Bello Emperor Charles had asked for mediation Fresh to secure themeeting of a peace confer-region were scaled and taken. ence. Back across the Asiago plateau thearmy corps were rushed to aid theAustrians, for the determined advance Austrians were driven, losing thousandsthreatened to carry the Italians back to in dead and prisoners. Austria was nowtheir held before the disaster of lines extremely hard pressed, many of hermonths before. But steadily the Italians troops were unreliable and she pleadedand British and French pressed forward, with Berlin for reinforcements. Cross-improving their lines and strengthening ings of the Piave were won by thetheir positions during July and August. Italiansand British and the big pushHeight by height the enemy was pushed northward was rapid. On October 30th,back in the north. American troops under Maj.,Gen. Treat, In October, the Italian effort developed operating with the British army, crossedinto a heavy drive. Every available unit the Piave. Vittorio, the great Austrianwas sent in against the Austrians, who base, was captured and a hundred otherhad been somewhat weakened by the with- towns freed along a front of 100 miles.
  • 261. HOW THK CENTRAL POWERS FELLThe offensive now had developed until itrcac-lu (1 all along the Piave. In the Mont(i rap pa region the enemy was beaten atSegusino in a sanguinary battle and MontGesen was taken. Full disaster had overtaken EmperorCharles armies by late in October. Fiftythousand prisoners had been taken andhundreds of the heaviest guns. The Aus-trians were pouring across the mountainsin rout and the Allies were pushed to theirutmost even to keep in contact in places.The Tagliamento river was crossed by theItalians. Other columns reached thetowns of Azzano, Decimo, Portugruaruand Concordia. The Italians were nowwithin less than eighteen miles of Udine,where the Italian headquarters had beenestablished when the disaster at Caporettaovertook them. Their total advance hadbeen thirty miles. On November 1st, with nearly 100,000of their armies prisoners, 200,000 more Brigadier General Peyton Con way March. Commandercut off and surrounded in the Brenta and of all United States Artillery in France.Piave regions, emissaries from the Aus-trian commanders entered the Italian Germans in France had to be ing with thelines under a white flag, bearing a plea withdrawn. The armistice terms practi-for an armistice. The Allied war councilin Versailles began drawing up the terms. cally granted what Italy had fought for,In the meantime, with the announcement the occupation of the Trentino district,that he would rather drive the Austrians which she had lost to Austria, as well asout than accept their surrender, Gen. the peninsula of Istria. The armisticeDiaz kept up his hammer blows. The provided magistrational powers over thisAustrians were in full rout and their cas- and troops also territory began occupa-ualties were mounting into the hundreds tion to ensure the keeping of the terms inof thousands. Their entire army in the good faith.Trentino district had been cut off. On November Germany made her first direct request 3rd, the Allies termswere presented to Austria and the armi- for an armistice on October 6th, but forstice was signed. the purposes of narration the peace nego- Germanys last prophad been kicked out from under her. tiations which resulted in the completeFighting in a death grip on the west dissolution of the Teutonic Allies and thefront, her eastern borders were now ex- surrender of Germany are here reviewedposed to the enemys attack. The armi- in chronological order,along with the in-stice terms left Austria powerless. She ternal disturbanceswhich accompaniedwas forced to evacuate all territories un-der occupation. Her fleet had to be given the defeats at the front and which haveup to the Allies. Her army had to be to- resulted in a political upheaval of thetally demobilized and all her troops fight- greater part of Europe:
  • 262. 270 HOW THK CENTRAL POVVKKS FULL As early as September 15th, the Kaiser Though the Allies regarded this simplyhad offered a separate peace to Belgium, as a ruse, President Wilson sent the fol-one that was scorned by the little king- lowing curt reply:dom. This was taken as the first indica- "The government of the United Statestion of a "peace drive", started to weaken feels that there isonly one reply whichthe Allies and bring discord. The offer it can make to the suggestion of the im-was vague except in that it asked Bel- perial Austro-Hungarian government.giums neutrality until the close of the It has repeatedly and with entire candorwar and guaranteed her political identity. stated the terms upon which the United On the same day Austria, through the States would consider peace, and can andSwiss government and the other neutral will entertainno proposal for a confer- King George Salutes the Stars and Stripes When United State? Soldiers March Through London.nations, sent a proposal for a parley of ence upon a matter concerning which itthe powers to accomplish peace. It pro- has made its position and purpose soposed that the hostilities not cease during plain."the discussions, which were to be carriedon by delegates from the belligerents to Austria-Hungary was known to be facing dissolution. The Czecho-Slavs andbring out the ideas of eventual terms for the Jugo- Slavs were already declaringthe ending of the war. The conference for separate republics and Bohemia waswas to be "nonbinding and confidential threatening a similar step.discussion on the basic principle for theconclusion of peace". On October 6th, Germany, with the
  • 263. >=3o2tsC9u:-boi
  • 264. 272new chancellor, Prince Maximilian of quests the immediate conclusion of anBaden, in power as the representative of armistice on land and water and in the air."the coalition government, which had been Baron Burian, of Austria, made knownformed to still the threatened disturb- the similar wish of Austria, and in his sub-ances by adherents of the Social demo- sequent utterances to the Reichstag,crats, sent the first direct appeal for an Prince Maximilian supplemented his dec-armistice. On that day Prince Maximil- laration of the governments position byian, through the Swiss government, sent indicating the wish to change the consti-the following note to President Wilson: tution, to accomplish democratization and "The German Government requests the to form a league of nations to protect thepresident of the United States to take in peace of the world.hand the restoration of peace, acquaint The message of President Wilson men- Boxing contest viewed by 20,000 soldiers. It was one of the .most, picturesque boxing tournaments everheld at Camp Upton. The ring was raised about eight feet from the ground and draped with the flags of the Allies.all the belligerent states of this request tioned in the German note occupies aand invite them to send plenipotentiaries place in a previous chapter as the basisfor the purpose of opening negotiations. upon which all peace negotiations must "It accepts the program set forth by the rest. His liberty loan speech on Septem-president of the United States in his mes- ber 27th, to which the German chancellor also referred, follows:sage to congress on January 8 and in hislater pronouncements, especially his "We are all agreed that there can bespeech of September 27, as a basis for no peace obtained by any kind of bargainpeace negotiations. or compromise with the governments of "With a view to avoiding further we have dealt the central empires, becausebloodshed, the German government re- with them already and have seen them
  • 265. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 273deal with other g<> rniments that vn-parties to this struggle, at Brest-Litovskand Bucharest. "They have convinced us that they arewithout honor and do not intend justice.They observe no covenants, accept noprinciple but force and their own interest. "Get out first then talk armistice andpeace," was the sense of the reply sent toGermany by President Wilson on Octo-ber 8th. He stated that there could be nocompromise with autocracy and de-manded know in unequivocable lan- toguage if Germany would accept the un-compromising terms laid down by him.The Allied nations saw in the Germannote another trap, one by which the Ger-man chancellor hoped to involve theUnited States in a long diplomatic dis-cussion, which, when peace finally wasdenied, would strengthen the flaggingstrength of the German peoples faith inthe government by showing them that theAllies sought not a just peace but werebent upon a war of slaughter and con-quest. But every faith was placed inPresident Wilson, and his reply, whichfollows, was ample assurance that hewould handle the situation: "Before making reply to the request ofthe imperial German* government, and inorder that that reply shall be as candidand straightforward as the momentous in-terests involved require, the president ofthe United States deems it necessary toassure himself of the exact meaning of thenote of the imperial chancellor. "Does the imperial chancellor meanthat the imperial German government ac-cepts the terms laid down-by the presidentin his address to the congress of theUnited States on the eighth of Januarylast and in subseqient addresses, and thatits object in entering into discussionswould be only to agree upon the practical Capt. Raoul Lufbery, premier "ace" of the Lafa-details of their application? yette Escadrille, has brought down his twelfth Ger- man plane. He would have made it thirteen had he "The president feels bound to say with not run short of ammunition.
  • 266. 274 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLregard to the suggestion of an armisticethat he would not feel at liberty to pro-pose a cessation of arms to the govern-ments with which the government of theUnited States is associated against thecentral powers, so long as the armies ofthose powers are upon their soil. Thegood faith of any discussion would mani-festly depend upon the consent of thecentral powers immediately to withdrawtheir forces everywhere from invaded ter-ritory. "The president also feels that he isjustified in asking whether the imperialchancellor is speaking merely for the con-stituted authorities of the empire whohave so far conducted the war. He deemsthe answer to these questions vital fromevery point of view." From all over the United States, from Americans on Aisne Sector. American troops on active service in the Aisne sector: boarding motor-the people and from Congress came de- lorries for a journey.mands for the unconditional surrender ofthe Central Powers. The Germans were the Austro-Hungarian government, forbeing driven back and every day regis- the purpose of bringing about an armis-tered another defeat for their arms. There tice, declares itself ready to comply withwas scant faith placed in the sincerity of the propositions of the president in regardtheir peace aims. On October 14th, Ger- to evacuation.manys further expression of acceptanceof President Wilsons terms came by wire- "The German government suggests that the president may occasion the meet-less. The message follows: ing of a mixed commission for making the "In reply to the question of the presi- necessary arrangements concerning thedent of the United States of America the evacuation.German government hereby declares : "The present German government, "The German government has accepted which has undertaken the responsibilitythe terms laid down by President Wilson for this step towards peace, has beenin his address of January the eighth, and formed by conferences and in agreementin his subsequent addresses, on the with the great majority of the reichstag.foundation of a permanent peace of jus- "The chancellor, supported in all of histice. actions by the will of this majority, speaks "Consequently, its object in entering in the name of the German governmentinto discussions would be only to agree and of the German people."upon practical details of the application This note was signed by Solf, the newof those terms. state secretary of the foreign office, and "The German government believes brought forth a new cry for unconditionalthat the governments of the powers asso- surrender both here and in the allied na-ciated with the government of the United tions of Europe. Further evidence of aStates also take the position taken by "peace trap" was seen in the suggestionPresident Wilson in his address. The for discussion of the terms, and on Octo-German government, in accordance with ber 15th President Wilson sent a reply
  • 267. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 275 which left no doubt as to the uiicoiiipro- attitude ini.sing the Allies and the of United States. He stated that the termsof evacuation and reparation were thosewhich must be determined wholly by theAllies and in which Germany could haveno hand. He called attention to the con-tinued activities of submarines and theburning of cities during the German re-treat and other inhuman acts, all beingcommitted while the Germans sought todiscuss terms for the cessation of hostil-ities. He left no doubt that the deposingof the Kaiser was one of the chief aims ofthe nations fighting against Germany. Inthe following language he told of the blowaimed at autocracy: "It is necessary, also, in order that theremay be no possibility of misunderstand-ing, that the president should very sol-emnly call the attention of the governmentof Germany to the language and plainintent of one of the terms of peace whichthe German government has now ac-cepted. It is contained in the address of American and French Soldiers Searching for Con-the president delivered at Mount Vernon cealed Self-explosive Bombs.nit,- the fourth of July last. It is as fol-lows: Affairs in Austria were going from bad The destruction of every arbitrary to worse. The discussion of splitting the Dual Monarchy into four states waspower anywhere that can separately,secretly, and of its single choice disturb going on. These new nations on themapthe peace of the world or, if it cannot be ; were to be a Germanic Austria, the re-presently destroyed, at least its reduction public of the Czecho-Slavs and theto virtual impotency. Illyrian and Ruthenian republics. On "The power which has hitherto con- October 18th, the Czecho-Slavs revoltedtrolled the German nation is of the sort and raised their own flag. Prague washere described. It is within the choice of seized and a republic was declared with nothe German nation to alter it. The presi-dents words just quoted naturally con- doubt that its national policies would bestitute a condition precedent to peace, if against Germany and all other forms ofpeace is to come by the action of the Ger- autocracy. From Berlin came the firstman people themselves. The president indications to the world that open rebel-feels bound to say that the whole process lion was threatened. The Socialistsof peace will, in his judgment, depend rioted and a display of force was made toupon the definiteness and the satisfactorycharacter of the guaranties which can be quell them.given in this fundamental matter. It is The Allies were placing great faith inindispensable that the governments asso- President Wilsons ability to keep out ofciated against Germany should know diplomatic tangles with Berlin andbeyond peradventure with whom they are Vienna and to avoid traps in peace nego-dealing." tiations. But with the consent of the
  • 268. 276 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL surances that the overthrow of autocracy would come with peace and that it was the voice of the German people speaking through the negotiations, not that of the Kaiser. It protested against the view that atrocities were being committed and assured President Wilson that .these acts were against the strictest orders and the guilty were being punished. But the note, like its predecessors, made no sug- gestion of quick and absolute surrender on the terms the Allies would impose. At the same time Great Britain made her position plain as regarded evacuation of territory. Hints at new demands regard- ing the freedom of the seas were made and the British press asked for terms which would impose the fullest reparation and indemnities for the ravaged countries. President Wilsons reply to this latest advance was the strongest of his ex- changes with Germany and deserves full space here. The note closed i;he doors to any further discussion without a guaranty Heavy Artillery on the French Front Used by the of surrender and made it plain that the Americans to Advantage. Allied military command would dictate the terms of an armistice in the field andUnited States, was agreed that all it that Germany must apply directly there.peace proposals should go to the Allied It also dealt in unqualified terms with thewar cabinet. The British, with the taste record of pledges broken by Germany and stated that the UnitedStates and theof victory, with the end of four years of Allies would in no way deal with theconflict and suffering almost in sight, Hohenzollern dynasty or with a cabinetwere determined in their demands that who represented them. The Presidentsabsolutely no compromise be reached. memorable note follows: From Austria had come a plea for a "Having received the solemn and ex-separate peace, but it was not made pub- plicit assurance of the German govern-lic until October 19th, the day on which ment that it unreservedly accepts thePresident Wilson sent his reply. Aus- terms of peace laid down in his address to to the famous the congress of the United States on thetria, like Germany, agreed but eighth of January, 1918, and the prin-"fourteen articles", likewise, sug- ciples of settlement enunciated in his sub-gested "negotiations of the details". The sequent addresses, particularly thePresidents curt reply voiced the same un- address of the twenty-seventh of Septem-compromising attitude he had adopted ber, and that it desires to discuss thetoward Germany and Vienna was told details of their application and that this wish and purpose emanated, not fromthat evacuation must come first, then talk those who have hitherto dictated Germanof peace. policy and conducted the present war on Another note was received from Berlin Germanys behalf, but from ministers whoon October 21st. This reiterated as- speak for the majority of the reichstag
  • 269. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS 1KLL 277and for an overwhelming majority of theGerman peoples; and having receivedalso the explicit promise of the presentGerman government that the humanerules of civilized warfare will be observedboth on land and sea by the Germanarmed forces, the president of the UnitedStates feels that he cannot decline to takeup with the governments with which thegovernment of the United States is asso-ciated the question of an armistice. "He deems it his duty to say again,however, that the only armistice he wouldfeel justified in submitting for considera-tionwould be one which should leave theUnited States and the powers associated her in a position to enforce any ar-v.ithrangements that may be entered into andto make a renewal of hostilities on thepart of Germany impossible. "The president has, therefore, trans-mitted his correspondence with the pres- Three soldiers wearing different types of gas masks.ent German authorities to the govern- At an exhibition they realistically went through their drills and maneuvers and won applause from thements with which the government of the crowd that gathered to see them. greatUnited States is associated as a bellig-erent, with the suggestion that, if those and principles of peace from which thegovernments are disposed to effect peace whole action proceeds.upon the terms and principles indicated,their military advisers and the military "The president would deem himselfadvisers of the United States be asked to lacking in candor did he not point out insubmit to the governments associated the frankest possible terms the reasonagainst Germany the necessary terms of why extraordinary safeguards must besuch an armistice as will fully protect demanded. Significant and important asthe interests of the peoples involved and the constitutional changes seem to bei-iisure to the associated governments the which are spoken of by the German for-unrestricted power to safeguard and en- eign secretary in his note of the 20th offorce the details of the peace to which the October, it does not appear that the prin-German government has agreed, provided ciple of a government responsible to thethey deem such an armistice possible from German people has yet been fully workedthe military point of view. out or that any guarantees either exist or are in contemplation that the alterations "Should such terms of armistice be of principle and of practice now. partiallysuggested, their acceptance by Germanywill afford the best concrete evidence of agreed upon will be permanent.her unequivocal acceptance of the terms "Moreover, it does not appear that the
  • 270. 278 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL have been brought under the control of the German people, but the present war has not been; and it is with the present war that we are dealing. "It evident that the German people is have means of commanding the no acquiescence of the military authorities of the empire in the popular will; that the power of the king of Prussia to control the policy of the empire is unimpaired; that the determining initiative still re- mains with those who have hitherto been the masters of Germany. * "Feeling that the whole peace of the world depends now on plain speaking and straightforward action, the president deems it his duty to say, without any at- tempt to soften what may seem harsh words, that the nations of the world do not and cannot trust the word of those who have hitherto been the masters of German policy, and to point out once more that, in concluding peace and at- tempting to undo the infinite injuries and injustices of this war, the government of the United States cannot deal with any but veritable representatives of the Ger- man people. "If it must deal with the military mas- ters and the monarchial autocrats of Ger- many now, or if it is likely to have to deal with them later in regard to the interna- German empire, tional obligations of the it must demand, not peace negotiations, but surrender. Nothing can be gained by leaving this essential thing unsaid." Events were transpiring in the domains of the Central Powers which were having a strong influence. The peoples party and the Social Democrats, openly com- mitted to an early peace, were making their demands heard in Berlin.* The Ger- Minister Whitlock returning to his post in Belgium.U. S. Minister Brand Whitlock aboard the S. S. Rot- mans were being cleared from Roumaniaterdam. and the eastern gates of Austria wereheart of the present difficulty has been now threatened by the Allies. Hungarianreached. It may be that future wars soldiers were openly joining the peace
  • 271. 271) Budapest and other cities in then ml is in to it.Dual Monarchy. And, most serious of Austria again asked for separate peaceall, the militarists, who had committed terms and on October 29th she made herGermany to the great war, had lost their direct plea for an armistice at once, thelast shreds of power. Ludendorff, who, details of which have been recountedmore than Hindenburg, was the embodi- above.ment of the military policy, was forced The action of the Allies was quick inout after a bitter controversy. The first regard to Germanys last plea. The Al-quartermaster general, up to the last mo- lied war cabinet met at Versailles andment, even with the iron military machine framed the terms of armistice. Thesefalling about his ears, is supposed to have were transmitted to Gen. Foch and onstood firm against surrender. Hinden- November 5th, President Wilson commu-burg, with others, had met the Kaiser and nicated to Berlin the fact that the termsthe new chancellor and his ministry in might be had by applying to the AlliedAmericans Before St. Mihiel Salient. Before opening artillery fire on the Germans in the St. Mihiel salientthese American boys are seen with gas masks on awaiting to receive the final word.conference. There were rumors that he high command on the field of battle.frankly told his sovereign that all was Germany, pushed to extreme straits,lost. And with this news to the outside did not delay. Gen. Foch was notifiedworld, came authoritative evidence that by wireless that a German armistice com-the German army at the front was dis- mission sought to enter the lines and con-banding in revolt even as it retreated. fer with him at headquarters, and on Berlin, convinced that the Allies and November 7th, firing was stopped at thethe United States would countenance point in the lines where the commissionno more quibbling, on October 27th, made was to arrive and they were taken to Gen.a dfrect request for the terms of an Fochs headquarters. Gen. E. G. W. vonarmistice. To President Wilson, Berlin Gruenell, Germanys delegate to theaddressed the information that the gov- Hague peace conferences; Gen. H. K. A.ernment was now by the people and that von Winterfeld, former military attachethe military authority had been subjected in Paris; Vice Admiral Meurer, and Ad-
  • 272. 280 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLmiral Paul von Hintze made up theGerman commission.. And even as they were entering thelines,great events making for the collapseof Germany and Austria were trans-piring. Along a front of a hundred milesthe Allied armies were advancing in anassault which in savageness surpassedanything that had gone before. Ghenthad capitulated as Queen Elizabeth ofBelgium watched; Sedan was in flamesand the first American troops had ad-vanced to its outskirts; the Italians nownumbered their prisoners at 1,000,000men and they had taken 6,000 big gunsand 200,000 horses. And in Germanythere remained no doubt that autocracywas toppling. German sailors on someof the battleships at Kiel had revolted andseized the vessels in the name of the revo-lution. The first outburst of the workersand soldiers movement came when 20,000workers gathered at Stuttgart and wavedthe red flag and shouted the slogan Lieut. Eddie Rickenbacher, Americas greatest"Down with the war and long live the "Ace," standing by his machine at an American Avia- tion field, France. Lieut. Rickenbacher broughtsocial republic". Dispatches which found down twenty-six enemy planes.their way out of Austria, revealed that astate of chaos existed there. Cities were the overthrow of autocracy and militarismflooded by the soldiers returning in dis- was complete. This was followed by theorder. The demoralized troops were announcement a few hours later that theplundering and rallying to the banners first of the German states to announce aof a score of incipient revolts. Of foodthere was little and the returning soldiers republic was Bavaria and that the diet ofseized what little of that there was. that little kingdom had overthrown the Wittelsbach dynasty and deposed King On November 8th, from the Germancommission within the French lines, there Ludwig and his heir, Prince Rupprecht.was sent a courier who bore the terms of The German chancellors announcementthe Allies to the German council at Spa. of the Kaisers abdication follows:Germany was given seventy-two hours in "The German imperial chancellor,which to answer, but the request that Prince Max of Baden, has issued the fol-fighting cease until that time was refused lowing decree The kaiser and king has :by Gen. Foch. The wily French com- decided to renounce the throne.mander refused to be tricked and his vic-torious troops kept on in their rush The imperial chancellor will remain in office until the questions connected withRhinewards. the abdication of the kaiser, the renounc- Emperor Wilhelm II, the worlds ing by the crown prince of the throne ofgreatest autocrat, abdicated the throne the German empire and of Prussia, andand renounced the rights of succession for the setting up of a regency shall have beenthe Crown Prince on November 9th and settled.
  • 273. IIO Till; CKXTHAL POWERS KKLL 281 For the regency he intends to ap- dreams of dominion had plunged thepoint Deputy Ebert as imperial chancel- world into war. With some of his stafflor, and he proposes that a hill shall be and members of his personal household,brought in for the establishment of a law he fled to Holland, where he was interned,providing for the immediate promulga- Early in the year 1919 the conferees oftion of general suffrage and for a consti- the nations will meet and settle the peace Henry P. Davison of the Red Cross.tutional Germannational assembly, which terms. His presence in Holland was awill settle finally the future form of aov- great source of embarrassment to thaternment of the German nation and of country. The people of Holland, influ-those peoples which might be desirous of enced by the wave of democracy and in bolshevism - - that coming within the empire. some instances was Thus ended the reign of the man whose sweeping Europe, feared that his pres-
  • 274. 282 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLence in their country might be used as an flying everywhere in Berlin and a republicexcuse to demand the removal of royalty was declared to exist by the social demo-and the setting up of a socialistic form of crats. Friedrich Ebert, with the resigna-government. tion of Prince Maximilian, had become In the meantime the political disturb- chancellor and head of the provisionalances in Germany were growing. The government. Among his cabinet he num-strikes of workers extended through all bered Dr. Liebknecht, recently releasedthe cities of northern Germany. More from prison, and Philip Scheidemann,ships had been seized by the rebels at Kiel both worldwide known leaders of govern- Remarkable View of Exterior Y. M. C. A. Canteen Dugout Situated 150 Yards from the Boche Lines.and there had been fighting between them mental reform. A general strike hadand the scattered royalists. With the been called and within seven hours, withabdication of the Kaiser, Berlin had been no bloodshed except for a few deaths inseized by the workmens and soldiers clashes with German army officers, the The revolutionists held sway incouncil. overthrow of the imperial governmentWurtemburg and Brunswick and the had been accomplished and another re-monarchs of those principalities stepped public added to the free nations of thedown from their thrones. world. On November 10th, the red flag was The world war ended at 11 oclock
  • 275. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 288A. M. (Paris time) on November llth, MILITARY SURRENDERS1918. The United States received the rhe Germans fourteen days, withinnews in a dispatch sent from Washington ! H st e Bel* lum * ran <*> cuate a11stating that at 2:45 oclock A. M. the f T u j . j i.u i.u Alsace-Lorraine, and Luxemburg. Allstate department had announced that the . i j i i .1 German troops remaining after that tune *armistice terms had been signed and thatthey would become effective at the hourgiven above. Gen. Foch had conveyed The Germans must surrender 5,000the news to all his commanders and cannon, half heavy and half field artil- Intcrior View of Replica of a Jewish Welfare Board Hut in France on the Fighting Linespromptly to the minute firing ceased at lery; 30,000 machine guns, 3,000 minethe time set. throwers, and 2,000 airplanes, fighcers, The terms imposed in the armistice bombers firstly D. seventy-threes andleft no opportunity for Germany to re- night bombing machines.sume military operations. With the sign-ing of the agreement the new government The Germans must surrender in goodin Berlin, in effect, placed itself absolutely condition 5,000 locomotives, 50,000in the hands of the Allies. The followingis a summary of the terms of the armis- wagons, and 10,000 motor lorries. Theytice: also must turn over all the railways in
  • 276. 284 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLAlsace-Lorraine and their coal and metal auxiliary vessels (trawlers, motor vessels,supplies. etc.) are to be disarmed. All Germans in East Africa must sur- All ports on the Black sea occupied byrender in one month. the Germans are to be surrendered, to- NAVAL SURRENDERS gether with all the Russian vessels cap- tured by the Germans. The Germans must surrender 160 sub-marines, including all cruiser and mine All merchant vessels belonging to thelaying submarines. They also must give Allies now in the hands of the Germans The Salvation Army Hut and Cooking Station on the Fighting Lines in France.up the following naval craft, the individ- are to be surrendered without reciprocity.ual ships to be designated by the allies: OCCUPATIONSFifty destroyers, six battle cruisers, ten The occupy all of the country allies willbattleships, eight light cruisers. on the left (west) bank of the Rhine and The other submarines and all the other the principal crossings at Mayence, Cob-surface vessels are to be disarmed and dis- lenz, and Cologne, together with themanned and concentrated in German bridgeheads (twenty miles in radius) onports to be designated by the Allies. All the right bank.
  • 277. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 285 The Germans must withdraw and cre-ate a neutral zone on the right bank fortykilometers wide from the Holland borderto the Swiss border. The allies will occupy the German fortson the Cattegat to insure freedom of ac-cess to the Baltic. RESTORATION Besides France, Belgium and Alsace,the Germans must retire from all terri-tory held by Russia, Roumania, and Tur-key before the war. The treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Li tovsk are abrogated. The allies are to have access to the re-stored territories in the east eitherthrough Dantzig or the River Vistula. Two Salvation Army Lasses, Prize Winners in Doughnut and Pic Making. RESTITUTION Full restitution for all damage done by great coal and metal deposits and somethe German armies. of the largest iron and steel manufactur- Restitution of the cash taken from the ing centers of Germany. There also areNational Bank of Belgium. textile industries on a vast scale as well as extensive farming and wine growing Return of all of the gold taken by theGermans from Russia and Roumania, this regions.gold to be turned over to the allies as The most important are Cologne, citiestrustees. Coblenz, Bonn, and Aix-la-Chapelle. The Rhine province is the most westerly REPATRIATION province of Prussia, by which it was All allied prisoners in Germany, mili- acquired in 1815.tary, naval or civilian, to be repatriated Next in size is Alsace-Lorraine. Tornimmediately without reciprocal action by from France after the Franco-Prussianthe allies. war, its restoration to the mother country The territory west of the Rhine which has been one of the chief points upon Germans were to evacuate is roughly which the allies have insisted in outliningthe their terms. Its area is 5,600 square20,000 square miles in extent, with a miles, and its population about 1,875,000.population of about 9,000,000. It in-cludes some of the most important mining The principal towns are Metz, Strass-and manufacturing districts of Germany, burg, Muehlhausen, and Kolmar. It con-and such great centers as Cologne, Strass- tains the great iron ore district of Briey,burg, Metz, and Coblenz. one of the principal sources of German The territory consists of Alsace-Lor supply, and the extensive Saar coal fields. Its textile industries are among the mostraine, the Palatinate, the Rhine province, in Germany.Birkenfeld, and about one-third of Hesse. important The Rhine province is the largest of The Palatinate is 2,372 square miles inthese districts. Its area is 10,423 square extent, and has about 950,000 inhabitants.miles and the census of 1910 gave its It is chiefly a farming and wine growingpopulation as 5,759,000. It contains country, although there are some large
  • 278. 28(> HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELLmanufacturing industries. The capital is clined by 45 per cent, while that of theSpeyer. allies was as great at the end as at the Birkenfeld a principality belonging is beginning of the campaign, thanks to theto, although detached from the grand extraordinarily rapid reinforcement ofduchy of Oldenburg. It is inclosed in the the American army. The British boreRhine province. Its area is 194 square the brunt of the fighting of the final cam-miles, and its population about 45,000. paign and their strength was reduced by The total area of the grand duchy of 27 per cent, during the season while thatHesse, about one-third of which lies west of the French declined by only 21 perof the Rhine, is 2,965 square miles, and its cent. When the fighting ceased the re-total population is 1,300,000. The capital treating German armies, outnumbered byof Hesse, which is on the west bank of the the ratio of 25 to 17, terribly exhaustedRhine, is Mainz, one of the principal fort- and short of munitions, were being splitresses of Germany. in two by the forest of the Ardennes, - The interned Austrian transport "Danube," used to carry food to the starving people of Belgium. Evacuation of this territory also freed which would have prevented mutual sup-from German control the nominally inde- port being quickly given by the northernpendent grand duchy of Luxemburg, and southern German armies. Fochwhich, invaded by Germany at the begin- would have covered himself with glory byning of the war, had been completely administering the coup de mort to theunder its control since that time. stricken German armies, but he yielded That the Germans gave up the struggle to the view that it would be a crime toon November llth because the allies were sacrifice thousands of additional lives onabout to destroy the German armies is the allied side when every essential ofbeyond peradventure. During the course peace could be secured without such aof the sanguinary 1918 campaign the sacrifice. The only regrettable featurestrength of the enemys field armies de- about that decision is that multitudes of
  • 279. HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 287German people did not st MM the fact that A long and anxious time was spent beforetheir armies were defeated the allies freed themselves from their Figures suggesting in detail the changes painful disadvantage.in the relative strength of the combatants The writer has stated his belief thatMS the German offensive waned and the Foch had little idea, himself, what wouldallied offensive progressed to final victory be the effect of a counter-thrust on Julywere given by General Maurice, who ap- 18. The most he counted on, probably,pears to have had access to semi-official was that the enemys offensive would beinformation. Taking the strength of the held up until the reinforcements from theBelgian army as the unit, which means United States would permit a genuine of-that a unit represents slightly more than fensive campaign to proceed. This view100,000 men, the following appears to is supported by the fact that in July thehave been the standing of the belligerents enemy retained a great advantage in stillon March 21st, when the supreme Ger- numbers though his troops were more bat-man effort to win the war began. tle-worn. The relative strength of the combatants when the allies struck back Strength of Strength of Allied Armies German Armies was : British 10l/2 Allied Strength German Strength French 12% British 9l/2 American.... % French lll/> Belgian 1 26 U. S 3 Belgian 1 30 25 units 20 units Thus the actual strength of the Ger- 25 30mans at the front at the beginning of the It will be noticed that the strength ofcampaign was little more than 100,000 the British and French had fallen off bygreater than that of the four allied nations, 21/! units, which were made up by thebut the Germans had 13 other units, or Americans. The German strength, sincemore than 1,300,000 additional troops, on March, had increased by 4 units.the way across Europe, which they could The rapidly-increasing American re-use and had available in the west before serves justified Foch in striking and inthey attacked the French north of the keeping striking. Having snatched awayAisne on May 27th. In spite of all his the initiative he kept the enemy reserveslosses in attacking the British, the enemys dashing about madly to plug up holes inattacking strength in May had increased the line and wore them down rapidly.from 26 to 31 units, giving him an advan- And when so the Germans made theirtage of more than half a million men. In submission in November the relativethe first weeks of the campaign the allies strength of the opponents was as follows:were unable to make the best use of theirseveral and distinct armies because of the Allied Strength German Strengthlack of a supreme commander. Had the British 8wisest use been made of the pooled re- French 10sources of the allies it is doubtful that the Americans.... 6 Belgians 1 17reverses between March and July everwould have been suffered. The enemy,with undivided control, was able to con- 25 17centrate such overpowering strength In effect, the 1918 campaign ended inagainst a 50-mile sector of the British the allies gaining the greatest victory everfront as gave him the initiative over all recorded in military history.the allied armies and got them "in bad." W. R. P.
  • 280. 288 HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL o o
  • 281. Marvels of the War on Land, Sea and Air CHAPTER XVI TANKS GREAT INVENTION - - AIRSHIPS IMPROVED GREATLY - GERMAN SUBMARINE MOST FORMIDABLE NAVAL COMPARISONS. The most remarkable invention devel- more effective for army purposes thanoped for military purposes during The the German dirigibles or Zeppelins.Great War was the tank. It was an idea These huge flying monsters were used inadapted from the tractor machine and making several raids on England butvarious persons in England and in Amer- with disastrous results to themselves.ica were credited with first giving the Finally the Germans confined the opera-suggestion to the British War Office. It tions of Zeppelins to scouting for thewas used with considerable success in the Fleet. When the war began the Britishbattle of the Somme in 1916 but later army had only one hundred airplanes butthe anti-tank guns of the Germans proved at the end of the war they had tens ofeffective and many officers on both sides thousands. On Ostend and Zeebruggewere disposed to regard the tank as a fail- alone the British bombing planes droppedure. Consequently, a complete surprise an average of four tons of bombs dailywas sprung by General Byng late in 1917 over a period lasting for five months. Bywhen hundreds of tanks rushed forward, that time three-decker airplanes capablebeating down or carrying away the elabo- of flying thousands of miles and of car-rate wire entanglements protecting the rying as many as forty men had beenGerman trenches opposite Cambrai, used. The third day after the armisticeopening the way for an advance of nine was signed had been set as the date formiles by the British infantry. Had Gen- a great raid on Berlin by monster alliederal Haig been well supplied with re- airplanes.serves to hurl through the breach thus The submarine became a much moremade by the perambulating fortresses, a formidable vessel as the war progressed,different ending to the campaign of that and the radius and power of the torpedo,year might have been written into history. itsprincipal weapon, was much increased.Thereafter the tank was greatly feared Some of the later submarines were ofby the German army but it was too late 2,500 tons, equipped with six-inch gunsthen for the Germans to go into the and capable of submerging safely to amanufacture of them on a large scale. depth of 300 feet. The British also de-They had only a few tanks in their spring veloped a battle-cruiser capable of cross-offensive in 1918.The British and other ing the ocean in three days.allied armies, however, had many hun- The British Admiralty permitted to bedreds of them and used them as brigades made public the real story of the sub-in a most spectacular manner. In the marine cruisers the British successfullySomme offensive of August, 1918, the constructed at the time the Germans weretanks did very fine work. boasting of their super-submarine. The In the air wonderful progress was British craft have two funnels and makemade in the development of heavier- than- 24 knots an hour on the surface underuir machines which proved to be milch steam power. They carry from eight to
  • 282. MARVKLS OF TIIK WARten torpedo tubes, two or three 4-inch battleships, 13 battle cruisers, 31 heavyguns and also are equipped with internal cruisers, 111 light cruisers, 216 patrol andcombustion motors for surface cruising. gunboats, 409 destroyers, 219 submarines,The batteries for the undersea power can 9 torpedo boats, 32 flotilla leaders, 220be charged from both the steam and com- airships and 897 miscellaneous ships.bustion engines, and an ingenious scheme The United States, with the secondhas been devised for quickly dismantling largest navy in the world, has built orthe funnels for the purpose of submerg- projected 39 battleships, six battle cruis-ing. The vessels displace 2,000 tons on ers, eight armored cruisers, forty lightthe surface and 2,700 tons submerged. cruisers, 342 destroyers, 181 submarines,They are 340 feet long, have a beam of 15 coast torpedo vessels, 17 torpedo boats26 feet and a cruising radius of 3,000 and 569 other vessels.miles. They are designed to be even a France has 29 battleships, 21 cruisers,match for torpedo-boat destroyers in sur- eight light cruisers, 92 destroyers, 121face fighting. torpedo boats, 70 submarines, 39 airships It is also known that the British have and 183 other craft.successfully built a submarine carrying Italy has 18 battleships, seven cruisers,a 12-inch gun, although the details of ten light cruisers, five monitors, 15 flotillathis craft have not been made public. leaders, 54 destroyers, 83 torpedo boats,The craft was built with the idea of mak- <*5 submarines, 30 airships and 442 mis-ing it possible to fire this gun, the new cellaneous vessels.ideas embraced in the construction includ- Russia, before quitting the war, had 18ing the "cushioning" of the boat to with- battleships, four battle cruisers, 12 heavystand the terrific concussion of the gun. and nine light cruisers, 128 destroyers,This idea is reported unofficially as hav- 54 submarines, 13 torpedo boats, 14 air-ing been successful. So far as is known ships and 90 miscellaneous vessels.the new craft was never employed against Before the armistice was signed, Ger-any enemy vessel. many had 47 battleships, six battle cruis- During the first half of the year 1918 ers,51 other cruisers, 223 destroyers, 175no less than 100 German submarines were torpedo boats, 243 submarines, and 564 miscellaneous vessels.trapped in British mine fields off Heligo-land. The number captured or de- total During the war 2,475 British shipsstroyed during the war is put at 202. As were sunk with their crews beneath them,at least 122 were surrendered since the and 3,147 vessels were sunk and theirarmistice and 58 were not yet completed, crews left adrift.Fishing vessels to theit appears that Germany used during the number of 670 were lost during the periodwar or had in course of construction, a of hostilities.total of 382 submarines, whereas she was According to one story, when thecredited with only 35 when war began. kaiser * urged upon Admiral Scheer inDuring the course of one month the Brit- October, 1918, that he sail out to meetish mined zone off the Belgian coast the Britishfleet, the admiral consented,caught 17 German submarines. but only on condition that the kaiser ac- Five hundred and seventeen ships were company the fleet on the flagship andadded to the British navy during the war. take nominal control of tjie action withThe new vessels include seven battleships, the British fleet. In the interview be-five battle-cruisers, twenty-six light cruis- tween Scheer and the kaiser the latterers, seventeen monitors, 230 destroyers pledged his word to Scheer that he wouldand 232 mine-sweepers and special craft. do so. The German fleet was to have Secretary Daniels of the U. S., at the sailed on a Thursday night, the kaiserend of the war said that Great Britain was to have arrived at Kiel the previoushas in operation or building sixty-one Tuesday. But on the Monday preceding
  • 283. MAKVKI.S 01 TIIK WAK 201a naval attadit arn<<l at Kiel with a clothing was nondescript. There was an.Irspatrli for Scherr Inun the kaiser, in air of melancholy and depression every -which Willielni stated that he could not where.,,, i,, K,,l becMiw he be&ved it to be .. u was a ^ ^ own eas|ire t tf ,IMS duty to remain at Potsdam Admiral , sh *Scheer then decided not only not to allowthe fleet to sail, but as a protest agamst sail ^j f was /rmw with c, ick nd faces ^ere atthe Hohenzollerns to take possession of rter we H rthole an(] the decks ,Kieliit- Scheer informed Premier Kbert ocneer mioinieu i iciiiicr .TJI/CII i i occupied only by . , the commander , , m - officers, ., ithat he would hold the great naval base u i i i A u i u f A marching briskly along in the traditionaluntil a new government had been formed.Pnnce Henry of Prussia, who was at ^ telescope under his arm. officer / have been ^ The Ger- , it an( , ^^Kiel was held a prisoner for a week In e whfttever has e^ perience d >a cablegram to government officials at Thc Bpitigh officers have re _Berlin Admiral Scheer said We pre- . aH advances at frie ndliness, andferred disgrace to fighting in the cause ofa coward J^ extended onl the nec essary cour- tesies." Describing the German warships which Captain Persius, the German navalsurrendered to the British and are now cr jtic, chose the moment when the finestinterned in Scapa Flow, the correspond- vessels of the German navy were aboutent of The Daily Telegraph says: to be surrendered to the allies to publish in the Berlin Tageblatt a sensational ar- "The German admirals flag, white t c j e containing revelations regarding the jwith a thin black cross and two black German fleet. Captain Persius said the flew atballs, indicative of his rank, still j u) p e that the German fleet would be ablethe main, topgallant of the Friedrich der m a sec ond Skagerrak battle to beat theGrosse, as the German squadron moved British fleet rested upon the bluff andbetween the British lines. It hung limp ii In August, es o f the naval authorities.and dirty typical in this state of all the 1914, Germany had about one millionGerman ships and their crews. The ships tonnage in warships, while Great Britainwere in such condition that they looked b ad more than double that, and thanks to by for breaking-up pur-like vessels laid the mistakes of Von Tirpitz, the Germanposes. They could not have seen paint ma terial was quite inferior to the British,for two years. Their sides, funnels and j n the Skaggerak battle, the Germanbridges were covered with red rust, and fl ee t was saved from destruction partlythe masts were black with soot. The b y good leadership and partly by favor-guns even had not been painted for ab i e weather conditions. Had themonths. weather been clear or Admiral Von "The Derffhnger wastion than . , in better condi- any of the others, and there was ,. ^ of the haye resulte(1 German navy wollU1 ^ Scheers leadership less able the destruc- The Ion g. ran ge Britishan appearance on board that discipline w<mld haye completelv smasne d thewas still in vogue. On all the other ships J| hter . armed German ships. As it was,the crews were lounging about, many on ^^ of the German fleet were enor .the quarter decks not recognizing then On the Derffhnger the officers jj* ^ Qn June ^ Cfl tajn p ersiljs dear to eyery thinkin g man ^^officers. jt w&were parading smartly about on their own skaggerrak battle must be thequarter, and the men were clean and or- , ^neral naval engagement of thederly. As we passed close to each ship wa ^the men crowded the rail. They lookedmiserable and drenched and cold. Their On all sides, says Capt. Persius, Ad-
  • 284. MARVELS OF THK WAR miral Von Tirpitz was advised to con- trained and they looked with distrust struct only submarines, but he remained upon the weapon. In the last months, obstinate. On October 1, 1915, several he reveals, it was very difficult to get men members of the Reichstag made an ear- for submarine work, as experienced sea-nest appeal to the army command not men looked upon the submarine warfareto the naval staff with the result that an as political stupidity. Captain Persiusorder was issued terminating the con- tells of the mutiny that broke out at thestruction of battleships in order that the beginning of the month when the Ger-material might be used for the making of man navy was ordered out for attack.U-boats. In the meantime so great a Had the seamen obeyed, the writer re-scarcity of material had arisen that it be- marks, innumerable lives would have beencame necessary to disarm a number of the lost, and he declares that "everybattleships and take the metal. In this man therefore is of the opinion thinking that themanner, at the beginning of 1916 twenty- seamen on November 5 rendered an in-three battleships had been disarmed, as valuable service to their country".well as one newly built cruiser. The surrender of war weapons by the At the beginning of 1918 Captain Per- enemy represented a higher percentage ofsius the German navy consisted states, his strength than had been estimated. Aonly of dreadnaughts and battleships of Paris despatch reported that the alliesthe Heligoland, Kaiser and Markgraf captured one-third of the German artil-types, and some few battle cruisers. All lery during their offensive, that one-ninththe ships which Von Tirpitz had con- was destroyed in action and that the sur-structed from 1897 to 1906, at a cost of render of 5,000 guns represented at leastinnumerable millions, had been destroyed, one-half of all the enemys remaining ar-and the U-boats that had been con- tillery. The enemy was credited withstructed had proved unable to fight having only 2,586 planes, and the surren-against British warships. Admiral Von der of 1,700 machines left him, without aCapelle during his period as head of the single bombing or fighting plane, the re-navy constructed very few submarines, mainder being planes designed for otherwork being continued only on the con- work.struction of submarines of the large type, The detailed report of General Haigbut in official quarters it was still stated on the British operations between Aprilthat Germany possessed an enormous and November showed that Generalnumber of U-boats and that the losses Haig agrees with Foch that the defensivewere virtually nil. That was not true, the power of the German army was destroyedwriter admits. In 1917, he states, 83 by the allies four months campaign andsubmarines were constructed, while 66 that the armistice saved the Germanwere destroyed. In April, 1917, Ger- armies from a colossal disaster and Ger-many had 126 submarines and in October many from an armed invasion. But for146. In February, 1918, she had 136 and the cessation of hostilities the allied of-in June of the same year 113. fensive would have been extended still Only a small percentage of these sub- farther. During the 1918 campaign themarines were actively operating at any British captured more than 200,000 Ger-given time, Captain Persius declares. In mans and 2,850 cannon out of a total ofJanuary, 1917, for instance, when condi- 330,000 prisoners and 6,000 cannon takentions were favorable for submarine work, by the allied armies. General Haig allonly twelve percent were active while says that during the last three months ofthirty percent were in harbor, thirty-eight the fighting, the British, using 59 divi-percent under repairs and twenty per- sions, met and defeated no less than 99cent "incapacitated". Submarine crews, different divisions of the Germans.he says, were not sufficiently educated and W. R. P.
  • 285. The Debate on Peace Terms CHAPTER XVII MEETING OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE A PERIOD OF ANXIETY THE ATTITUDE OF GERMANY FIGHTING IN EASTERN EUROPE BOLSHEVISM AND ANARCHY PROBLEMS FOR THE CONFERENCE REPARATION OF DAMAGES ITALYS CLAIMS PRESIDENT WILSONS ATTITUDE GER- N MAN DELEGATES AT VERSAILLES. The meeting of the delegates of the pleted their task and insisted upon im-Allied and Associated nations at Paris mediate demobilization. Their relativesfor the purpose of drawing up terms joined in demanding that the authoritiesto be dictated to the enemy powers was should return the men to civil life atknown as the Peace Conference. Its a rate faster than the general politicalwork was carried on for three and a situation warranted or than the meanshalf months, from the middle of Jan- of transportation permitted. The high cost of living in all parts of the worlduary until the first week in May, be-fore the Peace Treaty was in shape popular discontent and dis- intensifiedfor presentation to the delegates of Ger- posed the people to listen to the advicemany. The meeting of delegates from of the most extreme agitators. Thethe enemy with those from the Allied and masses were impressed by the undoubtedAssociated powers which took place at fact that the burdens of war had fallenVersailles, was known as the Peace Con- unevenly on the citizenship, and theygress. had an idea that the injustices of the Mankind seldom has passed through industrial and social system which hadas anxious a period as the three and persisted during the era of autocracya half months between the first session might be removed by concerted action,of the Peace Conference and the sum- Here and there they were inclined tomoning of the Peace Congress. Dur- dispense with the ballot and take a short cut to reform by the exercise ofing the strain of war, the peoples ofthe belligerent nations had shown re- physical force.markable fortitude. They had recognized Germany sensed the anxiety of thethat victory would go to the side that Allied and Associated governments aboutshowed the most endurance and had revolutionary possibilities at home andbraced themselves to withstand all the did what she could to increase the dan-vicissitudes of the combat. With the ger and to magnify the fears. Thereby,collapse of the Central Powers and she hoped to secure better terms of peace,the termination of hostilities, self- She pointed to the horrors of the Bolshe-restraint was given up and the peoples vik regime in Russia and threatened togave themselves over to the wildest ex- bring a similar, hideous nightmare uponcesses. all the allied peoples unless they were The collapse of the worlds morale merciful towards Germany. This sheintroduced an era of unrest during which proposed to do by deliberately incitinggovernments everywhere feared that they violence in the Fatherland. For her ownmight IK* sitting over a volcano. The sake, she, sometimes, dealt sternly withallied troops felt that they had com- disorders; at other times she permitted M
  • 286. 294 THE DEBATE ON PEACE TERMSor even fomented them in order to in- with the aid of the Bavarian Constitu-timidate the perplexed enemy powers. The tionalists. When the German delegatesshortage of food in central, southern received peace terms in May it theand eastern Europe, resulting in star- could be said that they were in a positionvation conditions over vast areas; the ter- to speak for all Germany.rible lack of employment and the disincli- Throughout the entire Peace Confer-nation of millions of unnerved men to ence fighting proceeded in eastern Eu-take work wjien it was available, and rope between the Russian Bolsheviki andHieir readiness to compel the state to anti-Bolshevik forces that were aided bysupport them, made conditions in Europe the Allied and Associated powers. Thealarming enough without any manipula- peace negotiators kept an anxious eyetion on the part of the German political upon this warfare, and upon the effortsstrategists. The truth was that Europe of the Bolsheviki to organize socialhad lost stamina, was bankrupt and revolutions in all the countries of Eu-broken, economically and industrially, rope, for they recognized that it wasand its transportation system was so quite conceivable that anarchy mightout of repair as to be unable to handle spread over all of central and easternpromptly the supplies of food from Europe and make it impossible to enforceAmerica that alone prevented general any documentary settlement of the prob-starvation. As it was, hundreds of thou- lems created by the war. In Marchsands of lives were lost in Europe Bolshevism gained many successes andthrough insufficient food, and the winter caused much apprehension. The alliesof 1918-19 was one of the most unhappy and anti-Bolshevik forces in northernon record. Conditions were equally bad Russia were driven back and threatenedin Asia. One estimate put the number with annihilation in the White Sea. Theof deaths in India from drought and Bolshevik government forces advancedfamine as high as thirty millions. in the Ukraine. The Karolyi ministry On February 19 the world was shocked in Hungary was superseded by a Bol-by the news that an anarchist had shot shevik government that invited Bolshe-Clemenceau, the veteran premier of vik Russia to give it military aid inFrance. The wonderful physique of the defiance of the allied peace terms. Andpremier pulled him through and in ten the German foreign minister was reporteddays he was able to resume work. The to have sent delegates to Moscow whomotive of the attack on him was to re- arranged a secret treaty providing thatmove a man the assassin considered to Russia would make no treaty with thebe standing in the way of permanent Allied and Associated powers but, underpeace. At that time the desire to punish certain circumstances, give military aidGermany to the limit was uppermost in to Germany, which, in turn, should sendFrance. Two days after the shooting thousands of military instructors to Rus-of Clemenceau, Premier Eisner of Ba- sia. Moscow denied this report.varia was shot dead in Munich by a The inauguration at Buda Pest of areactionary. Eisner knew that he could Bolshevik regime with the evident pur-not remain in power without overthrow- pose of preventing the allies from makinging the State Assembly by force and he such territorial dispositions affecting thewas about to pull off a military coup old Dual Empire as they found to be just,detat when he was shot from behind. was a serious matter for the cause of civili-The assassin was killed, and the Bolshe- zation. It almost engulfed Rumania invik element seized power and held it for a sea of Bolshevism. It menaced stabilitysix weeks, when the federal government in the new states of Czecho-Slovakia andhad courage enough to conduct a mili- Jugo-Slavia, which had become protegestary campaign against the Bolsheviki of the allies, and it opened up the possi-
  • 287. Till; DKIJATK <) PK.U K TKUMS 295 C oiint Karolyi resigned. Had his invita- tion to the Bolsheviki to take power in- timidated the allies, Germany would have copied Hungarys example. Austria showed a disposition to follow Hungarys example, but thought better of it when she saw that no good came of it. Contrib- uting to the failure of the Bolshevik oppo- sition to the Allies in Hungary was the desertion to the Rumanians of 30,000 Szeklers. These are a people, half a mil- lion strong, akin to the Magyars, but who were to come under Rumanian rule in Tiansylvania. Their defection probably was due to the promise by the Rumanians of a large measure of autonomy. A nasty situation developed more than once as a result of the clashing of the Poles with the Germans in that portion of eastern Germany where the Poles were a preponderating element. Soon after the signing of the armistice the Poles started to take over the local administration, a movement which the Germans opposed with all available troops. General Hin- denburg moved over to that region and by February it appeared that a serious campaign against the Poles was about to begin. Heavy fighting was averted by the allies forbidding either the Poles or the Germans to carry on operations, and Georges Clemenceau, the "Tiger" of France, Premier of the delimiting a zone which should be evacu-French Republic and Presiding Officer of the Peace Conferencethat Settled the Fate of Germany. He Was Wounded by a ated by the Germans. It was well under-Would-be Assassins Bullet During the Conference, But Madea Speedy Recovery and Lived to Hand the Terms of Peace to stood by everybody that this area repre-the Hun. sented the minimum amount of herbility that any peace treaty the allies territory that Germany would have to con-might submit to Germany, would be torn tribute to the formation of New Poland.up and repudiated. General Smuts was The area was 115 miles long and 11. miles "3sent as an allied emissary to Buda Pest wide but of irregular shape, embracingbut not with satisfactory results. As a about 4,000 square miles. The populationconsequence, an advance of Rumanian thus lost by Germany was in the neighbor-and Czecho-Slovak forces towards Buda hood of 800,000. "The Poles believed,Pest was ordered. The Rumanians at with good reason, that quite an additionalonce occupied all of the territory that their area and population would be awardedcountry claimed, which was as far west- them by the peace treaty. But this cessionward as the Szedin-Debreczen line and of land to Xew Poland brought a foreignfifty milesbeyond the line that the allies power to within 110 miles of Berlin onpreviously had told them they might take the east. Significantly enough, the areaup. It was because the allied powers had ceded was shaped like a spearhead point-ordered the Hungarian troops to with- ing at the German capital. On the oppo-draw to the Szedin-Debreczen line that site side -of Europe, allied armies were to
  • 288. THE DEBATE ON PEACE TERMSremain in position along the Rhine for a had been varied, so that the city wouldnumber of years, at a distance of 290 miles have an independent existence but befrom Berlin. within the Polish customs union. In The territory that was handed over to other words, it would have autonomy as athe Poles in February as a first instal- municipality, thus perpetrating no injus-ment, is low-lying and fertile, devoted tice on the Germans within the city. Themainly to agriculture and cattle-raising. Germans were to have free passage acrossThe principal city in the fortress city it is the corridor of Polish territory separat-of Posen, which has a pre-war garrison ing West and East Prussia.of 6,000 men. Posen was a place very The Peace Conference was a littledear to the heart of the Kaiser Wilhelm, more than midway through its courseand with the fortresses of Thorn and when serious differences of opinion devel-Graudenz formed an extremely strong oped as to the disposition of the Saarbarrier to invasion westward across the in Germany, the amount and districtVistula. The Poles continued to hope priority of the various national claims tothat these other two places, with a cor- reparation, and the guarantees thatridor of Polish territory running down to France should receive against possibleDanzig, along with that seaport city, future German aggression. At that timewould be added to their reconstructed a good deal of pessimism about the out-state. By the terms of the armistice, Ger- come of the Peace Conference wasmany agreed to allow allied troops to pass voiced. Frank Simonds cabled to Amer-through Danzig and across Prussia to ica that the best the world could hope forPoland for the purpose of maintaining was a patched-up peace, that the Leagueorder. In April, however, she strongly of Nations was dead, that France wasobjected to the Polish troops on the being sacrificed, and that eastern EuropeFrench front under General Haller being was being abandoned to Bolshevism.allowed to disembark at Danzig, fearing Newspaper reports reaching Englandthat a strong force would remain in Dan- caused several hundred British M. P.s tozig and hold the city for New Poland. send a telegram to Lloyd George de-Germanys objections nearly provoked a manding that he carry out his electionbreach with the allies, but finally Ger- pledges that Germany would be ade-many agreed to Polish troops in trains quately punished for her misdeeds. Thispassing across Germany from the western message caused the British premier tofront. At the same time it was under- hurry home and tell Parliament and thestood that Danzig was to be made a free nation that the peace treaty would pro-port and internationalized, a temporary vide:decision that disappointed Ignace Pader- (a) For the trial of those who beganewski, the world-famous pianist, who, as the war as well as of Germanspremier, had assumed the tremendous task who authorized crimes duringof piloting New Poland through her the war.early career. The reason Danzig was not (b) Complete reparation for theawarded to Poland outright on this occa- devastation caused by thesion, was that the majority of the popu- enemy.lation was German speaking, and the (c) Absolute security for France.port was the natural outlet for the trade Lloyd George protested that everyof German communities on either side. election pledge he had given during theA through strip of Polish territory also fall would be found fulfilled irj the peacewould isolate East Prussia from the rest treaty. And because of the widespreadof Germany. criticism of President Wilson for con- Towards the close of April it was an- fronting some of the national aspirationsnounced that the disposition of Danzig of the European allies with the new ideals
  • 289. THE DEBATE ON PEACE TERMS 297of the proposed League of Nations, the consequence of the war imposedBritish premier made occasion to say upon them by the aggression of thethat no one could have been more sympa- enemy states.thetic towards the peculiar problems and The allies decided that the total amountsusceptibilities of the continental nations of reparation for which Germany was tothan had been President Wilson. By admit liability was so vast that the interestway of illustrating the immensity of the alone would be more than Germany couldwork of the Peace Conference, he pointed pay, and so they left the determining ofout that provision had to be made for ten the exact amount to some later date. Innew states, with varying degrees of the meantime, they provided that Ger-autonomy, and the modification of the many should be given a certain period inboundaries of fourteen other states. which to pay off a given instalment of the The United States delegation ques- principal sum and until that was paid notioned the view that the authors of Ger- interest should be charged on the later in-man outrages could be tried and punished stalments. The commission that investi-by any international court. They ac- gated the matter concluded that the mostquiesced in the view that the German for- that Germany appeared to be able to pay,tifications in the whole Rhine area should was a total of $23,820,000,000, principal,be razed to the ground, that Germany during the next 32 years, and anothershould be forbidden to manufacture tanks $9,528,000,000 duringan indefinite periodand war airplanes and that the German following the 32-year period.army should be limited to 100,000 men, The manner of payment of the first-with no surplus war material. It was mentioned sum was as follows:agreed by the conference that the By May, 1921 $4,764,000,000, with-Saar Valley coal mines, east of Metz, out interest.should become the absolute property of By 1951 $9,528,000,000, with interestFrance, in compensation for the French at 2l/2 per cent between 1921 and 1926,coal mines the enemy had destroyed, and and 5 per cent thereafter. The first yearsthat Germany should only have the option interest would be $238,200,000.of buying them back with gold at the end By an unfixed date, probably not be-of a 15-year period. The administration fore 1971, a second sum of $9,528,000,000 ;of the Saar district during that period was interest to be determined at a later date.to be under the League of Nations and It will be seen that unless the victoriousat the end of the period a plebiscite was to Allied combination relents at some futurebe taken as to the future political status date Germans who were sucking babesof the district. when the peace terms were drawn up will The reparation clause of the peace be working fifty years later to maketreaty required such large payments of reparation for Germanys criminality ingold by Germany, that it became doubt- connection with The Great War. Theful whether Germany would be in a posi- terms made for the thirty year period be-tion to redeem the Saar valley mines when tween 1921 and 1951 suggest that thethe lapse of time permitted. The clause allies were of the opinion that Germanycalled upon Germany to admit her liabil- could not pay, in principal and interest,ity to pay the entire losses of the war, in more than 500 million dollars a year.the following words: That is not a surprising view, for the en- The Allied and Associated powers tire pre-war revenue of the German gov- affirm, and Germany accepts on be- ernment was under a billion dollars a year, half of herself and her allies, respon- and Germany, when deprived of the Lor- sibility for all losses and damages raine iron mines and the Saar and Si- of the Allied and Associated gov- lesian coal mines, on which her commer- ernments and their nationals as a cial greatness largely was founded, will
  • 290. Map of Central Europe. Showing the Territorial Effects of the Peace Treaty. See Key on Opposite Page. (Courtesy of Chicago Tribune.) 298
  • 291. CHANGKS IN MAP OF EUROPE Key to Map on Opposite Page The changes made in the inup of Central Europe by t)ir terms of the Treaty of Peace handed to tinGerman peace delegates at Versailles on Man 7, 1919, are shown on the oppoxite page. The principal istuex.in a territorial or geographic sense, arc (See corresponding figures and letters in the map): the territories which were 1*08611 must be ceded to Poland.1 Alsace-Lorraine, * wrenched from France in 13. 1871, are restoredto the republic. The French in the lost prov- -I A The greater part Upper Silesia isinces now regained are repatriated, and the * ^** go to Poland-.Germans there may become French citizens, if The present border between Germany andthey so desire, by naturalization after three Bohemia is to remain unchanged.years. The public debt is cancelled.o TheSaar valley will pass into the hands of Germany must recognize the independence^" of the new nation of Czecho-Slovakia. the French, together with the output of the Access to the sea must be provided by railroadsmi uos. After fifteen years the people of the to the Adriatic at Fiume and Triest, and in thedistrict will vote whether they shall remain north Germany must lease spaces in Hamburgunder French control, under the guidance of and Stettin.the league of nations, or return to Germany.This voting will be open to all inhabitants overJd years of age. n Germany must recognize the independence of German Austria.o The Ruthenians in Hungary are to be Germany must renounce all treaties with *-* Luxembourg and must give up the German recognized as independent.control of the railways and other facilities in I Q The entire Russian boundary (must be * **the grand duchy. The duchy is considered to restored to the lines of the old Russianhave ceased to have been part of the German empire. The treaties of Brest-Litovsk and otherZollverein from Jan. 1, 1919. treaties with the Russian soviet government are abrogated.A Germany must recognize the sovereignty of^" Belgium over the contested territory of Germany must accept any arrangement Morenet, and must cede all rights to the districts the alliesmake with Bulgaria.of Malmedy and Eupen. The people in six The Germans must accept any arrange-months may protest, if they wish to, this change. *. ment the allies make with Turkey.The comprise 382 square miles. districts affectedK Germany must create a neutral zone thirty** miles in The depth east of the Rhine. The rivers running through the old Germanybridgeheads will be occupied fifteen years. and Austria-Hungary are to be internationalizedf* Helgoland, the island fortress, is to be dis- and largely controlled by representatives of the^* mantled at German expense and by German allies:labor. The frontier between Germany and Den- A The Rhine will be internationalized on the ** whole of7 mark will be decided by a plebiscite. The navigable course. its ID The Kiel canal, base of the German fleet,people of Sohleswig-Holstcin will decide under *-* is to be opened to the ships of the world.the right of self-determination.o Danzig and the immediate vicinity will be a C* The Elbe river from the juncture of the^* free port, giving Poland an outlet to the ^^* Vltava to its mouth is to be internation-sea. It will be protected by the league of alized.nations. T The Vltava as far up as Prague is to be *- internationalized, giving the city an outletQ The to the around Memel must be on its territory given to the sea.y* up allies, who will decidedestination. The internationalization of the Oder will be between Oppa and the mouth of the The boundaries of southern and eastern Prussia will be decided by a vote of the stream.people. The Gorman troops must move out "C1 The Niemen must be opened to the river * * vessels of theworld as far up as Grodno.within fifteen days after peace is signed.t -I Germany must recognize the independence f~^ The entire course of the Danube from Ulm* * of the new Poland. ^J * to the Black sea is internationalized.-I o The portion of West Prussia on the left TJ The Moselle river is placed under the*~* bank of the Vistula must be ceded to * * same international river control commis-Poland. sion as the Rhine.
  • 292. 300 THE DEBATE ON PEACE TERMS be in a much less favorable position for the great Austrian naval base at Pola,raising money. Italy insisted upon being given Fiume Frances exhausted financial condition and a large part of Dalmatia. Britain,and the extent of her sacrifices for the France and Russia had promised Dal-cause of freedom were taken into con- matia and Istria to Italy in return for hersideration when the allies discussed the participation in the war, but not Fiume.distribution of the enormous sums Ger- At one time, it appeared as though Italymany should pay by way of reparation, would get Fiume in lieu of Dalmatia, butan amount twenty-three times as large President Wilson decided that she was en-as France was called upon to pay after titled to neither on ethnological and geo-the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. It graphical grounds. Though the aristoc-was agreed that France should receive racy and culture of Dalmatia, particu-something like 55 per cent of the total larly along the coast, were Italian, thesum to be paid by Germany, the distri- great bulk of the people were Jugo- Slavsbution being, roughly, as follows: who desired to be citizens of the new state France $13,000,000,000 of Jugo- Sla via. Asmall majority of the citizens of Fiume were Italians but that Britain 6,000,000,000 United States port was a natural and essential trade out- 1,000,000,000 letfor Jugo- Sla via and Czecho- Slovakia, Italy, Belgium, Ser- and to lesser degree for Rumania, Hun- bia, Rumania, Rus- sia, et al 3,820,000,000 gary and reduced Austria. President Wilsons open appeal to world sentiment, and particularly to the Total reparation better nature of Italy, made in the form sum $23,820,000,000 of a public statement, affronted the Larger amounts were not awarded to Italian delegates and the Italian premier,Serbia, Rumania and Italy because of the Dr. Orlando, left the Peace Conferencelarge territorial advantages gained by and went home, with the approval of thethem in the war. Better financial pro- Italian king. Indirectly, it was intimatedvision was made for devastated Belgium. that Italy would seize and retain by forceAs to Russia, it was understood that the all the territory she claimed and if neces-amount allotted to her would be used to sary, conclude a separate peace with Ger-reduce her indebtedness to France and many. That was extreme talk which fewBritain. The British empire put in its people expected to be realized. Theentire war bill as a charge against Ger- Italian House, by a vote of almost ten tomany, including some five billions for the one, supported the position taken by theoverseas dominions of the British empire. premier and the Senate gave him unani-That sum represented more than one bil- mous endorsation. The- forty deputies Canada. But it was welllion dollars for who voted against the national claims didknown that but a small proportion ever so on the ground that the claim to Dal-would be paid and that payment would be matia violated the principle of self-deter-deferred until prior claims had been met. mination. The most sensational development dur- The closing days of April found theing the Peace Conference arose from German delegates at Versailles with thePresident Wilsons veto of the claims Adriatic question still unsolved and themade by Italy to territory on the east side Italian delegates absent. But during theof the Adriatic Sea. Not content with first week in May the allies invited Italysecuring Avlona and a bridgehead in to return to the Peace Conference andAlbania at the entrance to the Adriatic, Italy accepted and lined up with theand also the whole peninsula of Istria at forces of civilization in presenting thethe head of that sea, along with Triest and terms of peace to Germany. W. R. P.
  • 293. Germany Hears The Terms CIIAPTKK XV111 Till LEAGUE OF NATIONS COVENANT -ENGLAND AND AMERICA STAND I;KHI.D THE LEAGUE AN IDEALISTIC BASIS FOR TIIK NATIONS OBJECTIONS TO THE LEAGUE NATIONS NAMED AS MEM- BERS AM) INVITED TO JOIN -- GERMANS HANDED THE TERMS OF PEACE AT VERSAILLES. The first session of the Peace Confer- amazing vigor and daring. Presidentence was held on January 18, 1919. A Wilson, as the outstanding champion of aweek later the Conference adopted a his- worldwide League, was termed a meddlertoric resolution in the following terms: and a busybody. That was the viewpoint of the European diplomat of the old type. That it is essential to the mainte- At home, President Wilson was assailed nance of the world settlement which for seeking to involve the New World in the Associated Nations are now met the quarrels of the Old, and he was to establish, that a League of Nations be created to promote international charged with deserting the Monroe doc- trine until he had that policy tacitly rec- obligations and provide safeguards ognized by the constitution of the League against war. This League should be of Nations. created as an integral part of the gen- eral treaty of peace and should be Throughout the Conference, President Wilsons course indicated that he was open to every civilized nation which can be relied on to promote its ob- making everything subsidiary to the suc- cess of his plan for establishing the society jects. of nations on a nobler base. The British The members of the League should premier yielded to him the privilege of periodically meet in international con- ference and should have a permanent proposing the resolution in favor of or- ganizing the League of Nations and in organization and secretaries to carry on the business of the League in the speaking, Mr. Wilson said, with great solemnity, that the United States "would intervals between conferences. feel that it could take no part in guaran- It might be thought that the whole teeing those European settlements unlessworld was eager for a League for the that guarantee involved the continuouspreservation of peace, and so, indeed, it superintendence of the peace of the worldwas, so far as the masses were concerned, by the associated nations of the world."but many newspapers poked fun at the The president emphasized the fact thatproposal, called impossible idealism, a it the covenants entered into at the Haguejoke and a nightmare. In most of the Conferences had been of little value be-allied countries a considerable section of cause nobody had been authorized to en-the press magnified the possibilities of a force them. The guarantees given wererecrudescence of German military power individual and not collective. Presidentin order to discourage the substitution of Wilsons view of the League was that "thepeaceful co-operation for military rivalry very pulse of the world beats to the fullestbetween the nations. The territorial in this enterprise." The fortunes of man-greed of sections of the public, and na- kind now were in the hands of the plaintional prejudices were played upon with people of the world, and these had to be 301
  • 294. GERMANY HEARS THE TERMSsatisfied. The peacedelegates should see the idea that the undeveloped peoples olthat the very foundations of the Great Germanys tropical colonies should be-War were swept away. Those founda- come the wards of civilization and not betions were the aggression of great powers absorbed bodily by the states that hadupon the small, the holding together of conquered them.empires of unwilling subjects by the Among the earliest difficulties of theduress of arms, and the power of small Peace Conference was that of makingbodies of men to wield their will and use progress without hurting the feelings ofmankind as pawns in a game. Nothing the smaller powers and without provokingless than the emancipation of the world an uncontrollable outburst of dissatisfac-from those things would accomplish tion over the secrecy of the discussions.peace. The Big Four, as they came to be called, Lloyd George, in seconding the resolu- Britain, France, Italy and the Unitedtion, said that the people of the British States, decided that the work of the Con-empire were strongly behind the proposal. ference would be dragged out for yearsAfter contemplating the ruined cities of unless the smaller powers were shut outFrance and the acres of graveyards filled from the discussion of matters of generalduring the war, he could not help asking importance. The nature of the decisionswhether it was not time that a saner plan on multitudinous subjects, and the reasonsthan organized savagery should be tried therefor, were withheld with the exceptionfor settling international disputes. The of the Adriatic dispute, until the peaceBritish premiers views were endorsed by treaty had been drafted. Full publicityPremier Orlando of Italy, who said that during the proceedings, it was held, wouldno people were readier than the Italian to make a huge debating society out of theaccept the proposal of a League of Peace. world and lead to interminable wrangles.The support of France and China then It was realized that conditions would bewas pledged. All felt that humanity made much easier for the various govern-would have lost the war, unless a recur- ments whose lives depended on their workrence of such a colossal disaster was pre- at the Conference, if the verdict of thevented. nations had to be passed upon the sum Sir R. L. Borden, speaking for Can- total of their work rather than upon eachada, very aptly said that "It would be decision, separately. On the whole, themonstrous if out of the horror and the world submitted with remarkably goodsacrificeand sorrow inflicted by this awful grace to this policy, which was not re-struggle, such an organization, endowed garded as a glaring violation of the prin-with strong and vital purposes, were not ciple of open diplomacy.evolved, for otherwise one must despair The side-tracking of the smaller powersof that civilization upon which we have from the main discussions resulted inprided ourselves, and of the existing social many angry utterances. The exasperatedorder." delegates from the minor states were mol- The adoption by the Conference of the lified for a while by the announcementidealistic basis for the new international that they would be consulted wheneversociety did not mean that all honest dif- their particular interests were involved,ferences of opinion and conflict of interest but with the best of goodwill, the Bigwould terminate. As we saw in the last Four worked under such pressure thatchapter, it did not mean that every even this pledge was not fulfilled in everynationalistic aspiration at variance with case. The vast majority of delegates atthe principle of self-determination and the the world conference, therefore, had to sitsanctity of the rights of small nations, around and twiddle their fingers while de-would be given up without a struggle. cisions in which they were interested wereNor was it easy to reconcile all parties to "railroaded" through. They had to ad-
  • 295. (.KKMAXY 1IKAKS T1IK TKHMSinit. in fairness to the men dominating the licans,but the criticism by no means wasPeace I "iilrrrnee, that the world situa- confined to the political party opposedtion was such as to make this objectionable to President Wilson. All the Hearstcondition necessary and inevitable, and newspapers were hostileto the League.that Wilson, Lloyd George, Clemenceau A new Congress had been elected and theand Orlando usually were at great pains expiring House of Representatives, by ato protect the interests of the small and vote of 210 to 41 went on record asthe big. The outstanding exception was hoping that the Peace Conference wouldthe insistence of Italy that she should be favorably consider the claims of Irelandgiven the Adriatic-port of Fiume in addi- to self-determination. An attempt to de-tion to all the territory in Dalmatia that bate the Constitution was headed off inhad been promised her by France and the expiring Senate, but Senator LodgeBritain, but here President Wilson came boasted that 37 members of the newout into the open in determined opposi- Senate had pledged themselves in blacktion, showing a readiness to risk the suc- and white to vote against the ratificationcess of the Conference and of the attempt of the Leagues Constitution as thento establish a League of Nations rather drafted. That number was one-third ofthan to start the League off in open defi- the membership of the Senate and, there-ance of the very principles which brought fore, enough to prevent the United Statesit into existence. from validating either the Peace Treaty Very strong objection was brought by or the Constitution of the League ofthe British overseas Dominions and Japan Nations which formed an integral partto the proposal that the German colonies of the Treaty.should be administered by the League of The objections voiced by SenatorNations. The South African Union in- Knox were based on the fear that thesisted that German Southwest Africa League would provoke the creation of ashould come absolutely under its sway and counter-League, under German control,Australia was equally insistent that the and involve the United States in anotherGerman Pacific islands she had seized war, the greatest in history. In threeshould not pass out of her control. ways, he argued, war might be madeFinally it was arranged that Southwest mandatory on the members of the LeagueAfrica and the Pacific Islands were to be in defiance, so far as the LT nited Statesgoverned as integral portions of the Brit- was concerned, of the constitution of theish dominions concerned and Japan, but republic. When the second draft of theunder a mandate from the League of Leagues Constitution was issued, it wasNations, in whom the nominal title would found that changes had been made thatbe vested, and to whom annual reports as weakened the force of most of Senatorto the condition of the natives, etc., should Knoxs arguments. As a consequence,he made by the mandatory powers. In some of the Senators who had pledgedCentral Africa the mandatory powers ad- themselves to vote against the Peaceministering formerly German territory Treaty felt themselves free to give it sup-were to be required to guarantee freedom port. President Wilson never ceased toof trade and equal opportunity. In this believe that the vast majority of the peo-limited form, the powers recognized that ple of the United States were behind hisall the colonial territory taken from Ger- proposals. This belief was strengthenedmany during the war was to he regarded bv a poll of the daily newspapers of theas a sacred trust of civilization. United States which showed that of 1 .377 The first draft of the Constitution of that voted, 718 gave an unequivocal sup-the League of Nations was assailed bit- port of the League of Nations, 478 gaveterly in the United States by Senators conditional support and only 181 re-Lodge and Knox, both of them Repub- sponded in opposition.
  • 296. GERMANY 11KA11S THE TERMS When the Constitution first was pub- powers and four delegates nominated by lished Premier Orlando of Italy greeted the lesser powers. In the first instance it with the observation that "born out of Belgium, Brazil, Greece and Spain were the horrors of war, this is a document of to represent the lesser powers on the freedom and right which represents the Council. Nations directly concerned in redemption of humanity by sacrifice." matters before the Council were to have Under it, the nations entering the League the right to vote as members. Both the bound themselves: Council and the Assembly were to have 1. To refrain from the making of power to deal with any matter that was secret treaties. of international interest or that threat- 2. To submit all disputes between one ened the peace of the world, but their another to conciliation or arbitra- decision was to be effective only when tion. unanimous. The first meeting of the 3. To defend against outside aggres- Assembly and Council was to be sum- sion the territorial integrity and moned by the President of the United political independence of members States. The seat of the League was to of the League. be Geneva, but at any time might be 4. To an international court establish moved elsewhere by the Council. Women of justice that would enforce its were to be on an equality with men in all decisions by economic or military positions in connection with the League. means, if necessary. The Council was given the duty of 5. To establish an international rep- advising the members of the League as to resentative Council that would de- the degree that armaments might be re- velop international law, watch over duced, and after the governments had the freedom of nations and the in- accepted a limitation of armaments, the terests of uncivilized races. limits agreed upon should not be ex- 6. To establish a permanent Commit- ceeded without the consent of the Coun- tee of Conciliation which would re- cil. The members were to frankly and fer differences to arbitration, when fully report their military and naval pro- necessary. grams and the capacity of their war in- 7. To limit and supervise, to a limited dustries. degree, the armaments of the Thenations in the League were to nations and the manufacture of pledge themselves to help one another war material. against outside aggression. When war 8. To admit all nations that declared threatened anywhere, the League was to war against or broke relations with take any action it deemed necessary to Germany, and such other nations preserve peace. All disputes were to be as might receive a favorable vote submitted to arbitration, and no resort of two-thirds of the members. to war was to be permitted until three The Constitution provided that any months after an award. In the event ofnation might withdraw from the League a dispute not being arbitrated and noton giving two years notice, provided it being settled by the CounciJ, a statementhad kept the covenants. The League of the facts, with recommendations, waswas to operate through an Assembly, a to be published. The members of theCouncil and a permanent Secretariat. League were to bind themselves not to goThe Assembly was to consist of not more to war with any nation accepting thethan three members from each nation Councils award. Purely domestic mat-but each delegation was to have but one ters were to be without the Leaguesvote. The Council was to meet once a jurisdiction.year at least, and to be composed of one In the event of any member resortingrepresentative of each of the five great to war in spite of its covenant, the other
  • 297. GERMANY HEARS THE TERMS 30.5nal ions in the League were to Imak il The 82 nations tliat were named in the commercial, and personal in-all financial, Constitution as the original members oft rmurse, and it would become the duty the League were:of the Council to recommend what mili- United States of America, Belgium,tary and naval forces should be contrib- Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Canada,uted to enforce the covenant. Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Nothing in the covenant was to be India, China, Cuba, Czecho- Slovakia,deemed "to affect the validity of inter- Ecuador, France, Greece, Guatemala,national engagements, such as treaties of Haiti, Hedjaz, Honduras, Italy, Japan,arbitration or regional understandings Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Po-like the Monroe doctrine for securing the land, Portugal, Rumania, Serbia, Siam,maintenance of peace." The object of Uruguay.the League was to promote international The 13 nations invited by the Consti- tution to join the League were:co-operation and to achieve internationalpeace and security. The former colonies Argentine Republic, Chili, Colombia,of Germany were to be administered by Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Para-various powers under a mandate from guay, Persia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden,Ihe League. Switzerland, Venezuela. On Monday, April 28, 1919, the ple- Unique features of the Constitution of new world nary session of the Peace Conferencethe society were the clauses adopted the revised Constitution of theproviding that the member nations were: League of Nations. Sir Eric Drum- (a) To endeavor to secure and main- mond, formerly the secretary of the Brit- and humane conditions of tain fair ish premier, Mr. Asquith, was made the labor for men, women and chil- first Secretary-General, with a salary of dren, both in their own countries $25,000 a year. On April 29, the entire and in all countries to which their German peace delegation had arrived at commercial and industrial rela- Versailles and were shut off from the tions extend; to approve the prin- public and newspaper correspondents cipal of a 48-hour working week, eager to interview them, and at 2 oclock a weekly day of rest, the abolition on Wednesday, May 7, 1919, the repre- of child labor and workmens sentatives of Germany were handed the right of association for all lawful fateful document that sealed the des- purposes. tinies of their country. To Premier Clemenceau told the Germans (b) entrust the League with the that the war had been cruelly imposed general supervision over the exe- cution of agreements with regard on the allied and associated powers and that "the time has come when we must to the traffic in opium and other settleour account." Von Brockdorff- dangerous drugs. Rantzau, in reply, admitted that Ger- (c) To make provision to secure and maintain freedom of communica- many was not without guilt in beginning the war and in her methods of waging tion and of transit and equitable war; that her armies had been defeated treatment for the commerce of all in the field and that she was in a state members of the League. of helplessness. But he bluntly charged It was agreed that the Constitution that the allied nations, also, were to blamecould be amended by the unanimous vote for the inception of the war and sug-of the Council, backed up by a majority gested that no German barbarity duringvote of the Assembly. Any member dis- the war compared with that of the Alliessenting, was to be given the option of in deliberately continuing the blockaderesigning from the League forthwith. after the armistice had been signed, and
  • 298. GERMANY HEARS THE TERMS fishing boats. Germany, also, to build and turn overthus causing the deaths of "hundreds of to the Allies without charge 200,000 tons of shippingthousands" of German people. every year for five years. Germany not to raise her tariff and to admit other The representatives of the allied and nations to equal treatment in the use of the Rhine,associated powers were formed up in the the Oder, the Vistula, and the Danube. The Kiel canal to be opened to the commerce ofshape of a horseshoe, with the Germans the world and the defences razed.opposite the open end and facing Prem- The German army to be limited to 100,000 men, with no surplus war material, and no medium orier Clemenceau, who had President Wil- heavy artillery.son on his right and Premier Lloyd The German navy to be limited to six battleships The Peace Treaty, and six cruisers, and some small craft, dreadnoughtsGeorge on his left. and all armored boats of more than 10,000 tons beingin the form of a book of 80,000 words, debarred, and the personnel not to exceed 15,000.was handed to the chief German dele- The fortifications and the harbor of Helgoland to be destroyed.gate by a page. The Germans were Germany to be forbidden to build submarines, evengiven fifteen days in which to formulate for commercial purposes. Germany not to use airplanes or dirigibles aftertheir objections to various clauses of the October 1, 1919.treaty, but they were made to under- The fortifications between the new German frontier on the west and a line 30 miles east of the Rhine,stand that no spoken controversy would to be destroyed.be permitted. The Allies to occupy the western Rhineland until the reparation bill is paid, evacuating an area every All Germany was staggered by the three years if payments are kept up.severity of the allied terms. The main The German dreadnoughts, submarines and air- planes in allied hands to be absolutely given up.provisions of the Treaty were as follows: The independence of German Austria to be recog- nized by Germany. The cession by Germany of one million square miles The punishment of the ex-Kaiser and other German of territory overseas, or five times the area of Ger- authorities and officers found guilty of crimes against many in Europe, with a population of fifteen millions. humanity. The surrender of Wilhelm to be requested The cession by Germany, unconditionally, of 35,044 of Holland and his trial to be conducted by a special square miles of territory in Europe, made up as fol- tribunal composed of one judge from each of the lows: To France, Alsace-Lorraine, 5,600 square five great powers. miles; to Belgium, Malmedy, Morisnet and Eupen,989 square miles; to Poland, ports of East and WestPrussia, Silesia and Posen, 27,726 square miles; to It cannot be too strongly emphasizedthe semi-independent state of Danzig, included in the that the enforcement of such termsPolish customs union, 729 square miles. The cession by Germany of an additional area of against Germany would leave her trussed9,310 square miles, under certain conditions, namely, up and helpless, and dependent for allnorthern Schleswig to Denmark, 2,787 square miles,and additional parts of East Prussia to Poland, 5,785 time on the grace of the nations uponsquare miles, providing the inhabitants vote for trans- whom she had warred. The loss of three-fer; and the Saar valley to France, 738 square miles, fourths of the iron ore and one-third ofproviding the population so decides by plebiscite,after fifteen years administration under the supervi- the coal deposits upon which her in-sion of the League of Nations. dustrial greatness was based; the loss of The cession by Germany, as above, of a total of44,354 square miles, out of a total area of 208,814 the merchant marine which had made pos-square miles, with the loss of 14 million people out sible her commercial greatness; the lossof a total of 70 millions. This represents a loss ofone-fifth of Germanys European territory and popu- of the potash deposits in Alsace whichlation. she had used to fertilize her poor soil; The payment by Germany during the next fiftyyears of a sum exceeding 23 million dollars, with lia- the loss of her vast tropical colonies andbility for a much larger sum at the end of that period. the huge sums, equal to one-half her The surrender to France of the title to the Saarcoal mines, which may be bought back by gold pay- whole pre-war revenue, which she wasments at the end of fifteen years. called upon to pay yearly for half a cen- The delivery to France annually for ten years ofthe amount of coal lost by the non-operation of mines tury to foreign countries, these termsdestroyed by the Germans; also at low prices to Bel- removed her as a military menace or agium during the next ten years of fifteen million tons trade rival from the path of the nationsof coal and to Italy of from four and a half millionto eight and a half million tons of coal during tne that were to enter the League of X--next five years. Full compensation for the sinking of nine million tions. Germany took up , the swo-d vtons of allied shipping by German submarines. All knowing the stakes were World-Poweof Germanys merchant ships of more than 1.600 tonsto be surrendered; also one-half of her ships of be- or Downfall. Great was the Downfall.tween 1,000 and 1,600 tons and one-third of ber W. R. P.
  • 299. American Expeditionary Forces By A remarkable summary of the opera- On April 26 the 1st Division had gone intotions of the American .Expeditionary the line in the Montdidier salient on the Pic-Force in France from the date of its organ- ardy battle front. Tactics had been suddenly revolutionized to those of open warfare, andization, May 26, 1917, to the signing of our men, confident of the results of their train-the armistice November 11, 1918, was ing, were eager for the test. On the morningcabled to the Secretary of War by Gener- of May 28 this division attacked the command-alPershing on November 20, 1918. His ing German position in its front, taking withaccount of the active military operations splendid dash the town of Cantigny and all other objectives, which were organized andwas as follows: held steadfastly against vicious counterattacks COMBAT OPERATIONS and galling artillery fire. Although local, this brilliant action had an electrical effect, as it During our period of training in the trench- demonstrated our fighting qualities under ex-es some of our divisions had engaged the treme battle conditions, and also that the en-enemy in local combats, the most important emys troops were not altogether invincible.of which was Seicheprey by the 26th on April The German Aisne offensive, which began20, 1918, in the Toul sector, but none had par- on May 27, had advanced rapidly toward theticipated in action as a unit. The 1st Divi- River Marne and Paris, and the Allies facedsion, which had passed through the prelimi- a crisis equally as grave as that of the Picardynary stages of training, had gone to the offensive in March. Again every availabletrenches for its first period of instruction at man was placed at Marshal Fochs disposal,the end of October, and by March 21, when and the 3rd Division, which had just comethe German offensive in Picardy began, we from its preliminary training in the trenches,had four divisions with experience in the was hurried to the Marne. Its motorized ma-trenches, all of which were equal to any de- chine-gun battalion preceded the other unitsmands of battle action. The crisis which this and successfully held the bridgehead at theoffensive developed wa,s such that our occu- Marne, opposite Chateau-Thierry. The 2ndpation of an American sector must be post- Division, in reserve near Montdidier, was sentponed. by motor trucks and other available transport On March 28 I placed at the disposal of to check the progress of the enemy towardMarshal Foch, who had been agreed upon as Paris. The division attacked and retook theCommander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies, all town and railroad station at Bouresches andof our forces to be used as he might decide. sturdily held its ground against the enemysAt his request the 1st Division was transferred best guard divisions. In the battle of Belleaufrom the Toul sector to a position in reserve at Wood, which followed, our men proved theirChaumont en Vexin. As German superiority superiority and gained a strong tactical posi-in numbers required prompt action, an agree- tion, with far greater loss to the enemv thanment was reached at the Abbeville conference to ourselves. On July 1. before the Secondof the allied premiers and commanders and was relieved, it captured the village of Vauxmyself on May 2 by which the British ship- with most splendid precision.ping was to transport ten American divisions Meanwhile our 2nd Corps, under Major-to the British army area, where they were to General George B. Read, had been organizedbe trained and equipped, and additional Brit- for the command of our divisions with theish shipping was to be provided for as many British, which were held back in training areasdivisions as possible for use elsewhere. or assigned to second-line defenses. Five of 307
  • 300. 308 AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCESthe ten divisions were withdrawn from the to advance until it had gained the heightsBritish area in June, three to relieve divisions above Soissons and captured the village ofin Lorraine and in the Vosges and two to the Berzy-le-Sec. The 2d Division took BeauParis area to join the group of American di- Repaire farm and Vierzy in a very rapid ad-visions which stood between the city and any vance and reached a position in front of Tignyfurther advance of the enemy in that direc- at the end of its second day. These two di-tion. visions captured 7,000 prisoners and over 100 BATTLE OF CHATEAU-THIERRY pieces of artillery. The great June, July troop movement from The 26th Division, which, with a Frenchthe States was well under way, and, although division, was under command of our 1st Corps,these troops were to be given some preliminary acted as a pivot of the movement toward Sois-training before being put into action, their sons. On the 18th it took the village of Torcyvery presence warranted the use of all the old- while the 3d Division was crossing the Marneer divisions in the confidence that we did not in pursuit of the retiring enemy. The 26thlack reserves. Elements of the 42d Division attacked again on the 21st, and the enemywere in the line east of Rheims against the withdrew past the Chateau-Thierry-SoissonsGerman offensive of July 15, and held their road. The 3d Division, continuing its progress,ground unflinchingly. On the right flank of took the heights of Mont St. Pere and the vil-this offensive four companies of the 28th Di- lages of Charteves and Jaulgonne in the facevision were in position in face of the advanc- of both machine gun and artillery fire.ing waves of the German infantry. The 3rd On the 24th, after the Germans had fallenDivision was holding the bank of the Marne back from Trugny and Epieds, our 42d Di-from the bend east of the mouth of the Surme- vision, which had been brought over from the lin to the west of Mezy, opposite Chateau Champagne, relieved the 26th, and fighting itsThierry, where a large force of German in- way through the Foret de Fere, overwhelmedfantry sought to force a passage under support the nest of machine guns in its path. By theof powerful artillery concentrations and under 27th it had reached the Ourcq, whence thecover of smoke screens. A single regiment 3d and 4th Divisions were already advancing,of the 3rd wrote one of the most brilliant while the French divisions with which wepages in our military annals on this occasion. were co-operating were moving forward atIt prevented the crossing at certain points on other points.its front while, on either flank, the Ger The 3d Division had made its advance intomans, who had gained a footing, pressed for- Roncheres Wood on the 29th and was relievedward. Our men, firing in three directions, met for rest by a brigade of the Thirty-second.the German attackswith counterattacks at The Forty-second and Thirty-second under-critical points and succeeded in throwing two took the task of! conquering the heights be-German divisions into complete confusion, cap- yond Cierges, the Forty-second capturing Ser-turing 600 prisoners. The great force of the German Chateau- gy and the Thirty-second capturing Hill 230, both American divisions joining in the pursuitThierry offensive established the deep Marne of the enemy to the Vesle, and thus the opera-salient, but the enemy was taking chances, and tion of reducing the salient was finished.the vulnerability of this pocket to attack might Meanwhile the Forty-second was relieved bybe turned to his disadvantage. Seizing this the Fourth at Chery-Chartreuve, and the Thir-opportunity to support my conviction, everydivision with any sort of training was made ty-second by the Twenty-eighth, while theavailable for use in a counteroffensive. The Seventy-seventh Division to