We are a people of the book The canon is closed Apologetic concerns
Importance of the Old Testament to the Church Jesus and the Apostles used it It was the scripture of the early church It is about Jesus Books included in Jewish canon Threefold division (Law, Prophets, Writings) 24 books
Prophets Psalms/HymnsLaw • Genesis • Joshua • Job • Exodus • Judges • Psalms • Leviticus • Ruth • Proverbs • Numbers • I & II Samuel • Ecclesiastes • Deuteronomy • I & II Kings • Song of • Isaiah Solomon • Jeremiah • Daniel • Lamentations • Chronicles • Ezekiel • Ezra-Nehemiah • 12 minor • Esther prophets
Included in Included in Reformers Council of some Not 4th and 5th say Trent (1546) reformationincluded in WCF rejects century “Apocrypha makes bibles (i.e. Jerome’s apocrypha Christian helpful, but Apocrypha 1550 Geneva Vulgate Septuagint not inspired” official Bible, 1611 KJV)
Roman Catholic arguments for their inclusion The Septuagint included it The Jewish Council of Jamnia (after 75 AD) debated the contents of Jewish canon Some early church fathers included them Protestant arguments against their inclusion Not included in Jewish canon known and used by Jesus Inaccuracies and contradictions Theological mistakes Rejected by Origen and Jerome
Assembled by a single person, group of people, council, or denomination. Immediately dropped down from heaven One of a plethora of possible options
Awareness within the NT itself 3 key terms: apostle, witness, tradition Circulation of letters Gospels Pauline epistles Acts
Marcionism-pop quiz! Gnosticism “Gnosticisms effect on the Church was to intensify its concern for faithful adherence to the teaching of the apostles.” –David Dunbar Montanism The reaction to heretics demonstrates an IMPLICIT awareness of the canon already in existence. Canon in 220: 4 gospels, Acts, all 13 Pauline epistles, Hebrews (more in the East), some Catholic epistles (depending on location), other writings, Revelation.
From this time forward, two mutually related processes were in place: 1) fixing with ever greater exclusiveness and hardening of the limits of the canon 2) ever more widespread recognition of the canon increasing to the point of universal acceptance Recognition by church fathers Recognition by councils
Apostolic authority Public lection Christological concentration Role in redemptive history
It is important to emphasize that the church did not create or give authority to the Bible. RECOGNITION of authority. Process, not event. The church does not control the Bible; the Bible controls the church.