What is the effect of digital technologies on engagement and complexity of thinking of the explorations of 5-­‐6 year old children in a Reggio inspired setting?
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What is the effect of digital technologies on engagement and complexity of thinking of the explorations of 5-­‐6 year old children in a Reggio inspired setting?

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In using the iPad as an expressive language we move beyond the common use of iPads. In a supportive learning environment with carefully chosen Apps , iPads can add to the level of engagement and the ...

In using the iPad as an expressive language we move beyond the common use of iPads. In a supportive learning environment with carefully chosen Apps , iPads can add to the level of engagement and the complexity of thinking of a child’s explorations when the other languages of expression are not forgotten.

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What is the effect of digital technologies on engagement and complexity of thinking of the explorations of 5-­‐6 year old children in a Reggio inspired setting? What is the effect of digital technologies on engagement and complexity of thinking of the explorations of 5-­‐6 year old children in a Reggio inspired setting? Presentation Transcript

  • What  is  the  effect  of  digital  technologies  on   engagement  and  complexity  of  thinking  of  the   explora4ons  of  5-­‐6  year  old  children  in  a  Reggio   inspired  se:ng? Ac#on  Research  by  Clair  Weston     December  2013  
  • Hypotheses   In  using  the  iPad  as  an  expressive   language  we  move  beyond  the   common  use  of  iPads.  In  a  suppor#ve   learning  environment  with  carefully   chosen  Apps  ,  iPads  can  add  to  the   level  of  engagement  and  the   complexity  of  thinking  of  a  child’s   explora#ons  when  the  other   languages  of  expression  are  not   forgoIen.  
  • Research  Ques#on   ! What  is  the  effect  of  digital  technologies  on  engagement  and  complexity  of  thinking   of  the  explora4ons  of  5-­‐6  year  old  children  in  a  Reggio  inspired  se:ng?
  • My  Concern Children  can  be  passive  users     Looking  at  a  screen   Consuming     Low  level  of  engagement   Ac#vity  level  is  simple   Repe##ve   Absence  of  cogni#ve  demand   Lower  order  thinking  skills  are  u#lized
  • This  is  the  one  I  like  the  best  on   the  iPad.  I  didn’t  know  how  to  do  it   before  and  then  Amon  showed  me   how  to  do  it.  I  like  making  all  of  the   sounds.  It  reminded  me  about   when  we  did  buIerfly  dancing   outside.That  makes  me  feel  happy   because  I  like  to  hear  the  sounds.   ! Intension Children  displaying  sustained  intense   engagement   Crea#vity   Energy     Persistence   Higher  order  thinking  skills  would  be   displayed   Several  languages  of  expression  would  be   intertwined    
  • Variables   Dependent:  level  of  engagement  and  complexity  of  thinking   Independent:  opportuni#es  to  open  up  possibili#es  for  iPad  explora#on  as  an  expressive   language   Extraneous:  sensi#ve  and  #mely  teacher  interven#on,  the  learning  environment  and   conversa#ons  between  the  children  themselves
  • Review  of  the  Literature ! ! “We  have  to  give  closer  aIen#on  to  the  process  of  learning  through  the  digital   media.  The  digital  experience  is  much  too  oTen  exhausted  simply  in  its  func#on  and   technical  form.  In  addi#on  to  this  technical  aspect,  if  it  is  also  used  in  crea#ve  and   imagina#ve  ways,  it  reveals  a  high  level  of  expressive,  cogni#ve  and  social  poten#al  as   well  as  great  possibili#es  for  evolu#on.  It  is  necessary  to  reflect  on  and  beIer   comprehend  the  changes  that  the  digital  language  introduces  in  the  processes  of   understanding.  We  have  to  be  aware  of  what  this  adds,  takes  away,  or  modifies  in   today’s  learning.”     ! ! (Vea  Vecchi  in  Gandini  et  al,  2005,  p.  x)
  • Review  of  the  Literature ! ! There  appears  to  be  agreement  that  the  emergence  of  mobile  touch  devices,  such  as  the   iPhone,  iPod  touch  and  iPad,  provide  rich  opportuni#es  for  young  learners.  Teachers  in  the   early  years  are  seeing  these  as  valid  pedagogical  devices  as  they  allow  young  children  to   easily  manipulate  and  interact  with  screen  objects  and  create  digital  content.  Touch-­‐ screen  devices  in  par#cular  encourage  intui#ve  par#cipa#on  in  open-­‐ended  games  and   apps.   ! ! !  (Verenikina  and  Kervin,  2011)
  • Review  of  the  Literature ! Marsh,  like  many  other  authors  call  for  further  research  into  the  children’s  use  of  digital   technology  sta#ng,     ! ! “Academics  and  educators  need  to  examine  their  affordances  more  closely  in  order   to  iden#fy  what  children  gain  from  their  playful  engagements  in  these  worlds  and   how  their  experiences  can  be  built  upon  in  early  years  se_ngs”     ! ! ! (Marsh,  2010,  p36)  
  • Research  Design A  two  group  pre-­‐test  and  post-­‐test   design.   ! To  measure  student  engagement  and   complexity  of  thinking  before  and   aTer  the  interven#on.   ! To  compare  the  gain  in  mean  score  for   a_tude  and  complexity  of  thinking   of  the  control  group  and  the   experimental    group.
  • Interven#on Removal  of  the  apps  that  only  allowed  for   simple,  passive,  repe##ve  explora#ons,   which  lacked  possibili#es  for  ways  of   expression.   ! iPads  placed  in  different  loca#ons  within   the  se_ng  to  promote  transferring   between  languages.   ! Children  were  supported  in  their   explora#ons  and  encouraged  to  share   discoveries  and  ways  of  expression  with   each  other.     ! The  children  were  able  to  access  the  iPads   just  as  they  would  the  other  materials  and   ways  of  expression  within  the  se_ng.     ! iPads  could  be  taken  to  different  places  to   work  on.   ! During  class  mee#ngs  the  interven#on   group  were  invited  to  share  with  each   other  projects  that  they  were  proud  of.   ! ! !
  • Sample Convenience  sample  of  26   Kindergarten  students  from  two  of   four  kindergarten  classes  at  Jakarta   Interna#onal  School,  Indonesia   ! One  class,  KA,  formed  the  control   group  and  the  second  class,  KB,   formed  the  experimental  group   ! Age  range  is  5-­‐6  years   ! The  kindergarten  classes  are  inspired   by  the  principles  of  the  Reggio  Emilia   Educa#onal  Project
  • Instrumenta#on  and  Data   Collec#on Each  child’s  explora#on  with  the  iPad  was   observed  before  and  aTer  the   interven#on.     Level  of  engagement  was  measured  with  a   Likert  Scale  Survey     ATer  a  lengthy  observa#on  of  a  random   sample  of  five  children  from  the  control   group  and  five  children  from  the   experimental  group,  a  rubric  grade  was   assigned  to  the  explora#ons  to  ascertain   the  complexity  of  thinking  of  the   explora#ons.  
  • Threats  to  Validity Researcher  bias   History   Maturity
  • Results:  Engagement Control  group  mean  gain  in  score  vs   experimental  mean  gain  in  score.     ! ! Group ! ! ! ! Mean ! Standard   ! Devia4on ! N ! ! ! Control   Group     Experimental   Group   2.83 5.5 2.52 1.57 12 12 gain  between  pretest   score  and  post  test  scores gain  between  pretest  score   and  post  test  scores ! ! ! ! An  unpaired  t-­‐test,  showed  a  significant   change  in  student  engagement  aTer  the   iPad  interven#on  was  implemented.  A  one-­‐ tailed  P  value  showed  that  the  results  were   sta#s#cally  significant  by  conven#onal   means.     ! t=  3.1161   df=  22         P=0.0025)
  • Visual  representa#on  of  the  control  group  and  experimental  group  gain  in   engagement  scores Control Group Experimental Group 6 4.5 3 1.5 0 Mean  gain  in  engagement  score
  • Results:  Complexity  of  Thinking Control  group  mean  gain  in  score  vs   experimental  mean  gain  in  score.     ! ! ! Group Control   Experimental   ! Group     Group   gain  between  pretest  score   gain  between  pretest  score   ! and  post  test  scores and  post  test  scores ! ! 4.6 12.2 ! Mean ! 3.21 1.3 ! Standard   ! Devia4on ! N 5 5 ! ! ! ! ! ! The  results  of  the  analysis  of  complexity  of   thinking  between  the  control  group  and   the  experimental  group  showed  that  the   experimental  group  significantly  increased   the  complexity  of  their  thinking  during   explora#ons  involving  an  iPad.  A  one-­‐tailed   P  value  showed  that  that  the  results  were   sta#s#cally  significant  by  conven#onal   means.   t=4.9058   df=  8   P=0.0006.
  • Visual  representa#on  of  the  control  group  and  experimental  group  gain  in   complexity  of  thinking  scores Control  Group Experimental  Group 13 9.75 6.5 3.25 0 Mean  gain  in  score  of  complexity  of  thinking
  • Discussion Data  and  observa#ons  of  the  children   in  the  control  group  showed  them  to   be  overall,  more  passive  consumers   and  less  engaged.     ! Data  and  observa#ons  of  the  children   in  the  experimental  group  showed   them  to  be  overall  more  crea#ve  and   more  collabora#ve  with  a  higher  level   of  engagement  and  a  higher  level  of   complexity  of  thought.   !
  • Ac#on Share  results  with  colleagues  within   the  Kindergarten  grade  level  and  in   other  sec#ons  of  the  school.     ! More  thoughjul  selec#on  of  apps   installed  on  the  class  iPads  to  allow   more  expression,  rather  than  passive   consump#on.     ! More  thoughjul  considera#on  of   placement  of  iPads  within  learning   development.   ! Further  reflec#on  on  possible  uses  of   iPads  as  another  of  the  children’s   hundred  languages.
  • Examples  of  the  iPad  used  as  a  language  of  expression  with  a  high  level  of   engagement  and  complexity  of  thinking
  • References Banister,  S.  (2010).  Integra)ng  the  iPod  Touch  in  K-­‐12  educa)on:  Visions  and  vices.  Computers  in  the  Schools,  27(2),  121-­‐131.   ! Bird,  J.  (2012)  The  rabbit  ate  the  grass!  Exploring  children’s  ac)vi)es  on  digital  technologies  in  an  early  childhood  classroom.    hIp:// dlibrary.acu.edu.au/digitaltheses/public/adt-­‐acuvp391.25062013/02whole.pdf   ! Edwards,  C.,  Gandini,  L.  and  Foreman,  G.  (Ed.)  (2012)  The  Hundred  Languages  of  Children:The  Reggio  Experience  in  Transforma)on  Praeger:   California   ! Gandini,  L.,  Hill,  L.,    Cadwell,  L.  and  Schall,  C.  (Ed.)(2005)  In  the  Spirit  of  the  Studio,  Learning  from  the  Atelier  of  Reggio  Emilia  Teachers  College   Press:  New  York   ! Goodwin,  K.  &  Highfield,  K.  (2012)  iTouch  and  iLearn:  An  examina#on  of  ‘educa#onal’  Apps.  Paper  presented  at  the  Early  Educa)on  and   Technology  for  Children  conference,  March  14-­‐16,  2012,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.  accessed  on  academa.edu   ! Lynch  J.  (2006)  Assessing  Effects  of  Technology  Usage  on  Mathema#cs  Learning.   Mathema)cs  Educa)on  Research  Journal  18(3):  29–43.   ! Marsh,  J.  (2010)  Young  children’s  play  in  online  virtual  worlds.  Journal  of  early  childhood  research,  8  (1),  23-­‐39.   ! O’Mara  J.  and  Laidlaw  L.  (2011)  Living  in  the  iWorld:  Two  Literacy  Researchers   Reflect  on  the  Changing  Texts  and  Literacy  Prac#ces  of  Childhood.  English  Teaching:  Prac)ce  and  Cri)que  10(4):  149–159.   ! PareIe,  H.P,  Quesenbury  A.C.  and  Blum  C.  (2010)  Missing  the  boat  with  technology  usage  in  early  childhood  se_ngs:  A  21st  century  of   developmentally  appropriate  prac#se.  Early  childhood  Educa)on  Journal,  37,  335-­‐343   ! Plowman,  L  and  Stephen,  C.  (2007)  Guided  interac#on  in  pre-­‐school  se_ngs.  Journal  of  computer  assisted  learning,  23(1)  14-­‐26   ! Verenikina,  I.  and  Kervin,  L.  (2011)  iPads  digital  play  and  preschoolers.  (volume  2,  number  5,  october  2011)  He  Kupu  accessed  through   hekupu.ac.nz