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Positivist & Interpretivist

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Positivist & Interpretivist perspectives on research. A few methods if we have time

Positivist & Interpretivist perspectives on research. A few methods if we have time

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Transcript

  • 1. Philosophies of SocialResearchPositivist & Interpretivist Approaches &Methodologies
  • 2. Conceptions of SocialReality
  • 3. OntologyIs reality objective? External & independent of individuals?Is reality subjective? Constructed by individuals
  • 4. OntologyWhat is Social Reality?
  • 5. EpistemologyHow do we know what we know?What is knowledge?How do we gain it?How do we communicate it?
  • 6. ComparingEpistemologies Knowledge isKnowledge is objective subjectiveHard data Meaning has actionCan be measured Relies on interpretationNatural and social Social world differentworld are the same to natural world
  • 7. EpistemologyHow we know what we know
  • 8. Positivism
  • 9. Key FeaturesScientificObjectiveRobustInvolves identifying causesTests hypothesesUses the methods of the natural sciences
  • 10. AugusteComteFather of Sociology
  • 11. Anti/Post PositivismInterpretivism
  • 12. Key FeaturesSocial Action (can be anything, even inaction) hasmeaningThe researcher’s job is to interpret social actionVerstehen
  • 13. Max WeberKnown to his parents asKarl Emile MaximilianWeber
  • 14. Examples of Approaches
  • 15. Positivist - ScientificExternal reality - need to collect ‘facts’Methods of natural sciencesUse of statistics (quantitative)Experiments, surveys
  • 16. EmileDurkheimSocial FactsSuicide
  • 17. SuicideEstablish suicide as a social factSuicide rate not explained by individual actsRates remained (relatively) stableSocial causes
  • 18. Interpretivist - SocialScientificSubjective, constructed realityRelative truthsNeed to explore, explain and understand realityQualitative
  • 19. SuicideInterpretivist perspectives
  • 20. Interpretivists &Social ConstructionJack Douglas:Need to interpretmeanings given to the Maxwell Atkinson:action of suicide Problem of statisticsNotes, diaries, Coroner and cluesinterviewsCultural context
  • 21. Methodologies
  • 22. ExperimentControlled conditionsManipulation ofvariable on another
  • 23. SurveyCollection of dataMeasure of a socialphenomenonDescription ofgroup/populationTesting theories
  • 24. EthnographyDescription of peopleand their culturesDetailed accounts ofeveryday lifeUnderstanding of howpeople see their world
  • 25. PhenomenologyUnderstanding of the human experienceSubjective meaningsAttitudes and beliefs
  • 26. Methods of DataCollectionQuestionnairesInterviewsObservationDocuments