E-moderation resource pack


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E-moderation resource pack

  1. 1. E-moderation Resource Pack Heather McKay Katie Wood Claire Hart
  2. 2. Topic A: Starting off- creating a good social environment online http:// www.flickr.com / photos / linpadgham /2444719115/ sizes /m/in/ photostream /
  3. 3. Topic A – Socialising in online courses <ul><li>Socialising in online courses is important for the following reasons; </li></ul><ul><li>creates a sense of group - important in helping to reduce dropout rates , which can be higher in distance education, where students can feel a sense of isolation  more acutely than in F2F education </li></ul><ul><li>feeling part of a group can contribute to higher levels of satisfaction with  the learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>relationships between participants are likely to help in learning  and exchange of information </li></ul><ul><li>creates learner independence -  students can ask each other rather than rely on the tutor </li></ul><ul><li>maintains motivation by making online learning more interactive and fun </li></ul><ul><li>can help familiarise new students with the VLE  and  aid  technical skills through non threatening tasks e.g. sending mails, getting to know each other activities - these activities can provide scaffolding /build confidence in participants use of new technology </li></ul><ul><li>students can become aware of ‘netiquette’ through interaction with peers </li></ul><ul><li>feeling a valued member of the group increase benevolence and the desire to help others in the group succeed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topic A- Getting to know you <ul><li>Getting to know you activities Tip for successful getting to know you activities: start with activities which don’t require much technical skill Examples of getting to know you activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Posting ‘my top 5’ of a particular category </li></ul><ul><li>Each participant asks a question to all the others by  e mail and posts the results to a forum for comment </li></ul><ul><li>Each participant has a designated participant to email and introduce themselves to </li></ul><ul><li>Online version of ‘find someone who’ then post results to forum </li></ul><ul><li>Each participant posts a ‘sticky note’ with something surprising about themselves  - this could also take the form of  a sticky note version of ‘2 truths and  1 lie’ </li></ul><ul><li>Other uses of sticky notes - stick a picture / quote etc up to represent yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Pretty much any getting to know you / socialising task that works in the classroom can be done online either via e mail or the whiteboard facility in Blackboard. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topic A – small group activities <ul><li>Small group activities Tips for successful small group activities: - give participants roles - ensure there is a goal or outcome - build interdependence into the task - include deadlines Examples of small group activities </li></ul><ul><li>jigsaw tasks - each group member collects, collates and posts a summary of  collected information - together the parts form a complete resource for participants </li></ul><ul><li>group chats - group meets in text / audio / video chat to make a decision /  plan something / answer a specific question </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative project individuals work together on an online project to produce a slideshow /  video / audio product </li></ul>
  6. 6. Topic A- Group discussion <ul><li>Facilitating group discussion - Examples of group discussion formats: </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion boards </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Sticky - post it walls </li></ul><ul><li>Non-course-related chat area </li></ul><ul><li>Course-related chat areas, providing the opportunity to respond to posted articles, comments + questions </li></ul><ul><li>Video posts and responses </li></ul>
  7. 7. Topic A- Other tips <ul><li>Other tips for online socialising tasks and tools: </li></ul><ul><li>- Provide for a range of learning styles by including visual, audio, etc., in tasks - Begin with things that require less technical knowledge and build up - Use a variety of online resources so as to make it interesting and fun - e.g. drawings, jokes etc. - Consider pairs / teams / buddy system to create strong sense of group / support system </li></ul>
  8. 8. Topic A- The role of the tutor <ul><li>Pre Course </li></ul><ul><li>Set up needs analysis - establish students’ individual goals, interests, needs, background, computer literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Share personal & professional information with course participants </li></ul>
  9. 9. Topic A- The role of the tutor <ul><li>Early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with access issues - contacting by e-mail or phone non-responding students </li></ul><ul><li>Set tasks that explore the virtual environment to increase comfort level </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate time for socializing activities so participants get to know each other </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear introductions to the tools for social interaction and set tasks using these tools that involve genuine information exchange. Provide lots of scaffolding for the activities and clear task instructions This should include ice breaker tasks and tasks for exploring and establishing group goals and ground rules for online interaction. Assign partners/groups. Start with simple tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly communicate the educational purpose/value of peer interaction/socialising in the course - socialization goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish forums for individuals with common interests to link up </li></ul><ul><li>Give opportunities for students to reflect on their on line socialising </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topic A- The role of the tutor <ul><li>In synchronous or asynchronous discussions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model respect for all participants and their contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide positive, encouraging, detailed feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up on messages with questions to encourage participants to continue contributing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure everyone has an opportunity to contribute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defuse problems & when necessary counsel individuals. This may include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dealing with flaming by contacting the individuals responsible privately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulating social chat by using visual prompts, and/or personal e-mail, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging pair/group interaction by providing technical support,explaining the rationale behind pair/group tasks, revisiting goals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>helping students inhibited by working in the foreign language by responding speedily to their messages, offering to pre-screen messages, considering use of other media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Topic A – The role of the tutor <ul><li>Middle & Later Stages Moderators continue the good work of stage 1 but move towards letting the students take more control </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to provide and be present in the forums/ chats etc. and to monitor, encourage, challenge, resolve difficulties, suggest resources & motivate when necessary . </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to set up pair/ group/whole class tasks but move towards those that involve more complex processing and interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students self assess their contributions to class climate </li></ul><ul><li>Final stage Help the group to celebrate their accomplishments, to share what they have learned from each other and to say goodbye </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topic B: Working online- Tutor skills for handling online chats, discussions, content http:// www.freestuff.co.za / business-tools / typingweb-free-online-typing-tutor /
  13. 13. Topic B: Encouraging online participation/ motivation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The issues of participation and motivation are intrinsically linked. Participation is key to online learning: students learn by sharing with others, paying attention to what others have to say and responding to it. It can, however, prove difficult for learners to motivate themselves while they are learning online, usually as a result of the absence of face-to-face contact and possible feelings of isolation which may arise. An important element of the online teacher´s role is, therefore, to motivate their learners and encourage them to participate as much as they can in the course. The question is though: how should the teacher go about this? All participants are clearly different: they come from different cultures, they interact socially in different ways, they have different expectations, they are more or less familiar with virtual learning environment. An awareness and understanding that such differences exist is a good starting point. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Topic B: Encouraging online participation/ motivation <ul><li>Ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>In order for participation and motivation to be as high as possible, the teacher should set out some ground rules for participation just before or at the start of the course, so that the learners know exactly what is expected of them and also what they should expect from their teacher. While establishing these ground rules, the teacher can also see what the learners´ expectations are and address any potential issues which may arise from discrepancies between these expectations and the actual nature of the course before they can start to have a negative effect on a learner´s motivation and participation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Topic B: Encouraging online participation/ motivation <ul><li>Once the course is under way, how the teacher responds to the learners in the virtual learning environment becomes very important. Here are some things that the teacher can do to maximize motivation and, therefore, participation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Respond promptly to learners´ contributions -> the learner receives instant feedback on their work and feels that their work is valued and appreciated. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Respond positively to learners´ contributions -> thank the learners for their contributions, use positive adjectives to describe them, say what you liked about the contribution, use exclamation marks and symbols to compensate for the fact that the learner can´t make eye contact with you or see you smiling. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Show empathy -> this is especially important if learners are experiencing any kind of difficulty or struggling with the coursework for any reason. </li></ul><ul><li>4. If you notice that learners are not participating as much as you expect them to, contact them personally and discuss the benefits of interaction on the platform for learners with positivity and empathy. Seek to find out the reasons for the participants lack of participation and address them, where possible. Unfortunately, in some cases, changing to another course may be the only option. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Topic B: Encouraging online participation/ motivation <ul><li>If motivation is to be sustained over a longer period of time, however, the teacher should ensure that: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The ground rules established at the start are maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Student ideas and preferences are incorporated into tasks to create a sense of ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Provide learners with variety in terms of content, resoures, task type, tools, roles, group work combinations. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Learning goals are established and learners are regularly given the opportunity to assess or be assessed on their progress towards achieving them. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Topic B: Handling synchronous and asynchronous work online <ul><li>Synchronous work </li></ul><ul><li>This is where the teacher and learner are interacting with each other in real-time or “live” and usually takes the form of a textual chat in a chat room on a platform such as Moodle or a combination of textual chat and talking through audio and video on a platform such as Blackboard or Adobe Connect. This kind of interaction gives structure to online courses and helps learners feel more connected with both their teacher and the other participants. Ideas can be exchanged, questions can be asked and answered, materials can be shared and learners can spontaneously respond to them. For the teacher, one of the most challenging aspects of asynchronous online work is the difficulty involved in assessing it. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Topic B: Handling synchronous and asynchronous work online <ul><li>Synchronous work </li></ul><ul><li>Seven things that a good online tutor should be able to do while interacting with learners in chats: 1. Have quick reactions, so they can respond to what the learners are entering in the chat box. 2. Create a warm environment for the learners and react positively to them while they are in it. 3. Give the learners lots of feedback on what they are saying and direct questions to them to encourage them to continue contributing.  4. Ensure that everyone is participating and no one feels left out. 5. Provide lots of scaffolding for the activities and give clear instructions for the tasks assigned (this is of course especially important when learners are new to chat). 6. Maintain a conversational tone and use humour, where appropriate. 7. Use exclamation marks and smileys as additional tools to respond to learners.  </li></ul>
  19. 19. Topic B: Handling synchronous and asynchronous work online <ul><li>Asynchronous work </li></ul><ul><li>This is where learners are free to interact with their teacher and other participants at any time. This type of interaction normally takes place through forums. The teacher sets up a forum and invites learners to contribute to it, usually by providing their response to a task which has been set. The advantage of using forums is that they provide a great deal of flexibility for learners: they can participate anytime and anywhere they choose. Synchronous work usually contributes the majority of learners´ interaction with other learners during the course. Learners´ contributions to the asynchronous work can just as difficult to assess as their contributions to synchronous work are. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Topic B: Rationale for course design decisions Note: Both valuable - symbiotic relationship- need for variety <ul><li>You need time to compose your message </li></ul><ul><li>You want students to explore a complex issue in depth </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Students need time to construct their responses </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Students cannot be available at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>You need to get a message across to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor wants to provide direct guidance to students </li></ul><ul><li>You are discussing less complex issues </li></ul><ul><li>You require an immediate response or resolution </li></ul><ul><li>You want students to see &/or hear each other </li></ul><ul><li>You want students to get to know each other </li></ul><ul><li>You, or a group of students, are in the planning stage of a task </li></ul><ul><li>Students can be available at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>When Use Asynchronous Activities Use Synchronous Activities
  21. 21. Topic B: Rationale for course design decisions Sources: Clive Shepherd The Real Time Online Tutor Stephan Hrastinski Asynchronous & Synchronous E Learning <ul><li>Allows students to proceed at own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Gives increased opportunity for particpation for quieter students </li></ul><ul><li>Produces more considered, in-depth responses </li></ul><ul><li>Provides useful practice in reading/ writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Provides backbone of the course </li></ul><ul><li>Easily able to add more forums to meet students´ need. </li></ul><ul><li>  Energizes participants </li></ul><ul><li>Students likely to be more motivated because a quick response is required </li></ul><ul><li>If used on a regular basis, helps to establish pace of programm </li></ul><ul><li>Provides useful practise in speaking/ listening skills (video/ audio conferencing) </li></ul><ul><li>Or reading/ writing skills (text chat) </li></ul>Why Use Asynchronous Activities Use Synchronous Activities