Human Rights


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A presentation defining human rights and describing different kinds. It also highlights some human rights violations in Darfur and Burma, as well as women's rights and human trafficking in the United States. Intended to promote discussion and debate within a classroom setting.

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Human Rights

  1. 1. HUMAN RIGHTS Claire Cook
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Human rights are the universal rights and freedoms that all human beings are equally and absolutely entitled to.  What are some of the basic human rights? The right to life, to food and clean water, the right  to a fair trial etc.  In 1948, the UN created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:   bHE
  3. 3. HUMAN RIGHTS As seen in the UN Declaration, there are many different  kinds of human rights.  Human rights can also be defined based on membership in a group, such as gender, race, age or social class. Example: Women’s Rights  An important issue within this topic is the violation of  human rights. There are countless situations across the world, both past and present where human rights are being violated. Examples: Darfur, Burma, Human Trafficking 
  4. 4. WOMEN’S RIGHTS - OVERVIEW In the U.S.   Late 1800s – Women’s suffrage groups form with the goal of gaining the right to vote for women  1916 – Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic  1920 – The 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote becomes federal law  1955 – The Daughters of Bilitis is founded, an advocate group for lesbian women  1960 – Birth control pills are approved by the FDA  1963 – Equal pay act passed – makes it illegal to pay a woman less than a man doing the same job  1964 – Civil Rights Act passed  1972 – Equal Rights Amendment passed  1973 – Supreme Court decision in Roe vs. Wade grants women the right to a legal abortion  1978 – Pregnancy Discrimination Act – gives women the right to job security during pregnancy
  5. 5. WOMEN’S RIGHTS Title IX - No person in the United States shall on the  basis of sex, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance  This includes athletics, drama, band and any other extracurricular activities  It applies to any educational institution that receives federal funds, whether the school is public or private.  It does not necessarily require the same amount of money to be given to each, just the same benefits and equal quality, based on participation.
  6. 6. TITLE XI CONT. it is estimated that 80% of schools Today are not in compliance with Title XI Discussion:  What do you think about the Title XI regulations?  Have you ever personally encountered or heard about a school’s failure to comply with Title XI?
  7. 7. WOMEN’S RIGHTS – 189 countries sign the Beijing 1995 Declaration and Platform for Action – an agenda for women’s empowerment  beijing/platform/plat1.htm#statement Discussion:  Is a set of ideals and principles, but are they really carried out?
  8. 8. WOMEN’S RIGHTS The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination  against Women  Signed by the US, but not ratified, the only developed country  to not do so.  Unsigned: Iran, Nauru, Palau, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, and Tonga  Why Not? Some conservative, right-wing groups oppose ratification because it supports ”equal access to health care, including those related to family planning.” Discussion:  Do you think by not ratifying the U.S. is putting itself amongst the ranks of  the countries who have not signed? Is the reason cited for not ratifying a valid one?  Do you think the US should ratify or not? 
  9. 9. HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS Darfur Burma Trafficking Human
  10. 10. DARFUR - OVERVIEW Conflict in Darfur: The Sudanese military & the  Janjaweed (Arab speaking, Black Africans) in conflict with rebel groups from Darfur (like The Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army-SLA and the Justice Equality Movement-JEM)  February 2003 – rebellion began against the Sudanese government because the Darfuri felt neglected and oppressed  The government responded by supporting and sending the Janjaweed to break the rebellion which has resulted in the killing, raping, looting and burning
  11. 11. DARFUR  Economic conflict-based on competition for resources like land and water, caused by drought, desertification and overpopulation  Political conflict-some groups feel marginalized  Ethnic conflict-certain ethnic groups, like non-Arab Africans are specifically being targeted
  12. 12. DARFUR Multiple attempts at peace talks, cease-fires and peace  agreements over the past 6 years Estimated 400,000 killed  2.5 million displaced  Possible 1 million deaths possible from starvation and disease  Discussion:  What should be done to help?  The United Nations? The United States? As individuals?  The UN and other organizations have hesitated on calling the  incidents in Darfur “genocide.” Why do you think they have done this and do you think they are right for doing so?  How does this situation compare to comparable situations from history like in Rwanda or during the Holocaust? How is it different?
  13. 13. BURMA Gained independence from Britain in 1948  1962 – General Ne win gained control and established  Burmese socialism, impoverishing the country for 26 years 1987 – Ne win overthrown by Burmese Socialist Program  Party Pro-democracy demonstrations held but were oppressed,  thousands of demonstrators killed – the 8888 uprising The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) was put  in place until elections could be held National League for Democracy (NLD) won over the SLORC,  but the results were overturned and the SLORC remained in power NLD members were imprisoned 
  14. 14. BURMA The SLORC, now renamed the State Peace and  Development Council SPDC continues to rule  Known as one of the most repressive and abusive regimes, violating countless human rights including  Forced labor  Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution  Arbitrary Detention  Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment  Deprivation of Livelihood
  15. 15. BURMA  Discussion: Based on the human rights violations  mentioned before, what is your opinion about the situation in Burma?  Do you feel there is anything the UN or the United States can do to help?  What about the nations surrounding Burma that support their economy with trade and export/import?
  16. 16. HUMAN TRAFFICKING The recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt  of people for the purposes of slavery, forced labor and servitude  “Recruited” through force, deception and outright abduction  The fastest growing criminal industry in the world  Often the focus is on sex trafficking  In the US, about 10,000 forced laborers, often in the domestic sector 
  17. 17. HUMAN TRAFFICKING Discussion:  What can be done in the United States to combat human  trafficking?  Do you think prostitution should be considered human trafficking ? On the other hand, do you believe prostitution should be made legal?  To what degree do you think prostitutes are making a voluntary choice?  Other forms of human trafficking in the US include domestic and migrant workers. How can this problem be detected and resolved?