E X A M R E V I S I O N 2 0 1 2VCE PsychologyUnit One
Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology The roots of psychology lie inphilosophy. Can be traced back to AncientGreek philosophers such asSocrates, Plato & Aristotle. Wilhelm Wundt establishedthe first laboratory forinvestigating psychologicalphenomena in 1879.
Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology Freud developedPsychoanalysis astreatment for mentaldisorders. Modern Psychology isbased on empiricism-gathering data usingmethodical research.
Chapter 1: Nature of Psychology The major perspectives are: Biological Behavioural Cognitive Socio-Cultural (Big Ben Chimes Slowly) or(Big Ben Cats Stroke)
Psychologist vs Psychiatrist Psychologists are not ableto perform medicalprocedures or prescribemedication as they are notqualified doctors likepsychiatrists.
Some Types of Psychologists Sport Psychologist Forensic Psychologist Organisational Psychologist Educational & DevelopmentalPsychologist Counselling Psychologist• Clinical Psychologist
Chapter 2: Research Methods Population refers to the group ofpeople of interest to theresearcher. It is the group aboutwhich the researcher wishes todraw conclusions. Sample-the members of thepopulation who have beenchosen to take part ion theresearch (A subset of thepopulation)
Some Guys Prefer IndiViduals That Rock Sample-eg Two large groups of identical members of the sample kept inthe same environmental conditions . State a specific number (of reasonablemagnitude) in each group, instead of simply describing a ‘large’ group orreplication of the experiment.Group_ Divide the sample into two groups of equal size-One is theexperimental Group and One is the Control Group.I Pretest-infection of both groups with the virus against which the drug hasbeen designed. Independent Variable-One of the groups then needed to receive nofurther treatment (the control group), the other group (the trial group)receives the drug under investigation Timeafter a few days, each of the groups needs to Examined -thenumber of mice that have developed the viral disease in each group counted. Results-If the number of mice in the trial group is significantly less thanthe number in the control group, the drug has been effective.S SampleG Allocate to 2 Groups (Experimental group andControl Group)P PretreatmentIV State the Independe4nt VariableT TimeR Results
Sampling Convenience Sample-readilyavailable without any attemptto make the samplerepresentative of thepopulation Random Sample-everymember of population has anequal chance of beingselected
Stratified Sampling Random-Stratified Sample-involves identifying all ofthe people within eachstratum of researchinterest, then randomlyselecting samples ofproportionate size fromeach stratum
Descriptive Research Case Study-an intensive indepth investigation of somebehaviour or event of interestin an individual, small groupor situation. Observational Study-involvescollection of data by carefullywatching and recordingbehaviour as it occurs.
Presentation of ResultsIf you use a graph to show yourresults, you would normally graph theindependent variable (the one youchanged) on the x-axis, and the dependentvariable (what you measured) on the y-axis.When the dependent variable changeswith time, you can graph time on the x-axis and the dependent variable on they-axis.
Continuous Data Data that can take onan infinite number ofvalues between wholenumbers. Examples:height, temperatureand time This data is presentedon a line graphGrowth of Plant024681012141 2 3 4 5Time (days)Height(cm)ControlXYZ
Discontinuous Data (Discrete Data) Data in which thevariable can only takeone of a finite set ofvalues Columns should nottouch if data isdiscreteHeight of Plant02468101214control X Y ZFertilizerHeight(cm)
Qualitative Data Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed but notmeasured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. Qualitative → Quality
Quantitative Data Deals with numbers. Data which can bemeasured. Length, height, weight, speed, time, temperature, ages, etc. Quantitative → Quantity
Chapter 3: The Visual Perception System Consists of a completenetwork of physiologicalstructures involved in vision. Includes eyes, sensoryreceptors (retina), neuralpathways and the visualcortex.
Chapter 3: The Visual Perception System 1. Visual sensation: Detection or awareness of the presence oflight energy produced by stimulation of thephoto receptors on the retina. It is a physiological process. It is the same for everyone withoutdamage..
Perception 2. Visual perception: Selection, organisation andinterpretation of visualsensations by the brain intomeaningful info. This is influenced byphysiological and psychologicalfactors, therefore is a uniqueexperience for everyone
Response to Light The human eye is sensitive to a verynarrow band of electromagneticspectrum, this is called the visiblelight spectrum. This spectrum starts at shortwavelengths of 380nanometres (1billionth of a metre), which areviolet/blue and ends at largerwavelengths of 760nm, which areorange/red in colour.
Anatomy of the Eye Ciliary muscle: to control the shape of thelens Iris: to control the amount of light enteringthe lens Pupil: to allow light through Lens: to converge light to form a sharpimage on the retina Cornea: to bend light towards the lens Retina: to act as a screen for the image Optic nerve: to carry signals from theretina to the brain
Process of Sensation & Perception Reception: The process of detecting the presence of, orchanges in, light energy in the retina. Transduction: The process by which photoreceptors changeelectromagnetic energy into electrochemicalenergy. Transmission: The process of sending and receiving informationin the form of electrochemical energy along anerve pathway to the brain.
Selection – The detection and coding offeatures of a stimulus, such as size, colour andmovement. Organisation – The grouping of elements tobe viewed in a meaningful way. Interpretation – The process by which thewhole is given meaning. This is done bycomparing new info. with info. already storedin memory.
Perceptual Principles Gestalt Principles: German word meaning shapeand form. ‘The whole is greater than thesum of its parts.’ In psychology this is consideredthe way we perceive stimuli bygrouping parts into awhole, complete form. This is anautomatic process.
Closure The tendency to mentallyfill or ignore gaps in visualstimuli and perceive theobject to be a meaningfulwhole.
Figure Ground The tendency to perceive points ofthe visual stimulus as being morerelevant (the figure) and standingout against a less relevantbackground (ground.) The contour line (or edges) of ashape helps us to define the objectto make it the centre of our focus, itbecomes the figure while all othervisual info. becomes the ground
Depth Cues Source of information fromthe environment or withinour bodies which helps us toperceive an object’s distance. Our retina receives info. as 2Dimages, but using depth cuesit’s converted into 3D reality.
Categories of Depth Cues Monocular – requiring one eye only: Secondary (info. from externalsources) = Pictorial depth cues Primary (info. from internal sources =Accommodation Binocular – requiring use of botheyes: Primary (info. from internal sources) =Convergence + Retinal Disparity
Visual Illusions The consistentmisinterpretation/distortionof real sensory stimuli. Most illusions occur becausethey create a perception thatis inconsistent with the retinalimage.
Muller-Lyer Illusion 2 parallel lines of equallength are placed side toside. The line with the outwardfacing arrows is perceivedto be longer.
Explanation Misapplication of size constancy The line with inward facing arrows looks like thecloser outside corner of a building & thefeathertail line looks like the further corner of aroom. If 2 lines cast the same retinal image, but one isfurther away then the further one must belonger. Therefore because the feathertail line isperceived as further away our brain interprets itas longer & we perceive it as such. We are said to perceptually expand the moredistant line.
Perceptual Set-Why we Interpret the Way We Do Perceptual set expectancy: A predisposition or readiness toperceive stimuli in accordance withcertain expectations. This may cause us to select certainaspects of the stimulus or ignoreother aspects.
Factors Affecting Perceptual Set Motivation: Processes that direct & sustain our behaviourtowards achieving a particular goal. May be influenced by psychological (desires) orphysiological (hunger) factors. Cultural Factors: The culture in which we are raised influences ourideas, knowledge, beliefs & attitudes. Emotional State: Different emotions can cause us to perceivecertain stimuli in certain ways.
Chapter 4: Lifespan Development Age related changes thatoccur frombirth, throughout aperson’s life, into andduring old age.
Maturation The orderly and sequentialdevelopmental changeswhich occur in the nervoussystem and other bodilystructures controlled byour genes.
Nature vs Nurture The nature versus nurturedebate concerns the relativeimportance of an individualsinnate qualities ("nature," i.e.nativism, or innatism) versuspersonal experiences ("nurture,"i.e. empiricism or behaviorism)in determining or causingindividual differences in physicaland behavioral traits.
Research Methods for Developmental Studies Cross sectional-selects &compares groups ofparticipants of different agesover a short period of time Longitudinal- a long terminvestigation that follows thesame group of people over anextended period of time.
Research Methods for Developmental Studies Cohort-Sequential-combines the cross-sectional & Longitudinal. Eg 3 cohorts of adolescentsaged 14, 16 & 18 every 2years over a 4 year period.
Gibson & Visual Cliff The apparatus used byGibson was “the visualcliff” Infants who had crawlingexperience were fearful ofthe apparent drop andrefused to cross over totheir mothers.
Gibson’s theory Emphasised key processes involved inperceptual development. Theseinclude: Role of the infant as an active explorer The affordance (perceived qualities)of objects or events that areexperienced The way perceptual explorationbecomes more and more specific anddifferentiated (selective) with age
Perceptual development cont. Exploration and the search foraffordances are importantfeatures of perceptualdevelopment Affordances are the perceivedand actual properties ofsomething in theenvironment that suggesthow it should be used.
Definition of AttachmentAn enduring emotional tieto a specialperson, characterized by atendency to seek andmaintaincloseness, especially duringtimes of stress.
Bowlby’s 4 Key Characteristics of Attachment Proximity Maintenance-desire to be near the caregiver. Safe Haven-the ability to be able to return tothe caregiver when scared. Secure Base-from which infant can exploresurrounding environment. Separation distress-anxiety when caregiver leaves
Ainsworth• Mary Ainsworth researched• Designed the “strange situation”• A lab experiment with 8different episodes of separationand reunion• Attached infant will:• Use mother as a secure base• Be soothed by the motherduring the reunion
Harlow discovered that baby monkeys deprivedof their mothers (left) would transfer their affectionsto a cloth surrogate. When they needed to eat, they would scamperover to a milk-bearing wire mother, but then quickly return to cuddlewith the softer surrogate.
Key principles of Piaget’s theory• Information is organised intoschemas (groups of inter-relatedideas)• Based on principles of– assimilation (process of taking innew information and fitting it intoand making it part of an existingmental idea about objects or theworld)– accommodation (refers tochanging an existing mental idea inorder to fit new information)Sucking on her rattle(assimilation), she willeventually develop anunderstanding thatrattles only make noise(accommodation)
1.Object permanence• Object permanence is the understanding that objectsstill exist even if they cannot be see or touched.Eg. When a toy is hidden an infant believes that it does not exist anymore
Children are only capable ofseeing the world from theirpoint of view and therefore havetrouble in seeing things fromanother person’s point of viewEg. When told to hide they cover their eyes, because theycant see themselves they think others cant see themeither2.Egocentrism
Understanding that something can change from onestat to anotherEg. The child cannot explain the melting process despite being able toidentify the ice-blocks (solid) and the melted ice blocks (liquid)2.Transformation
2.Animism Animism is the belief that everything that exists hassome kind of consciousness or awareness. Eg: the toy that can feel tired or sad.
2.Reversibility• Is the ability to follow aline of reasoning back toits original starting pointEg. a child might be able to recognize that hisor her dog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is adog, and that a dog is an animal.
Refers to the idea that an object does not change itsweight, mass, volume or area when the objectchanges its shape or appearance3.Conservation
3.Classification Classification is the ability to organise informationinto categories based on common features. Eg: a banana can belong to a group of yellow objects aswell as belong to the group of fruit.
4.Abstract thinking Abstract thinking refers to thinking without needingto see or visualise things in order to understandconcepts. Eg: understanding concepts such asjustice, honesty, respect
4.Logical thinking Logical thinking refers to the ability to think in asystematic way and develop a plan to solve problems. Eg: doing algebra
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development♂ Level 1: Preconventional (0-9 years)♂ Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation♂ Stage 2: Naively egotistical Orientation♂ Level 2: Conventional (10-15 years)♂ Stage 3: Good Boy/ Nice Girl Orientation♂ Stage 4: Law & Social Order Maintaining Orientation♂ Level 3: Postconventional (16+years)♂ Stage 5: Legalistic-Social Contract Orientation♂ Stage 6: Universal Ethical Orientation
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory American male bias What people say is not alwaysconsistent with what they do Method of data collection-young children who may notunderstand the stories orexpress their thinking. Cultural differences notaddressed
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Psychosocial development theory is basedon eight stages of development Erikson’s theory is based on the idea thatdevelopment through life is a series ofstages which are each defined by a crisis orchallenge The early stages provide the foundationsfor later stages so Erikson says that if achild does not resolve a crisis in aparticular stage, they will have problems inlater stagesErik Erikson(1902-1994)DanishPsychoanalyst
Baltes’ Selection, Optimisation andCompensation Theory Successful Ageing: Promotinggains and managing losses. Optimisation: making themost of theabilities, resources andopportunities available toachieve the optimal or bestoutcome. Compensation: new copingstrategies
Chapter 6: Mental Illness across Lifespan ADHD is a disordercharacterised byinattention, andhyperactive and impulsivebehaviour that is morefrequent and server than inother children of the sameage. Usually symptoms ofADHD become apparent inchildren before they reach7 years of age.
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is apsychotic illnesscharacterised by distortedperceptions(hallucinations), bizarrethoughts, disorganisedspeech, disturbedemotions and adeterioration in copingwith everyday life.
Dementia is the progressive deteriorationof the functioning of neurons in the brain,resulting in memory impairment, a declinein intellectual ability, poor judgement and,sometimes, personality changes. There aremany different types of dementia – themost common is Alzheimers disease. Dementia can affect different people indifferent ways, some become bewilderedand frightened by the changes and othersseem unconcerned and unaware of theirdeteriorating abilities.Dementia