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Mining (1)

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  • 1. Metallurgy: Mining ● ● ● ● Introduction History Types of mining Activities before mining REPORTED BY: CANOY, CLAIRE E. YR & SEC. : 2B2- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
  • 2. Introduction of Mining ● Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. ● Any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of any nonrenewable resource.
  • 3. Materials Recovered in Mining Base Metals Figure 1. Gold
  • 4. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 2. Copper
  • 5. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 3. Coal
  • 6. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 4. Rock Salt
  • 7. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 5. potash
  • 8. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 6. Diamonds
  • 9. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 8. Iron
  • 10. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 9. Silver
  • 11. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 10. Uranium
  • 12. Materials Recovered in Mining Figure 11. Limestone
  • 13. History of Mining
  • 14. History of Mining Mining of stone and metals began in prehistoric times. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone, ceramics to make early tools and weapons.
  • 15. History of Mining Stone Age Old Stone Age man used tools of wood, stone, horn, or bone to dig flint from softer chalk and limestone.
  • 16. Figure 12. Stone Age
  • 17. Figure 13. Stone Age tools
  • 18. History of Mining Bronze Age It is known that bronze age man valued copper and bronze as both artistic and practical objects. The ore was gained by using only simple stone and bone tools. It is thought that initially raw metallic copper found on the surface would have attracted the ancients to the uses of copper. Before long they would have started to scratch away at the surface close to these raw metal findings with simple tools made of bone. However later Bronze age man started to recover the ore from shallow open pits called bell pits.
  • 19. Figure 14. Bronze Age
  • 20. Figure 15. Bronze Age tools
  • 21. History of Mining Iron Age Iron age generally is considering to have started about 1200 B.C. Existing iron ore deposits were not exploited in ancient Egypt until the Late Period, but the metal was occasionally found in its meteoric form and put to use as early as the 4th millennium BCE.
  • 22. Figure 16. Iron Age
  • 23. History of Mining Iron Age The smelting of iron was by the process known as the 'Bloomery' method. Bellows were used to fan the flames and the end product was a malleable ball of impure iron which could be hammered to shape.
  • 24. Figure 17. Bellows
  • 25. Figure 18. Iron age tools
  • 26. Types of Mining
  • 27. Types of Mining ● Surface Mining ● Underground Mining ● Ocean Mining
  • 28. Surface Mining Figure 19. Surface Mining is a type of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed.
  • 29. Surface Mining Types of Surface Mining ● Open-pit bench mining ● Strip mining ● Quarry mining ● Alluvial mining
  • 30. Surface Mining Open-pit bench mining ● Open-pit mining involves excavation which looks like a terrace. ● Open-pit mining is sometimes called open-cut mining since the overburden is not returned to the pit and an open cut remains after mining is completed.
  • 31. Figure 20. Example of Open-pit bench mining
  • 32. Figure 21. The worlds biggest open pit mine can be found near Hibbing, Minnesota.
  • 33. Figure 22. Bingham Canyon Mine, located near Salt Lake City, is the world's deepest man-made open pit excavation.
  • 34. Surface Mining Strip Mining ● Is the process of mining a seam of minerals by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (overburden). ● Commonly used to mine coal or tar sand.
  • 35. Figure 23. Example of Strip mining
  • 36. Surface Mining Strip Mining □ Two forms of Strip Mining: 1. Area Stripping 2. Contour Stripping
  • 37. Surface Mining Strip Mining ● Area Stripping − is used of fairly terrain, to extract deposits over a large area.
  • 38. Figure 24. Example of Area strip mining
  • 39. Surface Mining Strip Mining ● Contour Stripping − When a coal system is located along a steep hillside and only one cut into the hill can be economically made.
  • 40. Figure 25. Example of Contour strip mining
  • 41. Surface Mining Quarrying Mining ● Is a big man-made hole in the ground from where minerals or rock are taken out. ● Quarries are normally dug deeper and bigger. ● When they are later be used to backfill the mined area, frequently utilized as landfill sites for the disposal of waste
  • 42. Figure 25. Example of Quarry mining
  • 43. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining Concentrations in streambed or river diamond by removing the overlying barren ground and digging up the bearing ground. Extracts bed sand and gravel.
  • 44. Figure 26. Example of Alluvial mining
  • 45. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining □ Alluvial Mining methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Panning Rocker Long Tom Sluicing Hydraulicking
  • 46. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining ● Panning − The simplest technique to extract gold from placer ore − Mined ore is placed in a large metal or plastic pan. −During panning, mercury is added to the fine mixture of gold and sand
  • 47. Figure 27. Panning
  • 48. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining ● Rocker − A cradle-like piece of equipment that could because used like a cradle to sift sands through screens. − A primary tool used to separate gold from pay dirt.
  • 49. Figure 28. Rocker
  • 50. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining ● Long Tom − Has a greater capacity than a rocker and does not require the labor of rocking. − It was mainly made of wood, with a metal bottom.
  • 51. Figure 29. Long Tom
  • 52. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining ● Sluicing − defined as an artificial channel through which flows controlled amounts of water.
  • 53. Figure 30. Sluicing
  • 54. Surface Mining Alluvial Mining ● Hydraulicking − a form of mining that employs water under pressure to dislodge rock material − often applied water under very high pressure
  • 55. Figure 31. Hydraulicking
  • 56. Underground Mining Figure 32 . Underground Mining ● Underground mining can be chosen for any type of land surface and for any type of deposit too deep for surface methods. ● are used when the mineral deposit lies deep beneath the surface of the earth.
  • 57. Underground Mining Underground Requirements ● Low-ventilation demand- quantity passageways for air are rather rigidly fixed and geometry of ● Compactness- Space is a premium, especially height. ● Easy Visibility- Most operating areas are lighted only by individual cap-mounted or hand-held lamps ● Hand portability- Units or components must frequently be hand-carried into an operating area ● Absence of spark and flame- Equipment is used in or near explosives, timber supports and combustible gas or dust.
  • 58. Underground Mining □ Underground Mining methods: ●Long wall mining ● Open Stopes/ Room and Pillar ● Sublevel Stoping ● Shrinkage Stoping ● Cut-and-Fill Stoping ● Square Set-and- Fill Stoping ● Sublevel Caving ● Block Caving ● Solution Mining ● Continuous Mining ● Nuclear Blasting
  • 59. Underground Mining Long-wall Mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice
  • 60. Figure 33. Long-wall Mining
  • 61. Video of Long-wall mining
  • 62. Underground Mining Open stopes/ Room and Pillar A mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane while leaving "pillars" of untouched material to support the roof overburden leaving open areas or "rooms" underground.
  • 63. Figure 34. Room and Pillar
  • 64. Video of Room and Pillar
  • 65. Underground Mining Sublevel Stoping is a method of underground mining method that involves vertical mining in a large, open stope that has been created inside an ore vein.
  • 66. Figure 35. Sublevel Stoping
  • 67. Video of Sublevel Stoping
  • 68. Underground Mining Shrinkage Stoping In shrinkage stoping,the mining proceeds upward between levels in steeply dipping ore bodies, and most of the broken ore is left in the stope until mining is completed.
  • 69. Figure 36. Shrinkage Stoping
  • 70. Underground Mining Cut-and-Fill Stoping is a method of underground mining used in vertical stopes and in mining high-grade irregular ore bodies.
  • 71. Figure 37. Cut-and-Fill Stoping
  • 72. Video of Cut-and-FillStoping
  • 73. Underground Mining Square Set-and-Fill Stoping A form of stoping used in hardrock mining that uses systematic or random timbering placed between the foot and hanging wall of the vein.
  • 74. Figure 38. Square Set-and-Fill Stoping
  • 75. Underground Mining Sublevel Caving Is underhand method for mining thick, steeply dipping deposits. Starting at one end of the uppermost sublevel.
  • 76. Figure 39. Sublevel Caving
  • 77. Video of Sublevel Caving
  • 78. Underground Mining Block Caving Block caving is method for mine large massive, structurally weak deposits at high production rates
  • 79. Figure 40. Block Caving
  • 80. Video of Block Caving
  • 81. Underground Mining Solution Mining Solution mining is a method in which water, acid, or alkali dissolves minerals in an ore deposit and then is treated for recovery.
  • 82. Figure 41. Solution Mining
  • 83. Video of Solution Mining
  • 84. Underground Mining Continuos Mining Continuos mining is a system based on the machinery used in fragmenting ore rather than on the method of ground support.
  • 85. Figure 42. Continuos Mining
  • 86. Video of Continuos Mining
  • 87. Underground Mining Nuclear Blasting Mining Nuclear explosives have the capability of fracturing and breaking large volumes of rock at low cost, which makes them of interest for potential use in mining.
  • 88. Figure 43. Nuclear Blasting Mining
  • 89. Video of Nuclear Blast Mining
  • 90. Ocean Mining are used when the mineral deposit occurs in sea water, ocean floor, and those that occur in rock formations beneath the ocean floor. Figure 44. Ocean Mining
  • 91. Ocean Mining Types of Ocean Mining ● Seawater Mining ●Ocean floor Mining
  • 92. Ocean Mining Seawater Mining ● Seawater mining contains the dissolved salts of many different elements in various proportions. ● Ordinary salt (NaCl) is recovered from the sea water by solar evaporation. In this process, sea water is led by canals to wide, shallow ponds on shore. The canals then are closed and the action of the sand and wind begins the evaporation process.
  • 93. Figure 45. Seawater Mining
  • 94. Ocean Mining Ocean floor Mining It has been known since the 1950’s that manganese nodules are scattered across the deep ocean floors.
  • 95. Figure 46. Ocean floor Mining
  • 96. Activities Before Mining
  • 97. Activities Before Mining ● Traditional Prospecting ● Modern Prospecting
  • 98. Activities Before Mining What is Prospecting ? The process of looking for mineral deposits.
  • 99. Activities Before Mining Traditional Prospecting The old-time prospector used a burro or mule to carry his camping supplies, pick and shovel a pan for washing stream gravels, two or three pieces of drill steel and a sledgehammer to drive them and perhaps a keg of blasting powder.
  • 100. Figure 47. Burro or Mule
  • 101. Activities Before Mining Modern Prospecting The modern prospector is a member of a team of highly trained specialists who use sophisticated equipment in a planned, systematic search. The team generally include experts in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, computer techniques, drilling, mineral economics, metallurgy, and related fields.
  • 102. Figure 48. Trained Specialist