Structure of Proteins

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Structure of Proteins

  1. 1. The Structure of Proteins
  2. 2. Functions of Proteins <ul><li>Fibrous proteins – structural, e.g. collagen. </li></ul><ul><li>Globular proteins – metabolic functions, e.g. haemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>It is their structure that allows them to carry out their functions . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Monomer units of proteins are called amino acids. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C
  5. 5. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP
  6. 6. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYLGROUP
  7. 7. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYL GROUP
  8. 8. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYL GROUP H
  9. 9. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYL GROUP H
  10. 10. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYL GROUP H R-GROUP (Variant)
  11. 11. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul>C N H H AMINO GROUP O O C H CARBOXYL GROUP H R-GROUP (Variant)
  12. 13. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>PRIMARY STRCUTURE – Polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptides are composed of amino acids bonded to each other, like beads on a string </li></ul><ul><li>The bond that holds them together is called a peptide bond </li></ul><ul><li>They are formed by loss of water so is called a condensation reaction. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>PRIMARY STRCUTURE – Polypeptides </li></ul>
  14. 15. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>PRIMARY STRCUTURE – Polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>-OH from carboxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>-H from amino group </li></ul><ul><li>Forms peptide bond </li></ul>
  15. 16. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Secondary Structure – α helix </li></ul>+ve -ve
  16. 17. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Tertiary Structure – α helix </li></ul><ul><li>3D structure is formed by further bonds, depending on the function </li></ul><ul><li>Disulphide bonds – strong and not easily broken down </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bonds – easily broken down by changes in pH (carobxy/amino groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds – numerous be very easily broken down </li></ul>
  17. 18. Functions of Proteins <ul><li>Fibrous proteins – structural, e.g. collagen. </li></ul><ul><li>Globular proteins – metabolic functions, e.g. haemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>It is their structure that allows them to carry out their functions . </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. the 3D structure is v.v.v important in carrying out it’s function </li></ul><ul><li>Makes proteins distinctive – interacting with other molecules </li></ul>
  18. 19. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Quaternary Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Complex molecules containing many polypeptide chains </li></ul>
  19. 20. Structure of Proteins <ul><li>Example – haemoglobin: </li></ul>
  20. 21. Test for proteins

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