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LIPIDS

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  • 1. lipids
  • 2. What are lipids?
    • Lipids are a a large and varied group of organic compounds.
    • Lipids contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
    • They are insoluble in water but will dissolve in organic solvents.
    • There are two types of lipids: fats which are solid at room temp and oils which are liquid at room temp.
  • 3. Triglycerides.
    • Triglycerides are made up of a molecule of glycerol join with three fatty acids (RCOOH).
    • H H
    • H C OH HOOC.R H-C-OOC.R
    • H C OH + HOOC.R H-C-OOC.R
    • H C OH HOOC.R H-C-OOC.R
    • H H
    WATER
  • 4. Ester bond
  • 5. Ester bond.
    • Triglycerides are formed when a glycerol molecule is linked to 3 fatty acid molecules.
    • Fatty acids always have –COOH group (carboxyl group) and this combines with the –OH group on the glycerol by a condensation reaction.
    • When this happens an ester bond is formed.
  • 6. Ester bond
  • 7.  
  • 8. UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
    • Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms.
    • Unsaturated fatty acids have a low melting point and may be liquid at room temperature.
    • Plant oils are an example of an unsaturated triglyceride that is a liquid at room temperature.
  • 9. Structure of a unsaturated fatty acid.
    • O H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
    • C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
    • HO H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
    • In unsaturated fatty acids at least some of the carbon atoms are joined by a double covalent bond.
  • 10. Structure of a saturated fat.
    • Saturated fatty acids do not have a double bond between the carbon atoms.
    • Saturated fatty acids have a higher melting points and are solid at room temperature.
    • Animal fats are classified as a saturated fatty acid.
  • 11. A saturated fatty acid molecule.
    • O H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
    • C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
    • HO H-H-H-H-H- H-H-H-H-H-H-H-H-H
    • In saturated fats the carbon molecules are join together by single covalent bonds.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Phospholipids.
    • A Phospholipid molecule is like a triglyceride in which one of the fatty acids have been replaced by a phosphate group.
    • The phosphate group gives the phospholipid a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
  • 14. Phospholipids have two ends.
    • A head that contains a phosphate group. This has an uneven charge that makes the head able to mix with water (hydrophilic).
    • A tail that contains 2 fatty acid chains. They have an even charge and this makes them unable to mix with water (hydrophobic).
  • 15. Structure of a phospholipid. A phosphate group
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail A phospholipid molecule
  • 19. Test for lipids. (The emulsion test)
    • Lipids do not dissolve in water, but they will dissolve in ethanol.
    • Add ethanol to the sample being tested.
    • Shake the sample and ethanol, so that the lipids dissolve
    • Pour the mixture of ethanol and sample into water.
    • If lipids are present the water turns cloudy as a white emulsion is formed.