Early Learning for Students with Disabilities Important People 400 B.C. – Hippocrates 375 B.C. – Plato 90 B.C. - Asclepiades 1450 -1700 – John Locke Late 1700s – Jean Marc Gaspard Itard Influences for the need of special education: *Easter Seals *Joseph Kennedy Jr. Foundation *Special Olympics *Association for Retarded Citizens *Autism Speaks *Gordon Hartman Foundation
Legislation That Lead to Special Education Today HISTORICAL EVENT IMPACT ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS• 1965 Congress adds Title VI to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 creating a Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (this bureau today is called the Office of Special Education Programs or OSEP). Educating students with disabilities is still NOT mandated by federal or state law. However, creation of the Bureau signified that a change was on the horizon.• 1972 Two significant supreme court decisions [PARC v. Pennsylvania (1972) and Mills v. D.C. Board of Education (1972)] apply the equal protection argument to students with disabilities. The courts take the position that children with disabilities have an equal right to access education as their non-disabled peers. Although there is no existing federal law that mandates this stance, some students begin going to school as a result of these court decisions.• 1973 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is enacted into statute. This national law protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability. This national law was enacted with little fanfare. Most educators were not aware that this applied to public schools.• 1974 The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is enacted. Parents are allowed to have access to all personally identifiable information collected, maintained, or used by a school district regarding their child.• 1975 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) is enacted. This was also known as P.L. 94-142. Today we know this law as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Before 1975, children with disabilities were mostly denied an education solely on the basis of their disabilities. EAHCA, along with some key supreme court cases, mandated all school districts to educate students with disabilities.• 1977 The final federal regulations of EAHCA are released. The final federal regulations are enacted at the start of the 1977-1978 school year and provide a set of rules in which school districts must adhere to when providing an education to students with disabilities.• 1986 The EAHCA is amended with the addition of the Handicapped Children’s Protection Act. This amendment makes clear that students and parents have rights under EAHCA (now IDEA) and Section 504.• 1990 The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is enacted. ADA adopts the Section 504 regulations as part of the ADA statute. In turn, numerous “504 Plans” for individual students start to become more common place in school districts.• 1990 The EAHCA is amended and is now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This amendment calls for many changes to the old law. One of the biggest was the addition of transition services for students with disabilities. School Districts were now required to look at outcomes and assisting students with disabilities in transitioning from high school to postsecondary life.• 1997 IDEA reauthorized This amendment calls for students with disabilities to be included in on state and district-wide assessments. Also, Regular Education Teachers are now required to be a member of the IEP team.• 2001 No Child Left Behind is enacted. This law calls for all students, including students with disabilities, to be proficient in math and reading by the year 2014.• 2004 IDEA reauthorized There are several changes from the 1997 reauthorization. The biggest changes call for more accountability at the state and local levels, as more data on outcomes is required. Another notable change involves school districts providing adequate instruction and intervention for students to help keep them out of special education.
Who has a Disability......Categories of DisabilitiesIf a student in a classroom fits into any of thefollowing categories then special services should be For more information on theprovided.• Autism categories of disabilities visit:• Deafness http://nichcy.org/disability/c• Deafness/blindness ategories• Hearing impairment• Mental disabilities• Multiple disabilities• Orthopedic impairment• Other health impairment• Tourette’s syndrome• Emotional disturbance• Specific learning disabilities• Speech or language impairment• Traumatic brain injury• Visual impairment including blindness• Pervasive developmental disorders
The Special Education Process…..My Child in Special Education
Your Rights as a Parent• 10. Parents have the right to request that their child be assessed for Special Education without delay.• 9. Parents have the right to list all of their concerns in the IEP.• 8. Parents have a right to request a new IEP meeting be held within 30 days of a written request when an IEP is already in place.• 7. Parents have the right to participate in the IEP meeting and have their opinions heard and noted.• 6. Parents have the right to bring any person to an IEP meeting with knowledge of the child or the child’s disability including advocates and attorneys.• 5. Parents have the right to review and receive copies of their child’s educational records.• 4. Parents have the right to consent, refuse to consent or revoke consent for special education for their child.• 3. Parents have the right to receive Prior Written Notice when a school district proposes a change in a child’s placement or refuses a parent’s request.• 2. Parents have the right to ask for an Independent Educational Evaluation at public expense when they disagree with the school district’s assessments.• 1. Parents have the right to file complaints, including state complaints and due process complaints, and disagree with parts or all of the IEP.• More information on parents rights visit: http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/pcrights.html, http://www.doe.mass.edu/sped/parents.html
South Dakota Parent RightsFor more information on Parent’s Rights inSouth Dakota visit:http://doe.sd.gov/oess/documents/SPED_parentalrights_handbook.pdfhttp://doe.sd.gov/oess/documents/SPED_parentalrights_handbook.pdf
The Assessment Process• Notice must be provided to evaluate a child, and informed consent of parents must be obtained.• No Single Procedure shall be the sole criterion for determining eligibility.• The child must be assessed in all areas of suspected disabilities.• Determination of eligibility shall be made by a team of qualified professionals and the child’s parents. Children are not eligible if the only deciding factor is a limited English Proficiency or a lack of math or reading instruction.
The Special Education or IEP Process• Step 1: Referral• Step 2: Assessment• Step 3: Classification (includes parent)• Step 4: IEP Meeting(includes parent)• Step 5: Placement(includes parent)• Step 6: Evaluation Team Meeting
The Services That May Be Provided• Individual or small group instruction• Curriculum or teaching modifications• Assistive technology• Transition services• Specialized services such as physical, occupational, and speech therapy
Sources• Berger, Eugenia Hepworth., and Mari Riojas-Cortez. Parents as Partners in Education: Families and Schools Working Together. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print.http://www.help4adhd.org/education/rights/ideahttp://doe.sd.gov/oess/documents/SPED_parentalrights_handbook.pdfhttp://doe.sd.gov/oess/documents/SPED_parentalrights_handbook.pdfhttp://www.midcoastadvocacy.com/http://admin.fortschools.org/PupilServices/StaffInfo/A%20TIMELINE%20OF%20SPECIAL%20EDUCATION%20HISTORY.htmttp://nichcy.org/disability/categories