how small scale farmers can save the worldPresentation Transcript
The new green revolution: how small-scale farmers can change the world 15/10/2010, Chris Claes
How will we feed the world? a few questions
How will we manage the commons?
How will we allocate the world’s biomass to meet our food, feed, fuel, and fiber needs?
How do we keep market forces from squeezing out small producers?
How do we make public food service a driver of sustainability and health?
Is there a place for family farms?
Versus agro-industrial farming
Family has control over resources
Family takes decisions in relation to the management of the farm
Most of the labour is provided by the family
West-Africa (source IIED)
A way out of poverty
Feeding the world
Life insurance for future generations
Food, fiber, fuel, feed, ….
Family farming; a way out of poverty
Agriculture is an important source of livelihoods in developing countries, providing ways of life for billions of people, many of them poor. Of the world’s 6.5 billion inhabitants, 5.5 billion live in developing countries, 3 billion in the rural areas of these countries . Of rural inhabitants, an estimated 2.5 billion are involved in agriculture, 1.3 billion are smallholders , while others include farm labourers, migrant workers, herders, fishers, artisans and indigenous peoples who depend on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods. More than half are women. The developing world will remain predominantly rural until around 2020 and millions of poor people in those countries will continue to rely on agriculture for their livelihoods for the foreseeable future…
World Bank, 2007
The contribution of agriculture to livelihoods is evident from the fact that 70 percent of the world’s poor people, including the poorest of the poor, and 75 percent of the world’s malnourished live in rural areas, where most of them are involved in agriculture.
Food Production: 175 % increase between 1975 and 2005
16 % more food per person
15 % world population undernourished
Solution for one; more problems for others?
Increase in Food Production
More than 175 % increase since 1975, bigger increase than population increase, 16 % more food per person
More than 1.000.000.000 people with less than 1 $ a day (2,5 billion less than 2 $)
78 % of countries with under nourishment problems of children are net food exporters!
Food is NO production problem: it’s a problem of ‘having access to food (income, land, knowledge…)
States and agricultural support
Since the eighties substantial decrease in agricultural budgets, especially in developing countries
Decrease in access to agricultural inputs, services, markets…
In countries where more than 35 % of population is undernourished 14 $ per person economically active in agriculture = 50 times less than 880 $ in industrial countries
Globalisation and shift in power
small-scale family farms,
Little risk for farmers
Governments created semi-public enterprises that ensured minimum prices, administered inputs and outputs, extended technologies, extension services, capacity building…
Klik hier om tekst toe te voegen
Globalisation and shifting power
Situation has changed dramatically
Agro-corporation or Food-corporation = multinational, active in (bio)technology, chemical inputs en production, processing, banking activities (e.g. carrefour)…
Alliances with others= clusters or oligopoly
Small number of buyers for big amount of sellers
Consumers: 160,000,000 clients: 89,000,000 stores: 170,000 supermarket formats: 600 buyers: 110 processors: 8,600 Semi-processors: 80,000 suppliers: 160,000 Farmers/producers: 3,200,000 The Bottleneck in Europe Grievink (2003): OECD Conference to Explore Changes in the Food Economy, The Hague, 6-7 February 2003 Het betreft hier 85 % van de voedselverkoop in Nederland, België, Frankrijk, Duitsland, Groot-Brittanië en Oostenrijk!
GDP and supermarket concentration
Concentration of Food Sales Land CR3 CR4 TopEntreprises Austria 57.4 66.2 Rewe, SPAR (Austria), Aldi, Metro Belgium 61.8 70.4 Carrefour, Colruyt , Delhaize Group, Metro, Aldi Czech rep 24.8 29.7 Ahold, Schwartz, Metro, Rewe, Tesco Denmark 66.4 – 78 74.1 FDB , Dansk Supermarkt, Dagrofa, SuperBest Finland 83.6 87.6 Kesko, SOK France 48.1 60.0 Carrefour, Leclerc, ITM, Casino, Auchan Germany 44.3 56.1 - 66.7 Metro, Rewe, Edeka/AVA, Aldi Hungary 48.2 51 CBA, Tesco, Co-op Hungary, Metro, Ireland 54.4 70.3 Musgrave, Tesco, Dunnes Stores, Stonehouse, Italy 29.1 36.0 Coop Italia, Auchan, Carrefour, Conad Netherlands 51.5 - 62.6 56.9 - 82.6 Ahold, Casino Norway 62.6 – 83 76.3 - 99.5 Norgesgruppen , Coop Norden , Ahold, Reitan Poland 14.9 17.7 Metro, Jerónimo Martins, Tesco, Carrefour Portugal 48.3 56.8 ModeloContinente, Jerónimo Martins, ITM Romania 17.5 18.7 - 27.0 Metro, Rewe, Carrefour, Delhaize Slovakia 25.3 31.4 Tesco, Metro, Rewe, Schwartz Spain 53.8 62.5 El Corte Inglés, Carrefour, Marcadona, Sweden 80.9 – 95 83.8 Ahold , Axel Johnson, Coop Norden UK 42.3 – 60.4 49.3 – 70.6 Tesco, Asda-Wal-Mart, Sainsbury’s, Morrisons
Power in the chain
Consumer price remains equal
Producer price decreases
Margin processor remains equal
Supermarket marging doubles
Globalisation and market restructuring
Supermarket power grows:
85 % of food sales in West Europe
Also 60 % in Latin America (20 years!)
30 % in Africa
Increase of 40 % per year in China
Delhaize vs Unilever
Trade Barriers reduced in industrial countries since 1995
Exception: agriculture and labour intensive products (comparative advantage for developing countries
OECD countries: 226 billion Euro support to agriculture; low international commodity prices (milk, cotton, sugar, meat)
Import barriers (taxes): protect 28 % of agricultural production of OECD countries
Less market opportunities for developing countries (added value!)
New barriers: norms and standards: see supermarket contentration
Technology and science
Intensification of land use
Fertilizers on basis of petroleum
Wonder seeds (HYV), hybrids, fertilizer and pesticides: unstable plants
Asia & LatinAmerica: increase in productivity high, Africa not
Technology and science
Green revolution did NOT improve access to food for poor people; wonder seeds are not pro-poor, don’t take into account the complexity of farming systems
India: poorest 30 % of population (285 million!) no increase in food and nutrient intake during the last 25 years
Environmental problems: erosion, soil intoxification, increase in pests and diseases…
Technology and science
Genetic revolution: extreme form of wonder seeds:
Industry driven (stock driven?)
No access for small farmers
Economic growth instead of increase in productivity/production: commercial agriculture, export agriculture, foreign exchange, tradebalance…
Simplification: 12 sorts of grain crops, 23 of vegetables, 35 fruits and nuts
70 sorts on 1.5 billion ha of crop land (100 years ago: 2000 sorts)
Rain forest: more than 100 sorts of trees on 1 ha
“ no more research on traditional varieties”
US: > 60 % of varieties that can be bought (corn, soja) are gmo-seeds:
“ in a few years there will be only gmo-seeds left”
Biodiversity and agriculture
Can family farming feed the world?
‘ You don’t have another choice than promote small-scale agriculture. Those small farmers don’t have another option, there are no jobs in industry or services for them. In the short term you can only strive for more means for small farmers, if not, you will create a massive emigraton from rural areas.‘ ‘There’s more, small-scale agriculture has 3 big advantages . Firstly there’s more respect for the environment , just because there’s no money for pesticides and chemical fertilizers. That kind of agriculture is more in harmony with the environment and the climate. Secondly, it is a labour-intensive production, creating a lot of jobs . And thirdly, it can be a very productive agriculture , on the condition that those farmers have access to the know-how that is needed.
Prof. Oliver De Schutter, VN-rapporteur for the right to food
Family farming: life insurance for future generations?
Rising to 100% by 2050. Source: WWF Living Planet Report 2006
International Assessment of the Role of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development IAASTD
Food, feed, fuels, fiber…
IAASTD Development Goals:
Reducing Hunger and Poverty
Improving Rural Livelihoods
Improving Nutrition and Human Health
Facilitating Environmentally, Socially, Equitable and Economically Sustainable Development
The IAASTD - A Unique Process
IGO Process with multi-stakeholder bureau comprising government and civil society
Co-Sponsors: FAO, GEF, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, World Bank and WHO
Multi-spatial: Global and five sub-Global assessments
Peer review by governments and experts
Approved by over 60 governments
“ Business as usual is no option”, says IAASTD
Food security in different countries around the world will be best served by seeking a diversity of pathways
Differences in tradition, history, context and resource endowments argue for rules that permit flexibility on national agricultural and trade policy and technology choices to strengthen the domestic small-scale farm sector and its contribution to national food security.
Developing country governments will need to facilitate adequate remuneration and a minimum level of price stability for their small-scale sector to encourage increased domestic food production and increased investment in improved agricultural practices.
Support for collective efforts of farmer organizations will be needed
“ Business as usual is no option”, says IAASTD
Improve tenure and access to resources, credit and insurance for small-scale producers to in- crease the sector’s contribution to national food security, as well as improved rural livelihoods and environmentally sustainable management of agricultural landscapes.
Address market concentrations
Increase public investment in agriculture
Mobilize the capacities of supermarkets and other public and private actors along value- adding chains to offer consumers affordable, safe, healthy, fair trade foodstuffs that demonstrate commitment to poverty reduction, environmental and climate change goals.
Promote the diversification of production systems through inclusion of locally important species/crops to develop a wide range of marketable natural products that can generate income for the rural and urban poor in the tropics and provide ecosystem services, such as soil and water conservation.
Complexity sciene: Cynefin model
No straight forward planning
Need for a new regime, a new paradigm to over come business as usual
Capacity to adapt & innovate
Technology and interaction driven
Paradigma shifts bring on fierce controversies and dissolution of old friendships…
Cause – effect
Problemsolving (respond to problems)
Creates dependence on technology
“ You cannot solve a problem using the same way of thinking as when the problem was created”