Studying History And Culture

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This is the intro I use to Contemporary Italian History and Geography, but it also stands alone.

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Studying History And Culture

  1. 1. Studying History and Culture Dr. Peter Cullen University of Urbino Carlo Bo Winter 2010
  2. 2. What does it mean to study history? The language process uses a code to communicate a message from a producer to a receiver – but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variables for understanding to happen. Producer code message communication receiver understanding Feedback loop at each stage = memory + memory = shared experience = common history
  3. 3. What does it mean to study history? The language process uses a code to communicate a message from a producer to a receiver – but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variables for understanding to happen. Producer code message communication receiver understanding Feedback loop at each stage = memory + memory = shared experience = common history
  4. 4. What does it mean to study history? History is a cultural account of shared experience. Culture operates with a similar process. It includes language, but also: Physical relationships with the internal and external environments (mind – body, nature – nurture) based on the sensory perception. Psychological perception, processing, memory and physical activation.
  5. 5. Studying Culture and History Prof. Peter Cullen University of Urbino Carlo Bo Winter 2010
  6. 6. What does it mean to study history? The language process uses a code to communicate a message from a producer to a receiver – but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variables for understanding to happen. Producer code message communication receiver understanding Feedback loop at each stage = memory + memory = shared experience = common history
  7. 7. What does it mean to study history? History is a cultural account of shared experience. Culture operates with a similar process. It includes language, but also: Physical relationships with the internal and external environments (mind – body, nature – nurture) based on the sensory perception. Psychological perception, processing, memory and physical activation.
  8. 8. What is Culture? <ul><li>Learning culture : Pierre Bourdieu and field , habitus, doxa </li></ul>Field : the arena of social interaction – verticle and horizontal – constituted by the relational differences of social agents. Habitus : lasting aquired schemes of perception, thought and action internally developed by social agents in reaction to objective conditions (i.e. of field). Doxa : deep-founded, unthought beliefs that inform an agent’s actions in the field . Universal concepts. These propagate the structure of the field.
  9. 9. What is the role of culture in society? People are socially dependent. Social dependency requires communication of some form to: Establish behaviour – NORMS Reinforce accepted or functional behaviour Learn boundaries of acceptance/refusal The learning feedback loop makes culture active: It is the ways in which a society establishes, reinforces, and limits its behaviours within the group.
  10. 10. Bourdieu and Culture <ul><li>Habitus reconciles the objective (field) and the subjective (doxa) . </li></ul><ul><li>Objective realities are subjectively assimilated by the individual social agent, creating a subjective agreement about external social structures – field. </li></ul><ul><li>Key concept: </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is learned behaviour </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is the role of culture in the history? The concepts and actions that we define as “historical” are bound by culture. What are some concepts of “history”
  12. 12. <ul><li>Understanding of the past – particularly in human societies </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul><ul><li>change </li></ul><ul><li>human behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>animal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Culture - product of </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>message </li></ul><ul><li>meaning ( It ain’t ME you’re lookin’ for – babe! ) </li></ul>Context Relationship Time What is “historical knowledge”?
  13. 13. <ul><li>What are institutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Collins: an established custom, law or relationship in community or society </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. - the family </li></ul><ul><li>- markets </li></ul><ul><li>- leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- religion </li></ul><ul><li>- sport, infrastructure, education, medicine, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ History” makes cultural c hoices about which institutions to preserve in public memory. </li></ul>History, Culture and institutions
  14. 14. <ul><li>For example: business is a social institution AND a social system </li></ul><ul><li>It is a dynamic structure </li></ul><ul><li>SO </li></ul><ul><li>It is a historical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Business is the formalisation and standardisation of human economic behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>this has a history </li></ul><ul><li>this influences other types of history, behaviour, etc. </li></ul>History, Culture and institutions
  15. 15. <ul><li>Does business need history? </li></ul><ul><li>YES! </li></ul><ul><li>All human structures and systems benefit from an understanding of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>As a system – business must understand change . </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas North: “ political-economic systems are KNOWN to no-one in their entirety, but human beings construct elaborate beliefs about those realities ”. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we understand belief ? Does belief change? </li></ul>History, Culture and institutions
  16. 16. <ul><li>As a vital system , business must understand: </li></ul><ul><li>belief : principles accepted without proof </li></ul><ul><li>values : the allocation of significance to belief and practice </li></ul><ul><li>learning : the transmission of belief, values, practice </li></ul><ul><li>practice : the production of actions </li></ul><ul><li> - within the locale or region of location </li></ul><ul><li>- within the locale or regions of its stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>- over time </li></ul>History, Culture and institutions
  17. 17. <ul><li>Human institutions and systems have always existed </li></ul><ul><li>What does historical understanding require? </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of structures </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of dynamics and change – in communities/society </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive factor contextualisation </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a logic for: </li></ul><ul><li>identification of questions </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of information </li></ul><ul><li>communication of learned information </li></ul>History, Culture and institutions
  18. 18. <ul><li>Historical understanding provides tools for understanding change over time </li></ul><ul><li>in: structures </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul><ul><li>this helps identify function in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Lucien Febvre (1922) </li></ul><ul><li>human societies develop in relation to environments </li></ul><ul><li>Fernand Braudel (1947) </li></ul><ul><li>time changes at three levels: </li></ul><ul><li>event, conjuncture, long-term </li></ul>Understanding change over time
  19. 19. Observed environments change according to Braudel’s construct: i.e. global warming : long term patterns (40,000 year glacial cycles) conjunctural patterns – last 150 years = +.5°C event patterns – last 3 years – polar ice melting Agricultural societies changes dramatically with environmental cycles at all three rates. What about industrial societies? What about service sector societies? Understanding change over time
  20. 20. Understanding change over time
  21. 21. <ul><li>Industrialisation </li></ul><ul><li>has increased the rate of change in human societies </li></ul><ul><li>It has increased rates of production and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>It has permitted increased rates of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>It has increased rates of capital and information circulation </li></ul><ul><li>It It has changed fundamental aspects of culture </li></ul><ul><li>HOW? </li></ul>Understanding change over time
  22. 22. <ul><li>The adoption of industrial processes decreased our the perception of uncertainty in society 1840 – 1940. (telegraph to WWII) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialisation increased our expectations of predictability – scientific laws about society </li></ul><ul><li>1° in economics: Kondratieff and Keynes </li></ul><ul><li>(long-term economic cycles and the “General Theory”) </li></ul><ul><li>This is structured knowledge, learning, and culture </li></ul><ul><li>The base of our economic culture today is still the industrial-oriented knowledge of the 1930’s </li></ul>Understanding change over time
  23. 23. <ul><li>Industrialisation has allowed many societies to move wealth generation to the service sector – </li></ul><ul><li>creating enormous value added in IT and information industries. </li></ul><ul><li>We have a culture of predictability but access to massive volumes of information. </li></ul><ul><li>We no longer suffer the problem of lack of message. </li></ul>Understanding change over time
  24. 24. For example: Naomi Klein claims that branding is not only marketing – its production. This reflects Bourdieu: interaction between belief, learning, production This interaction requires time (interpretation, memory, application) Understanding this interaction requires analysis of contextual change over time Change, culture and historical process
  25. 25. <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas North suggests that institutions develop to minimise uncertainty in human and human/environmental interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>So institutions are inherently slow to change. </li></ul><ul><li>This places a social brake on learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Our culture learns institutionally (that’s why you’re here). </li></ul><ul><li>But people do not always behave institutionally, and different societies learn and behave differently, leading to different interpretation and different significance (values) </li></ul>Change, culture and historical process
  26. 26. <ul><li>In a structural sense, not all economic regions and systems have the same capabilities for performance . </li></ul><ul><li>Not all economic regions and syst ems have the same culture of performance </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. Italy and the US or Italy and Ir aq </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are there differences? </li></ul>Change, culture and hi storical process Not all societies, not all areas of society, and not all institutions can shorten the time-frame of communications, production, distribution. Economic sectors: agriculture, industry, services
  27. 27. Today, differences in regional economic performance are considered in relation to the “path to industrialisation” taken by any state or region. This is called “ path dependence ”. Path dependence theory introduces “dynamic” analysis” of society. As a theory, it began as a way of explaining different “ paths ” to industrialisation. The problem is: relatively static institutions are self-renewing, creating an “ institutional culture ” that puts itself at the centre of socialisation and behaviour. Change, culture and historical process
  28. 28. <ul><li>Path dependence theory (Paul David, 2002 for an overview) DOES add dynamic analysis to economic understanding, </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>uses our concept of industrialised and/or post- industrialised society as its “ measure ” of the path. </li></ul><ul><li>Our major economic institutions, the World Economic Forum, the IMF, the World Bank, the World Trade Organisation, etc. have globalised a western standard with the support of Nation-States. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. our concept of money, our financial structures, our culture of written contracts, our cultural expectations of propriety, negotiation, democracy, time (such as the quarterly report). </li></ul>Change, culture and historical process
  29. 29. <ul><li>Like the experiment of the European Union , each member of a global economy participates in that economy according to its own development – which may or may not have previously included interaction with western Europe or North America (most have) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and informal institutions are not immediately comparable </li></ul><ul><li>Even within European cultures . </li></ul><ul><li>The European model is not the first, nor the only model of world systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Western societies must understand their role in global interaction. Western institutions must update their learning regarding this – partially by better understanding our peripheral past. </li></ul>Change, culture and historical process
  30. 30. Historical knowledge is the best approach we have for understanding differences between communities and societies – essential in globalised contexts. Oh yeah, why are you here?
  31. 31. What is the role of culture in the economy? Value: The establishment of value is abstract, fluxuating, and dependent on the cultural feedback loop. It combines primary necessity with utility (abstract) Today, we use money to establish value. Luca Fantacci – money is: a means of exchange a measure of value a reserve of value All dependent on the cultural feedback loop.
  32. 32. What is the role of culture in society? TIME: a dependent variable The concept of time measures the rate of change. It is a tool. Tools are objects invented by man to interact with the internal and external environment. i.e. Memory/activity requires time production, distribution, consumption require time The approach to time is fundamental in social interaction It is fundamental to understanding historical change
  33. 33. How does the culture of time affect in the economy? “ Time is money” – an American concept This is not true in real terms, but the metaphor guides American business practices. Can American concepts of time, expressed and learned in their business practices, be applied in other parts of the world – such as Italy ? Why? Why not? How? Why is this an important question for Italians ?
  34. 34. Abu-Lughud’s 13° Century World System
  35. 35. Italy – physical geography <ul><li>Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Appennines </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrhennian Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Adraitic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Ionian Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Genoa </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Taranto </li></ul><ul><li>Po Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Apulian Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Po River </li></ul><ul><li>Tiber River </li></ul><ul><li>Adige River </li></ul>
  36. 36. Italy: Regions - The North <ul><li>Piedmont </li></ul><ul><li>Lombardy </li></ul><ul><li>Liguria </li></ul><ul><li>Trentino </li></ul><ul><li>Veneto </li></ul><ul><li>Friuli </li></ul><ul><li>Parma and Modena </li></ul><ul><li>Emilia-Romagna </li></ul><ul><li>Cities : </li></ul><ul><li>Turin, Milan, Genoa, </li></ul><ul><li>Trent, Parma, Modena, </li></ul><ul><li>Verona, Bologna, Venice, </li></ul><ul><li>Udine, Trieste, Rimini </li></ul>
  37. 37. Italy: Regions - The Centre <ul><li>Tuscany </li></ul><ul><li>The Marches </li></ul><ul><li>Umbria </li></ul><ul><li>Lazio </li></ul><ul><li>Cities: </li></ul><ul><li>Bologna, Rimini, </li></ul><ul><li>Florence, Pisa, Livorno, </li></ul><ul><li>Siena, Pesaro, Ancona, </li></ul><ul><li>Fabriano, Perugia, Foligno, </li></ul><ul><li>Macerata, Ascoli, Assisi, Terni, </li></ul><ul><li>Viterbo, Rome, Latina, Aprilia </li></ul>
  38. 38. Italy: Regions – The South <ul><li>Abruzzo </li></ul><ul><li>Campania </li></ul><ul><li>Molise </li></ul><ul><li>Puglia </li></ul><ul><li>Basilicata </li></ul><ul><li>Calabria </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Sardinia </li></ul><ul><li>Cities: </li></ul><ul><li>Naples, Benevento, </li></ul><ul><li>Campobasso, Pescara, Bari, </li></ul><ul><li>Taranto, Lecce, Potenza, </li></ul><ul><li>Matera, Cosenza, Catanzaro, </li></ul><ul><li>Reggio Calabria, Messina, </li></ul><ul><li>Catania, Palermo, Trapani, </li></ul><ul><li>Syracuse, Cagliari, Sassari </li></ul>
  39. 41. Soil Characteristics in Italy
  40. 43. U.S. Bureau of the Census
  41. 45. Grain Harvest in the Marches (1940’s)
  42. 46. Threshing Grain (1940’s)
  43. 47. Water Powered Flour Mill
  44. 48. Baking Equipment (1950’s)
  45. 49. The Cattle Market (1939)
  46. 50. A Land-owner on His Horse
  47. 51. Women’s Work?
  48. 52. Men’s Work? (transhumance )
  49. 53. Field Accomodations for Migrant Labourers in Northern Lazio
  50. 54. Pressing Wine
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