Production oriented philosophy (dominant when new technologies/processes are first introduced)
Product oriented philosophy (Dominant where technology inherent in the product creates specific product differentiation based on the characteristics of the product)
Sales oriented philosophy (Dominant when supply exceeds demand, i.e. Italy in the 1950’s)
The Object and Evolution of Marketing Studies These three management orientations all hold that management and product choice must be based on internal factors – what the company WANTS to do and what the company KNOWS HOW to do. They all favour production and R&D. The marketing concept begins with an analysis of what the company CAN do (given careful market analysis) and what the company MUST do (given market externalities) in order to decide the best strategy for taking advantage of the distinct abilities of the company with respect to the relationship of its business culture and the expectations of the stakeholders .