0
Italy and Fascism Prof. Peter Cullen University of Urbino Winter 2010
European Infrastructure and Demography 1870
Italy at Unification,  1861-1870
Alpine Passes opened after unification
Consumption per Area in 1885 (gr/day) <ul><li>North Centre South </li></ul><ul><li>Bread 656 760 1029 </li></ul><ul><li>Pa...
Urban  Consumer Culture  in 1900: Salt and Tabacco Monopolies, The Bar
Italy in WWI <ul><li>Entered in 1915 after pressure from UK and France </li></ul><ul><li>Motive – to capture or receive Tr...
The Italian Campaign – Fighting in the Alps <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li>...
The Italian Campaign in the North 1915 - 1917
The Italian Campaign at the End of the War - 1918
Imperial Interests in North Africa - WWI
Fascism <ul><li>1921, Bourgeois socialist movement </li></ul><ul><li>without ties to industry or agriculture </li></ul><ul...
Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>Monetary policy is orthodox – based on gold standard and tending to increase liq...
Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>...and the 1929 Stock Market Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Hits gold standard economie...
Wages in the Fascist Period <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>WAGES  (index 1913 = 100 at constant prices) </li></ul><ul><li>tot...
Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Fascism had significant support in the UK and the US as a way of bringing order to fra...
Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Mussolini held UK in high regard, initially. Churchill called him “the greatest legisl...
Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>1932 – Mussolini assumes personal control over the Ministry of Forei...
Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>5/10/1935 – Italian troops enter Ethiopia – upsetting African coloni...
Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>1936 – Mussolini cedes the Foreign Ministry to Galeazzo C...
Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>German ministers  court  Italy in 1937-38 </li></ul><ul><...
Italy in the Mediterranean: WWII <ul><li>09/1939 – Ciano forwards to Hitler logistical reasons Italy cannot enter the war ...
Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion   <ul><li>July 9 1943 –US 7° army and British 8° army invade Sicily </li></ul><ul><li...
Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion   <ul><li>24-25 July, ’43 – The General Council (with Grandi and Ciano) voted to limi...
Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion   <ul><li>Badoglio and General Secretary Prunas of the Southern Kingdom look to Stali...
Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition   <ul><li>Hitler’s paratroopers broke Mussolini out of prison (Sept 12 ’43). </li>...
Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition   <ul><li>The southern kingdom was an arena pulled in three different directions: ...
The Geography of the Allied Advance in WWII
The Gothic Line 1944
Italy in the Mediterranean: Government   <ul><li>Nazi Germany falls in May 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, the allies as...
ERP <ul><li>Developed  by Sec. of State </li></ul><ul><li>George Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Active July 1947 – July 1951 <...
Bye from Urbino!!!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Italy And Fascism

2,552

Published on

overview of factors influencing the role of Fascism in Italy in the 20th century

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,552
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
227
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Italy And Fascism"

  1. 1. Italy and Fascism Prof. Peter Cullen University of Urbino Winter 2010
  2. 2. European Infrastructure and Demography 1870
  3. 3. Italy at Unification, 1861-1870
  4. 4. Alpine Passes opened after unification
  5. 5. Consumption per Area in 1885 (gr/day) <ul><li>North Centre South </li></ul><ul><li>Bread 656 760 1029 </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta 5.8 18.4 29.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Flour 21.8 18.6 - </li></ul><ul><li>Rice 19.7 4.6 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh Meat 11.1 10.7 7.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Salted Meat 2.4 2.3 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese 3.0 5.0 4.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Milk (Lt) 0.1 0.03 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables 22.7 18.3 35.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Wine (Lt) 0.44 0.74 0.81 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Urban Consumer Culture in 1900: Salt and Tabacco Monopolies, The Bar
  7. 7. Italy in WWI <ul><li>Entered in 1915 after pressure from UK and France </li></ul><ul><li>Motive – to capture or receive Trento, Trieste, and Istria, Dalmatia, and some territories in Turkey (promised by UK and France) </li></ul><ul><li>They fought against the Austro-Hungarians in the Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>600,000 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war economic collapse with high inflation and unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Italy only received Trento, Trieste, and Istria – considered a “mutilated victory” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Italian Campaign – Fighting in the Alps <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Permanent winter war </li></ul><ul><li>Little movement – intense </li></ul><ul><li>labour </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Italian Campaign in the North 1915 - 1917
  10. 10. The Italian Campaign at the End of the War - 1918
  11. 11. Imperial Interests in North Africa - WWI
  12. 12. Fascism <ul><li>1921, Bourgeois socialist movement </li></ul><ul><li>without ties to industry or agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>prone to violent conflict with radical socialists </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – Mussolini’s attempt to make </li></ul><ul><li>a pact with the socialists fails (internally) </li></ul><ul><li>The March on Rome 26-30/10/1922 – Fascists under Mussolini take control </li></ul><ul><li>prompted by weak central government under Luigi Facta and a general strike called by the socialists – Mussolini seizes the moment for Fascist squads to break the strike </li></ul><ul><li>Vittorio Emmanuele “invites” the Fascists to Rome by refusing to sign a decree supressing their “march” by force </li></ul><ul><li>(this receives support from England and the US as an anti-communist solution. The New York Times called Mussolini “Garibaldi in a Black Shirt”) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>Monetary policy is orthodox – based on gold standard and tending to increase liquidity = creates inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal policy 1° emphasises balanced budget then increases public spending as central authority increases </li></ul><ul><li>The Fascist govt. Must repay war debt to US and UK and reached a repayment accord in 1925 of nominal favour but relative severity (until which no FDI) </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1926 – the Lira tanks but Mussolini is able to scale back prices and wages – without great difficulty. Benefits of dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>1927-28 = relative currency stability but industry is fragmented and artisanal: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>...and the 1929 Stock Market Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Hits gold standard economies hard </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini – like the US etc. Manages to save the economy through public spending (war in Ethiopia) and economic development projects </li></ul><ul><li>More money printed = inflation = 10/1936 Italy abandons the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>Price and wage discipline keeps the economy afloat internally </li></ul><ul><li>WWII allows massive public spending (also on industrial goods) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wages in the Fascist Period <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>WAGES (index 1913 = 100 at constant prices) </li></ul><ul><li>total private </li></ul><ul><li>consumption IV cat . XII cat. </li></ul><ul><li>per capita day labour factories rail state emp. state emp. </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>1923 115 129 133 145 67 94 </li></ul><ul><li>1925 116 113 126 135 75 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1927 118 123 125 140 75 78 </li></ul><ul><li>1929 122 130 110 155 85 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1931 114 132 110 162 109 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1934 115 135 119 160 114 106 </li></ul><ul><li>1936 112 125 105 158 103 99 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 120 120 106 153 100 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1941 111 nd nd nd 86 95 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Fascism had significant support in the UK and the US as a way of bringing order to fragmented post-WWI Italian politics and economy </li></ul><ul><li>(until 1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wanted Germany to guarantee Italian border with Austria and signed the Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) of non-agression in Europe – hinted at war with France over borders as long as Austria remained a buffer with Germany </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Mussolini held UK in high regard, initially. Churchill called him “the greatest legislator alive” after a visit in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy’s foreign policy was to be “the weight that tips the balance” (Foreign Minister Grandi – 1931) </li></ul><ul><li>1935 war with Ethiopia was a way to leave the “gold block” and excercise direct govt. control over trade through ministerial licences </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>1932 – Mussolini assumes personal control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – he pushes for a “Pact of Four” between UK, France, Italy and Germany – taking for granted Grandi’s “weight that tips...” policy without having the real economic or military weight needed. Only UK signs </li></ul><ul><li>1934 – after a Nazi coup attempt in Vienna – Mussolini mobilised 4 divisions on the north-east border to thwart German expansion </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>5/10/1935 – Italian troops enter Ethiopia – upsetting African colonial powers. UK sends the fleet and Mussolini sends 3 divisions to the border with Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatically resolved – Italy is allowed use of the Suez – but economic sanctions are imposed by the League of Nations on exports and oil/weapons imports </li></ul><ul><li>1936 – Mussolini sends 60,000 troops to Spain to support Franco </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>1936 – Mussolini cedes the Foreign Ministry to Galeazzo Ciano </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Civil War is a meeting point for Hitler and Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>24° Oct. 1936 – Ciano and his counterpart Neurath form the Rome-Berlin axis to counter bolshevism – inviting all European countries to participate – this indicates a return to German influence in the East </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – Anschluss with Austria must be accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler guarantees Italian influence in the Med. </li></ul><ul><li> to cover the southern theatre in case of war with </li></ul><ul><li>UK and France </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>German ministers court Italy in 1937-38 </li></ul><ul><li>1937 status quo in Med = Gentlemen’s agreement </li></ul><ul><li>with the UK </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1938 Munich meeting – Hitler states his confidence that Italy will stay by Germany in any eventuality – Mussolini attempts neutrality on Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>22/05/1939 – Italy and Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sign the Pact of Steel , binding military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alliance – Vittorio Emanuele III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is not consulted </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Italy in the Mediterranean: WWII <ul><li>09/1939 – Ciano forwards to Hitler logistical reasons Italy cannot enter the war </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean secures logistics for land war in the surrounding theatres. Italy’s primary objective was to resolve border disputes with France </li></ul><ul><li>1940 – Italy enters the war on June 10 1940 – sending troops to France </li></ul><ul><li>(guaranteeing a place at peace talks and assuaging German reprisal for non-intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>June 11 Italy lays naval siege to the port of Malta (under British Control) this was a naval and air battle </li></ul><ul><li>To support the Italian Air effort, and German advance in North Africa – the Luftwaffe sent a bomber wing to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>UK reinforces by aircraft carrier and by 1942 defended the island with modern Spitfire aircraft – Gibraltar and Suez are in British hands </li></ul><ul><li>Malta later offered air cover for shipping and the amphibious invasion of Sicily </li></ul>
  23. 23. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>July 9 1943 –US 7° army and British 8° army invade Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Idea was to take Sicily for strategic bombing and pressure Mussolini’s hold on the country. VE III had been alienated (also self alienated) from the war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily would act as a staging ground for land invasion of the peninsula – but this was planned only after the invasion of Sicily. (9/9/1943 – Salerno; 22/01/1944 – Anzio). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>24-25 July, ’43 – The General Council (with Grandi and Ciano) voted to limit Mussolini’s power. </li></ul><ul><li>25/07 Vittorio Emanuele nominated Pietro Badoglio as President of the Council – VE takes command of the Army and has the Carabinieri arrest Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>8/09/1943 – Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies AFTER VE had promised Hitler that Italy would not abandon the Axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler turns his troops against the Italian army and occupies the peninsula as far south as Naples. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>Badoglio and General Secretary Prunas of the Southern Kingdom look to Stalin for recognition of legitimacy as a national government – ’43 and ’44. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the British VIII army, however, that actually occupied the territory on the Adriatic side of the peninsula and guaranteed the removal of the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1943 </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-American forces, in the process of forming a joint staff in preparation for the invasion of France, forced the Southern Kingdom into a harsh armistice, without granting them the position of ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Badoglio attempts to declare war against Germany, but the declaration is “returned to sender”. </li></ul><ul><li>The southern kingdom is treated as a pacified enemy. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>Hitler’s paratroopers broke Mussolini out of prison (Sept 12 ’43). </li></ul><ul><li>– Stalin offered support to Italian communist partisans and opened formal diplomatic relations (14/03/1944) with Prunas in order to return former PCI secretary Palmiro Togliatti – </li></ul><ul><li>but in an interview with Togliatti, Stalin forbids “revolution” so as not to upset his allies – </li></ul><ul><li>rather, he supports “ a long slow march towards the </li></ul><ul><li>institutions”. </li></ul><ul><li>This has lasting effect on the way communism would be supported in this country. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>The southern kingdom was an arena pulled in three different directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Toward Russian interests through Prunas and Togliatti </li></ul><ul><li>Toward British interests through Badoglio (Churchill’s Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward American interests through formal diplomatic recognition of relations on 26/10/1944 (Gothic line had fallen) – Germans in orderly retreat to the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism Monarchy Free-market Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>ITALY </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Geography of the Allied Advance in WWII
  29. 29. The Gothic Line 1944
  30. 30. Italy in the Mediterranean: Government <ul><li>Nazi Germany falls in May 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, the allies ask the partisans to come out of hiding and enter talks about reconstructing the country and the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation rather than exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Three parties are formed: </li></ul><ul><li>PCI – international communism </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists – a “third path” between communism and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian Democrats – international catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>All anti-fascist – embarked on a programme of “de-nationalisation” (in the fascist sense) of the country. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ERP <ul><li>Developed by Sec. of State </li></ul><ul><li>George Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Active July 1947 – July 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>13 billion USD in economic and </li></ul><ul><li>technical assitance to countries </li></ul><ul><li>joining the EECo-op group </li></ul><ul><li>Offered to Soviets – rejected </li></ul><ul><li>as Dollar Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Joint Chiefs of Staff to contain communism </li></ul>
  32. 32. Bye from Urbino!!!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×