Italy And Fascism


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overview of factors influencing the role of Fascism in Italy in the 20th century

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Italy And Fascism

  1. 1. Italy and Fascism Prof. Peter Cullen University of Urbino Winter 2010
  2. 2. European Infrastructure and Demography 1870
  3. 3. Italy at Unification, 1861-1870
  4. 4. Alpine Passes opened after unification
  5. 5. Consumption per Area in 1885 (gr/day) <ul><li>North Centre South </li></ul><ul><li>Bread 656 760 1029 </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta 5.8 18.4 29.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Flour 21.8 18.6 - </li></ul><ul><li>Rice 19.7 4.6 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh Meat 11.1 10.7 7.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Salted Meat 2.4 2.3 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese 3.0 5.0 4.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Milk (Lt) 0.1 0.03 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables 22.7 18.3 35.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Wine (Lt) 0.44 0.74 0.81 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Urban Consumer Culture in 1900: Salt and Tabacco Monopolies, The Bar
  7. 7. Italy in WWI <ul><li>Entered in 1915 after pressure from UK and France </li></ul><ul><li>Motive – to capture or receive Trento, Trieste, and Istria, Dalmatia, and some territories in Turkey (promised by UK and France) </li></ul><ul><li>They fought against the Austro-Hungarians in the Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>600,000 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war economic collapse with high inflation and unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Italy only received Trento, Trieste, and Istria – considered a “mutilated victory” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Italian Campaign – Fighting in the Alps <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Permanent winter war </li></ul><ul><li>Little movement – intense </li></ul><ul><li>labour </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Italian Campaign in the North 1915 - 1917
  10. 10. The Italian Campaign at the End of the War - 1918
  11. 11. Imperial Interests in North Africa - WWI
  12. 12. Fascism <ul><li>1921, Bourgeois socialist movement </li></ul><ul><li>without ties to industry or agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>prone to violent conflict with radical socialists </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – Mussolini’s attempt to make </li></ul><ul><li>a pact with the socialists fails (internally) </li></ul><ul><li>The March on Rome 26-30/10/1922 – Fascists under Mussolini take control </li></ul><ul><li>prompted by weak central government under Luigi Facta and a general strike called by the socialists – Mussolini seizes the moment for Fascist squads to break the strike </li></ul><ul><li>Vittorio Emmanuele “invites” the Fascists to Rome by refusing to sign a decree supressing their “march” by force </li></ul><ul><li>(this receives support from England and the US as an anti-communist solution. The New York Times called Mussolini “Garibaldi in a Black Shirt”) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>Monetary policy is orthodox – based on gold standard and tending to increase liquidity = creates inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal policy 1° emphasises balanced budget then increases public spending as central authority increases </li></ul><ul><li>The Fascist govt. Must repay war debt to US and UK and reached a repayment accord in 1925 of nominal favour but relative severity (until which no FDI) </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1926 – the Lira tanks but Mussolini is able to scale back prices and wages – without great difficulty. Benefits of dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>1927-28 = relative currency stability but industry is fragmented and artisanal: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>...and the 1929 Stock Market Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Hits gold standard economies hard </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini – like the US etc. Manages to save the economy through public spending (war in Ethiopia) and economic development projects </li></ul><ul><li>More money printed = inflation = 10/1936 Italy abandons the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>Price and wage discipline keeps the economy afloat internally </li></ul><ul><li>WWII allows massive public spending (also on industrial goods) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wages in the Fascist Period <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>WAGES (index 1913 = 100 at constant prices) </li></ul><ul><li>total private </li></ul><ul><li>consumption IV cat . XII cat. </li></ul><ul><li>per capita day labour factories rail state emp. state emp. </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>1923 115 129 133 145 67 94 </li></ul><ul><li>1925 116 113 126 135 75 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1927 118 123 125 140 75 78 </li></ul><ul><li>1929 122 130 110 155 85 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1931 114 132 110 162 109 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1934 115 135 119 160 114 106 </li></ul><ul><li>1936 112 125 105 158 103 99 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 120 120 106 153 100 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1941 111 nd nd nd 86 95 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Fascism had significant support in the UK and the US as a way of bringing order to fragmented post-WWI Italian politics and economy </li></ul><ul><li>(until 1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wanted Germany to guarantee Italian border with Austria and signed the Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) of non-agression in Europe – hinted at war with France over borders as long as Austria remained a buffer with Germany </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Mussolini held UK in high regard, initially. Churchill called him “the greatest legislator alive” after a visit in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy’s foreign policy was to be “the weight that tips the balance” (Foreign Minister Grandi – 1931) </li></ul><ul><li>1935 war with Ethiopia was a way to leave the “gold block” and excercise direct govt. control over trade through ministerial licences </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>1932 – Mussolini assumes personal control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – he pushes for a “Pact of Four” between UK, France, Italy and Germany – taking for granted Grandi’s “weight that tips...” policy without having the real economic or military weight needed. Only UK signs </li></ul><ul><li>1934 – after a Nazi coup attempt in Vienna – Mussolini mobilised 4 divisions on the north-east border to thwart German expansion </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>5/10/1935 – Italian troops enter Ethiopia – upsetting African colonial powers. UK sends the fleet and Mussolini sends 3 divisions to the border with Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatically resolved – Italy is allowed use of the Suez – but economic sanctions are imposed by the League of Nations on exports and oil/weapons imports </li></ul><ul><li>1936 – Mussolini sends 60,000 troops to Spain to support Franco </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>1936 – Mussolini cedes the Foreign Ministry to Galeazzo Ciano </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Civil War is a meeting point for Hitler and Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>24° Oct. 1936 – Ciano and his counterpart Neurath form the Rome-Berlin axis to counter bolshevism – inviting all European countries to participate – this indicates a return to German influence in the East </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – Anschluss with Austria must be accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler guarantees Italian influence in the Med. </li></ul><ul><li> to cover the southern theatre in case of war with </li></ul><ul><li>UK and France </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>German ministers court Italy in 1937-38 </li></ul><ul><li>1937 status quo in Med = Gentlemen’s agreement </li></ul><ul><li>with the UK </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1938 Munich meeting – Hitler states his confidence that Italy will stay by Germany in any eventuality – Mussolini attempts neutrality on Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>22/05/1939 – Italy and Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sign the Pact of Steel , binding military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alliance – Vittorio Emanuele III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is not consulted </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Italy in the Mediterranean: WWII <ul><li>09/1939 – Ciano forwards to Hitler logistical reasons Italy cannot enter the war </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean secures logistics for land war in the surrounding theatres. Italy’s primary objective was to resolve border disputes with France </li></ul><ul><li>1940 – Italy enters the war on June 10 1940 – sending troops to France </li></ul><ul><li>(guaranteeing a place at peace talks and assuaging German reprisal for non-intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>June 11 Italy lays naval siege to the port of Malta (under British Control) this was a naval and air battle </li></ul><ul><li>To support the Italian Air effort, and German advance in North Africa – the Luftwaffe sent a bomber wing to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>UK reinforces by aircraft carrier and by 1942 defended the island with modern Spitfire aircraft – Gibraltar and Suez are in British hands </li></ul><ul><li>Malta later offered air cover for shipping and the amphibious invasion of Sicily </li></ul>
  23. 23. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>July 9 1943 –US 7° army and British 8° army invade Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Idea was to take Sicily for strategic bombing and pressure Mussolini’s hold on the country. VE III had been alienated (also self alienated) from the war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily would act as a staging ground for land invasion of the peninsula – but this was planned only after the invasion of Sicily. (9/9/1943 – Salerno; 22/01/1944 – Anzio). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>24-25 July, ’43 – The General Council (with Grandi and Ciano) voted to limit Mussolini’s power. </li></ul><ul><li>25/07 Vittorio Emanuele nominated Pietro Badoglio as President of the Council – VE takes command of the Army and has the Carabinieri arrest Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>8/09/1943 – Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies AFTER VE had promised Hitler that Italy would not abandon the Axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler turns his troops against the Italian army and occupies the peninsula as far south as Naples. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>Badoglio and General Secretary Prunas of the Southern Kingdom look to Stalin for recognition of legitimacy as a national government – ’43 and ’44. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the British VIII army, however, that actually occupied the territory on the Adriatic side of the peninsula and guaranteed the removal of the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1943 </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-American forces, in the process of forming a joint staff in preparation for the invasion of France, forced the Southern Kingdom into a harsh armistice, without granting them the position of ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Badoglio attempts to declare war against Germany, but the declaration is “returned to sender”. </li></ul><ul><li>The southern kingdom is treated as a pacified enemy. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>Hitler’s paratroopers broke Mussolini out of prison (Sept 12 ’43). </li></ul><ul><li>– Stalin offered support to Italian communist partisans and opened formal diplomatic relations (14/03/1944) with Prunas in order to return former PCI secretary Palmiro Togliatti – </li></ul><ul><li>but in an interview with Togliatti, Stalin forbids “revolution” so as not to upset his allies – </li></ul><ul><li>rather, he supports “ a long slow march towards the </li></ul><ul><li>institutions”. </li></ul><ul><li>This has lasting effect on the way communism would be supported in this country. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>The southern kingdom was an arena pulled in three different directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Toward Russian interests through Prunas and Togliatti </li></ul><ul><li>Toward British interests through Badoglio (Churchill’s Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward American interests through formal diplomatic recognition of relations on 26/10/1944 (Gothic line had fallen) – Germans in orderly retreat to the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism Monarchy Free-market Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>ITALY </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Geography of the Allied Advance in WWII
  29. 29. The Gothic Line 1944
  30. 30. Italy in the Mediterranean: Government <ul><li>Nazi Germany falls in May 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, the allies ask the partisans to come out of hiding and enter talks about reconstructing the country and the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation rather than exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Three parties are formed: </li></ul><ul><li>PCI – international communism </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists – a “third path” between communism and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian Democrats – international catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>All anti-fascist – embarked on a programme of “de-nationalisation” (in the fascist sense) of the country. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ERP <ul><li>Developed by Sec. of State </li></ul><ul><li>George Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Active July 1947 – July 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>13 billion USD in economic and </li></ul><ul><li>technical assitance to countries </li></ul><ul><li>joining the EECo-op group </li></ul><ul><li>Offered to Soviets – rejected </li></ul><ul><li>as Dollar Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Joint Chiefs of Staff to contain communism </li></ul>
  32. 32. Bye from Urbino!!!