Contemporary History


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Contemporary History

  1. 1. CL4 English Language and Culture for Business Module IV B1 Contemporary Italian History Dr. Peter Cullen
  2. 2. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology What is history? The study of the past Contextualisation of social structures, systems and events Access to cultural understanding An internalisation of the concept of time
  3. 3. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Why do we want to know about history? curiosity explanation about the present prediction about the future Common perceptions: a) history repeats itself b) we can learn from history to avoid making mistakes made in the past WRONG!!!
  4. 4. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Historical knowledge must respect historical contexts. Historical knowledge is also culturally informed. CONTEXT AND CULTURAL VALUE CHANGE OVER TIME (Remember Bourdieu!!!) So, historical knowledge CAN help us understand periods in the past and understand context and situations in the present, but CANNOT obviate mistakes or predict the future. How CAN we trust what we learn about history?
  5. 5. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology What is historical thought? David Hacket-Fischer, Historian’s Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought (New York, Harper & Row, 1970) “History is a problem-solving discipline. A historian is someone (anyone) who asks an open-ended question about past events and answers it with selected facts which are arranged in the form of an explanatory paradigm”. (p. xv)
  6. 6. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology How do we know about historical “facts”? It depends on the questions we ask, where we look to answer those questions and the logical criteria we apply to the information we find to create an explanation. What questions can we ask? This depends on what we want/need to know and the CATEGORIES we apply to our questions. Categories of inquiry are based on culturally informed concepts of time, place, and significance.
  7. 7. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology For example: North American students learn about: 1) Mesopotamia 2) Ancient Egypt 3) Ancient Greece 4) The Roman Empire 5) Medieval England, Germany, France and Crusades 6) Renaissance Italy De de De de of Enlightenment courts of 7) ve mo ve mo 8) The British and French Empires lo cr lo cr pm a pm ac 9) The French Revolution Industrialisation en y en y 10) WWI – USA, UK, Germany, France t t c 11) 12) WWII – USA, UK, Germany, Japan 13) A bit about pre WWII Soviet Russia and then the Cold War
  8. 8. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology What makes a good story? Authority of the story teller. Relevance of the story to the audience. Significance of the events of the story. Credibility of the story. History and its telling are no different.
  9. 9. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Teaching history fills a need in the knowledge market. Who identifies the need? Who do you trust for the information? a) the professional historian b) journalists and celebrities c) politicians d) mum, dad, granny and grandpa Who tells you the story you want to hear? Why do you trust them? common analytical framework personal relationships coercion and/or availability others?
  10. 10. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology How do you know which story you want to hear? 1) Depends on the person who tells it. 2) Depends your personal interest and imagination. 3) Depends on the utility of the story to your context. Is there an obbligation to provide the audience with the best possible story – therefore the best possible historical account? Social utility of history: understanding or manipulating, or something else? Relevant to what? Propaganda, current affairs, cultural understanding, family history, macro and micro economic history. History helps explain the way agents in society have behaved in the past.
  11. 11. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Relevance, significance and memory Relevance – utility to the audience Significance – importance of the story to any other given context Memory – mental record of events, contexts, historical situations that selects relevent and significant historical information. a) memory of historical information b) significance of memory of historical information Memory is part of any learning process. What information from the “contemporary” period is important to keep in memory?
  12. 12. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Whose memory? Individual memory Collective memory Public memory Private Memory Memory, as part of the learning process, is culturally informed. Culture is necessarily dynamic, so the “knowledge market” changes. i.e. – Today English is a global language because of business; in the 18° century, French was – because of politics; in the medieval period, Latin was, because of the Church.
  13. 13. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Do all generations have the same needs for memory? Can we identify the relevance of memory from generation to generation? i.e. What are the memories of post-war Italy? What are the memories of post-war Britain? What about the United States? Is there a change in the convergence of relevance and significance in Italian collective memory today? If so – why?
  14. 14. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Credibility – a mixture of logic and authority How can historical fact be manipulated? Inclusion, omission, moralising,imposition or cry to authority. How can historical fact be confirmed? Transparent demonstration of the logic applied to the inquiry and presentation of the facts. i.e. Robert Boyle (1627-1691) proposed that the pressure of a gas varies inversely to its volume at constant temperature – known as Boyle’s law. This became accepted as he became socially accepted in the Royal Academy in England. i.e.2 Galileo
  15. 15. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Where do we get information about the past? Sources: Primary – produced during the period studied Secondary – produced after the period studied but about the period studied Written documents Visual documents Architechture Geology and natural science Oral history
  16. 16. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Why is historical knowledge important for business? Concepts of time: short-term, medium-term, long-term were developed in western tradition in the field of economic history (Kondratieff, “The long waves of economic life”, 1935; Braudel, The Mediterranean... 1947) Economics (macro and micro) is a form of behaviour based on cultural learning – which has its own cycles, convergences, events and conjunctures over time. Historical knowledge helps contextualise and explain this in a way we can understand in the present.
  17. 17. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Why is this knowledge important for business? Businesses are social structures Business involves culturally informed behaviour Business involves change over time Business may involve international/intercultural exchange what else? History IS NOT predictive Historical knowledge informs our understanding of the present.
  18. 18. Memory and History: Perception and Methodology Memory and history: Who, What, Where, When, Why? How? and WATCH OUT!!! Being critical of the story you are hearing. Understand the author. Understand the events, situations and contexts presented. Understand the relevance and significance of the story to you, the audience (or consumer) and the author (or producer). Understand the presentation logic of the story. The business of culture has its own logic and cycles. !!!Think critically!!!
  19. 19. Abu-Lughud’s 13° Century World System
  20. 20. Soil Characteristics in Italy
  21. 21. Grain Harvest in the Marches (1940’s)
  22. 22. Threshing Grain (1940’s)
  23. 23. Water Powered Flour Mill
  24. 24. Baking Equipment (1950’s)
  25. 25. The Cattle Market (1939)
  26. 26. A Land-owner on His Horse
  27. 27. Womens’ Work?
  28. 28. Mens’ Work? (transhumance)
  29. 29. Field Accomodations for Migrant Labourers in Northern Lazio
  30. 30. Italy Compared to World Manufacturing Output
  31. 31. European Infrastructure and Demography 1870
  32. 32. Italy at Unification, 1866-1870
  33. 33. Colonial Empires 1850-1945
  34. 34. Urban Landscape in 1900: Salt and Tabacco Monopolies, The Bar
  35. 35. Italy in WWI Entered in 1915 after pressure from UK and France Motive – to capture or receive Trento, Trieste, and Istria, Dalmatia, and some territories in Turkey (promised by UK and France) They fought against the Austro-Hungarians in the Alps Consequences: 600,000 killed Post-war economic collapse with high inflation and unemployment Italy only received Trento, Trieste, and Istria – considered a “mutilated victory”
  36. 36. The Italian Campaign – Fighting in the Alps Altitude Temperature Terrain Semi-Permanent winter war Little movement – intense labour
  37. 37. The Italian Campaign in the North 1915 - 1917
  38. 38. The Italian Campaign at the End of the War - 1918
  39. 39. Imperial Interests in North Africa - WWI
  40. 40. Fascism 1921, Bourgeois socialist movement without ties to industry or agriculture prone to violent conflict with radical socialists 1921 – Mussolini’s attempt to make a pact with the socialists fails (internally) The March on Rome 26-30/10/1922 – Fascists under Mussolini take control prompted by weak central government under Luigi Facta and a general strike called by the socialists – Mussolini seizes the moment for Fascist squads to break the strike Vittorio Emmanuele “invites” the Fascists to Rome by refusing to sign a decree supressing their “march” by force (this receives support from England and the US as an anti- communist solution. The New York Times called Mussolini “Garibaldi in a Black Shirt”)
  41. 41. Facsism and the Economy 1922- 1943 Monetary policy is orthodox – based on gold standard and tending to increase liquidity = creates inflation Fiscal policy 1° emphasises balanced budget then increases public spending as central authority increases The Fascist govt. Must repay war debt to US and UK and reached a repayment accord in 1925 of nominal favour but relative severity (until which no FDI) April, 1926 – the Lira tanks but Mussolini is able to scale back prices and wages – without great difficulty. Benefits of dictatorship 1927-28 = relative currency stability but industry is fragmented and artisanal: and the 1929 Stock Market Crash Hits gold standard economies hard Mussolini – like the US etc. Manages to save the economy through public spending (war in Ethiopia) and economic development projects More money printed = inflation = 10/1936 Italy abandons the gold standard Price and wage discipline keeps the economy afloat internally WWII allows massive public spending (also on industrial goods)
  42. 42. Wages in the Fascist Period WAGES (index 1913 = 100 at constant prices) total private consumption IV cat . XII cat. cat. per capita day labour factories rail state emp. emp. state emp. ________________________________________________________________ 1923 115 129 133 145 67 94 1925 116 113 126 135 75 80 1927 118 123 125 140 75 78 1929 122 130 110 155 85 80 1931 114 132 110 162 109 95 1934 115 135 119 160 114 106 1936 112 125 105 158 103 99 1938 120 120 106 153 100 95 1941 111 nd nd nd 86 95
  43. 43. Fascism and Foreign Affairs Fascism had significant support in the UK and the US as a way of bringing order to fragmented post-WWI Italian politics and economy (until 1929) Mussolini wanted German guarantee of Italian border with Austria and signed the Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) of non- agression in Europe – hinted at war with France over borders as long as Austria remained a buffer with Germany Mussolini held UK in high regard, initially. Churchill called him “the greatest legislator alive” after a visit in 1927. Italy’s foreign policy was to be “the weight that tips the balance” (Foreign Minister Grandi – 1931) 1935 war with Ethiopia was a way to leave the “gold block” and excercise direct govt. control over trade through ministerial licences
  44. 44. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War 1932 – Mussolini assumes personal control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1933 – he pushes for a “Pact of Four” between UK, France, Italy and Germany – taking for granted Grandi’s “weight that tips...” policy without having the real economic or military weight needed. Only UK signs 1934 – after a Nazi coup attempt in Vienna – Mussolini mobilised 4 divisions on the north-east border to thwart German expansion 5/10/1935 – Italian troops enter Ethiopia – upsetting African colonial powers. UK sends the fleet and Mussolini sends 3 divisions to the border with Egypt. Diplomatically resolved – Italy is allowed use of the Suez – but economic sanctions are imposed by the League of Nations on exports and oil/weapons imports 1936 – Mussolini sends 60,000 troops to Spain to support Franco
  45. 45. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany 1936 – Mussolini cedes the Foreign Ministry to Galeazzo Ciano The Spanish Civil War is a meeting point for Hitler and Mussolini 24° Oct. 1936 – Ciano and his counterpart Neurath form the Rome- Berlin axis to counter bolshevism – inviting all European countries to participate – this indicates a return to German influence in the East 1938 – Anschluss with Austria must be accepted Hitler guarantees Italian influence in the Med. to cover the southern theatre in case of war with UK and France German ministers court Italy in 1937-38 1937 status quo in Med = Gentlemen’s agreement with the UK 29/09/1938 Munich meeting – Hitler states his confidence that Italy will stay by Germany in any eventuality – Mussolini attempts neutrality on Sudetenland 22/05/1939 – Italy and Germany sign the Pact of Steel, binding military alliance – Vittorio Emanuele III is not consulted
  46. 46. Italy in the Mediterranean: WWII 09/1939 – Ciano forwards to Hitler logistical reasons Italy cannot enter the war The Mediterranean secures logistics for land war in the surrounding theatres. Italy’s primary objective was to resolve border disputes with France 1940 – Italy enters the war on June 10 1940 – sending troops to France (guaranteeing a place at peace talks and assuaging German reprisal for non-intervention) June 11 Italy lays naval siege to the port of Malta (under British Control) this was a naval and air battle To support the Italian Air effort, and German advance in North Africa – the Luftwaffe sent a bomber wing to Sicily UK reinforces by aircraft carrier and by 1942 defended the island with modern Spitfire aircraft – Gibraltar and Suez are in British hands Malta later offered air cover for shipping and the amphibious invasion of Sicily
  47. 47. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion July 9 1943 –US 7° army and British 8° army invade Sicily Idea was to take Sicily for strategic bombing and pressure Mussolini’s hold on the country Sicily would act as a staging ground for land invasion of the peninsula – but this was planned only after the invasion of Sicily. (9/9/1943 – Salerno; 22/01/1944 – Anzio) 24-25 July, ’43 – The General Council (with Grandi and Ciano) vote to limit Mussolini’s power – 25/07 Vittorio Emanuele nominates Pietro Badoglio as President of the Council – VE takes command of the Army and has the Carabinieri arrest Mussolini – 8/09/1943 – Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies AFTER VE had promised Hitler that Italy would not abandon the Axis – Hitler turns his troops against the Italian army and occupies the peninsula as far south as Naples The Italian campaign was primarily fought between Germans and Allies, with Italy decending into civil war – Stalin offers support to Italian communist partisans but forbids “revolution” so as not to upset his allies – rather, he supports “ a long slow march towards the institutions”
  48. 48. The Geography of the Allied Advance in WWII
  49. 49. The Gothic Line 1944
  50. 50. The Bretton Woods Agreement July 1944. This was the first fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states. Obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained its currency exchange value at +- 1% of the value of gold. Fixes the US dollar as a reserve currency –”pegged” to gold. This is an adaptation of the pre-WWI gold standard Effectively tranfers global financial power to the US Set up the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (now part of the World Bank System) and the International Monetary Fund (operational after 1946) The IMF would cover temporary imbalances
  51. 51. Bretton Woods The system had its origins among people who thought that economic discrimination and trade warfare were primarily responsible for WWII i.e. The trade and exchange controls systems of Nazi Germany AND British Imperial preferential treatment in trade. This is probably true. Keynesian economics asserts the need for government intervention in the economy = putting a leash on the old economic oligarchies. This creates a system of exchangeable currencies that promotes free trade = with substantial positive results for the US economy, politics and belief system
  52. 52. Export Growth 1820-1992 Export Volume Index (1913 = 100) Territory 1820 1870 1913 1950 1992 UK 3 31 100 100 494 Germany 4 18 100 35 1071 France 4 31 100 149 2090 Italy 7 39 100 126 3853 Russia - - 100 97 612 USA 1 13 100 225 2350 Japan - 3 100 210 17,784 World 3 24 100 128 1602
  53. 53. Average Annual Growth 1820-1870 1870-1913 1913-1950 1950-1992 UK 4.6 2.7 0.0 3.8 Germany 3.0 3.8 -1.3 8.1 France 3.9 2.7 1.1 6.3 Italy 3.4 2.1 0.6 8.1 Russia - - -0.1 4.3 USA 5.1 4.7 2.2 5.6 Japan - 8.1 2.0 10.6 World 4.2 3.3 0.7 6.0
  54. 54. Price-Production Index 1440- 9000 1990 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 P-P index 3000 2000 1000 0 40 70 40 38 60 90 61 91 51 11 19 14 15 17 18 18 19 19 19 19
  55. 55. Per Capital Production 1440- 1990 300 250 200 150 Prod/Capita 255.83 100 50 71.11 35.31 47.63 9.76 11.2 15.59 0 8.62 6.92 9.09 0 0 0 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 1 44 157 174 186 189 191 193 195 196 199
  56. 56. Post-War Italy: Reconstruction The Referendum on the Republic (June 2 1946) total votes: pro-republic pro-monarchy 12,700,000 (54%) 10,700,000 (46%) Regional votes (%): Venice-tridentina Venice- 85 15 Cities and towns: R M Emilia 77 23 Turin 60 40 Umbria 71.9 28.1 Rome 46 54 Tuscany 71.6 28.4 Ravenna 91.2 8.8 Marche 70.1 29.9 Cesena 91.3 8.7 Liguria 69 31 Carrara 88.1 11.9 Lombardy 64.1 35.9 Livorno 80.5 19.5 D’ Val D’Aosta 63.5 36.5 Messina 14.6 85.4 Veneto 59.3 40.7 Palermo 15.8 84.2 Piedmont 57.1 42.9 Catania 18.2 81.4 Lazio 48.6 51.4 Naples 20.1 79.9 Abruzzi 43.1 56.9 Bari 25.2 56.2 Lucania 40.6 59.4 Calabria 39.7 60.3 Sardinia 39.1 60.9 Sicily 35.3 64.7 Apulia 32.7 67.3 Campania 23.5 76.5
  57. 57. ERP Developed by Sec. of State George Marshall Active July 1947 – July 1951 13 billion USD in economic and technical assitance to countries joining the EECo-op group Offered to Soviets – rejected as Dollar Imperialism Proposed by Joint Chiefs of Staff to contain communism
  58. 58. Agricultural Production 1861- 1950 production based on The South: Latifundia – agricultural large, extensive land ownership worked by day labourers and employees/bondsmen who owed loyalty to the landowner. Labourers lived in agro-towns. Clientage relationships dominate. Latifundia Reform 1882-1890 parcel out land to small holders/day labourers Pre-mechanical grain economy = low productivity high birth rates complemented by sheep seasonal productivity 1861-1907: labourer salaries reduced due to presence of grain threshers 1882-1890 reforms failed because large landowners were too influential in government: 1.5 million Sicilians emigrated to US, Canada, S. America between 1876 and 1925.
  59. 59. Agricultural Production 1861- 1950 The Centre and North: Largely seft-sufficient markets based on mixed cultivation produced in the mezzadria system – peasant family leases the podere from the landlord (1 year renewable) and pays rent in kind at a rate of 50% of harvests. Small-medium farms family operated 5-6 people per family Mixed agriculture = intense labour and high yield/hectare Centre and North have access to oxen = smaller units can work more land. North/South divide – in Southern Europe raising 1 ox requires +- 10-12 hectares. In northern Europe only 2-3 hectares needed.
  60. 60. Population of Italy 1771-1991 (x1000) 65000 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 pop.x100 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 77 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 195 196 197 198 199 200
  61. 61. The 1950 Land Reform 700,000 hectares taken from 2805 large landowners and assigned to 109,000 families (of small landholders and landless peasants) 1950-1975 = % drop in: Poderi 22.4 Quote 14.3 Lotti 25.6
  62. 62. Internal Migration: 1950-1970 = 15,000 inhabitants
  63. 63. Population Resident by Class of Demographic Concentration Demographic class (urban concentration in %) 1931 1936 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 < 20,000 64.3 63.0 58.7 53.0 47.6 46.6 47.4 20,000- 250,000 23.5 23.8 25.0 27.7 31.7 33.9 35.3 >250,000 12.2 13.2 16.3 19.3 20.7 19.5 17.3 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
  64. 64. Poor but Beautiful Sofia Loren teaches Italian working class women to be beautiful. Sofia Villani Scicolone (Rome: 1934) (“L’oro di Napoli” – 1954 by De Sica) little make-up authentic accessible =?
  65. 65. Expansion of Turin - Roman Period to 1971
  66. 66. The Economic Miracle 1950- 1975 Transportation revolution: the FIAT 500 allowed commuting in rural/provincial areas inexpensive reliable efficient Transportation revolution: the Piaggio Vespa individual transport An urban solution
  67. 67. Distribution of Labour 1961-1981
  68. 68. Population of Italy 1972
  69. 69. Regional Industrial Production 1972
  70. 70. Global Distribution of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises per 1000 People
  71. 71. World Transnational Parent Company Presence 1993-2005
  72. 72. Scale of Multinational Corporations a -1990 - 2005, b -Q3 2006 a b
  73. 73. The Convertability Crisis The period 1958-1968 put increasing strains on US balance of payments as Europe recovered and war in asia “heated up” By 1969 – the Cold War and the war in Vietnam created incredible financial pressure on the US 1971 – Richard Nixon took the US dollar off the Bretton Woods convertablity plan, pegging the US dollar to GDP growth. This is solidifies modern dynamics of politics based on energy policy.
  74. 74. 1968-2007 The From Industry to Services The “Anni di Piombo” – political parties must manage a politicised youth. Italy: the population, like in the UK, US, France and Germany – is young and becoming university educated. There is much tension between extreme right and extreme left groups. Economic growth is fast – prompting youth to push for faster social change Violence was used by both Left and Right wing groups – with corrupt government officials tending to support the Right
  75. 75. Extremism 1968-1987 1960’s the Italian Socialist Party is formally recognised in Parliament and immediately contrasts the traditional Democratic Christian Party (DC) Feb. 1968 – the Tet offensive spurs radical communism among youth translating into a vehement political need for improving the standards of factory workers in Europe and Italy. PCI influenced groups radicalise (mainly youth) and form splinter extra-parlimentary groups: Lotta Continua, Potere operaio, Avanguardia operaia – workers rights become the cause of the student generation By 1970 the istituzione delle regioni confer political power to new regional governments AUTUNNO CALDO – Fall 1969 “New Left” members occupy the FIAT factory in Milan
  76. 76. Extremism 1968-1987 December 1969 – 4 bombs struck the Altare della Patria and the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome, and the Banca Commerciale and Banca Nazionale dell’Agricola in Milan. The police arrested 4000 left wing extremists and party associates – causing hot protest among students One of the young people arrested – anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli “fell” out of a window while in prison and died. Lotta Continua accused police officer Luigi Calabresi of murdering him. Lotta Continua accused extreme right wing groups of the bombings and using support within the police forces to blame the Left – court procedings in the 1980’s proved them right. December 1970 – Junio Valerio Borghese ex Colonel of the X°MAS led (as a figurehead) a fascist coup plot – which was diffused at the beginning of 1971
  77. 77. Extremism 1968 - 1987 Summer 1971 – Richard Nixon suspends the “convertability” of the US $ into gold – removing the $ from the gold exchange standard. (managing US debt was a form of managing the balance of payments in most of the non-Soviet world) May 17, 1972 – Calabresi is assassinated in Milan – the Carabinieri attempt to blame Lotta Continua but in 1974 – two neo-fascist activists are indicted. This is the 1° political assassination of the 1970’s 1972 – Peteano – 3 Carabinieri killed in a bomb attack. Lotta Continua is blamed and some of its members are arrested. In the 1980s it was discovered that the bomb was made with military C-4 explosive, and neo-fascist Vincenzo Vinciguerra confessed. 1972 – 1974 sees a series of these right wing de- stabilising bombings.
  78. 78. Extremism 1968 - 1987 July 1974 – another attempt at Neo-Fascist coup Protagonist Count Edgardo Sogno wrote in his memoirs quot;the United States would have supported any initiative tending to keep the communists out of government.quot; The CIA and Italian secret service supported this. 1974-1976 Potere operaio, Lotta Continua, and the Brigate Rosse disband or split apart after the 1974 arrest of the Red Brigade leaders Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini. 1973 Enrico Berlinguer, secretary of the PCI pushed through the Compromesso Storico – partially uniting and pacifying differences between the PCI, the socialists, and the DC – and afferming the non-Soviet characteristics of the PCI (condemned the invasion of Czech in 68). The Centre-Left splintered by 76, allowing the PCI to take Italian politics further to the left.
  79. 79. Extremism 1968 - 1978 The governments of this time were not able to discipline the forces of order to combat either left or right wing terrorism. It is a period in which the Italian economy suffered the high prices of oil brought about by the political affermation of OPEC. Unemployment was high, particularly among young people. In 1975, the govt. introduced the scala mobile – or moving scale – to equate wages with the cost of living. 1977 – Autonomia operaia launches a series of bomb attacks and assassination attempts, primarily against PCI targets = Dissaffection with Labour Leadership!!!
  80. 80. Extremism 1968 - 1978 6 March, 1978 – president of the DC , Aldo Moro, was kidnapped by the Brigate Rosse and after 55 days, assassinated on May 9. 1978 – Inflation dropped to 13.6% - the lowest since 1974 – and the govt. attempted to rationalise the tax structure. Consensus govt. applying Keynesian economics. High degree of fiscal intervention. Italy joins the European Monetary System In industry – 1962-72 saw the beginning of privatisation of state industries – particularly in chemicals. 1962 – Enrico Mattei stipulates and accord between ENI and the “Seven Sisters” (the largest oil companies). He then dies. 1972 – Eni’s director Cefis becomes head of the Montedison company – afferming the importance of the managerial class while public companies were in the red
  81. 81. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  82. 82. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  83. 83. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  84. 84. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  85. 85. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  86. 86. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  87. 87. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  88. 88. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  89. 89. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  90. 90. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  91. 91. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  92. 92. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  93. 93. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  94. 94. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  95. 95. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change Italy’s “third path” creates some difficulties in adapting to climate change realities in terms of: The economy Politics Society
  96. 96. Global CO2 Increase 1950-1999 NOAA
  97. 97. Contributors to Global Warming 1900-1999 Europe adds 27.7% to overall global warming
  98. 98. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change The Economic Impact of Climate Change in Italy: Assumptions: Option 1 = no reaction: The Stern Report (2006) estimated this would cost 20% of global GDP Option 2 = diversified reaction: Stern stated that this should cost 1% of global GDP Fragmented data for Italy. Estimates for: weather impacts sea-level rise
  99. 99. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change Weather impacts of climate change in Italy: Sectors affected are: agriculture, forests, water, tourism and health Study compared projected impact in Sicily and Lombardy: Adaptive behaviour: The south: hot summers = more time at beach and pool The North: hot summers = less use of transport and private cars
  100. 100. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change Economic effects: Cost of mitigation vs. Benefits Dangers: increase average 328 forest fires per region coastal flooding drought tourisim agriculture
  101. 101. Intensive Crop Agriculture 1999
  102. 102. Per Capita Water Use (2000 – cubic metres/year)
  103. 103. The Ex-Granary of Urbino 2007
  104. 104. Urbino: Population Expansion to the Suburbs 1985-2007
  105. 105. Urbino: Problems of Industry in the Appennine Foothills
  106. 106. Urbino: Problems of Urban Infrastructure
  107. 107. Urbino: Mixed Suburban and Industrual Areas – The Valleys
  108. 108. Urbino: Problems of Urban Infrastructure – Walled Towns and Parking