TIPS FORINTERPRETING X-RAYS IN TRAUMAKENG SHENG CHEW, MD, MMED (Emerg Med)  Senior Lecturer/Emergency Medicine Physician,S...
CERVICAL SPINE• In patients with major trauma   – 5% have an unstable cervical spine   – 2/3rd of this 5 percent present w...
CERVICAL SPINE• Ensure visualization of ALL cervical  vertebrae as well as the atlanto-occipital and  C7-T1 articulations•...
INTERPRETING CERVICAL X-RAY•   Look at:              Mnemonic:•   A = Alignment          „ABCs‟•   B = Bones•   C = Cartil...
ALIGNMENT
CASE STUDY A 41-year-old man was brought to the ED following a motor vehicle collision in which he was an unrestrained dri...
HANGMAN FRACTURE              The usual site of fracture                 is because it is the               weakest part o...
THE „TRUE‟ HANGMAN FRACTURE VSASPHYXIATION DUE TO HANGING
HANGMAN FRACTURE
HANGMAN FRACTUREThe typical mechanism of injury causing hangman‘s fractures.Hyperextension and axial compression occur whe...
PSEUDOSUBLUXATION                • Malalignment of the                  posterior vertebral                  bodies is mor...
PSEUDOSUBLUXATION                  • To distinguish these          *         two, draw a Swischuk              *     line ...
HANGMAN FRACTURE                   DISTANCE >3 CM
BONES• Vertebral bodies below  C2 have a uniform,  square (cuboidal)  shape.• An increase in density  may indicate a  comp...
CARTILAGINOUS STRUCTURES• The intervertebral spaces  should be uniform.• Widening of these or the  interspinous distance m...
SOFT TISSUES• Prevertebral soft  tissue• C1 – C4: 50% of the  AP width of a vertebral  body• C5 – C7:  the AP width  of ...
PRE-DENTAL SPACE                     • Predental Space < 3  PRE-DENTAL SPACE     mm in adult                     • < 5 mm ...
JEFFERSON FRACTURE               A 37-year-old man lost his               balance while standing on a               subway...
JEFFERSON FRACTURE
JEFFERSON FRACTURE                         Increased                         Predental                         space Norm...
THE OPEN MOUTH VIEW
OPEN MOUTH VIEW• The distance between the odontoid and the lateral  masses of C1 should be equal.• Inequality may be due t...
PREDENTAL SPACE ABNORMALITIES     Predental space         Significance        distance3 – 6 mm               Partial disru...
CHEST X-RAY
CHECKLIST FOR A CXR•   Name, ID particulars, etc•   Check for the ‗L‘ or ‗R‘ marker.•   To prevent missing dextrocardia•  ...
IS IT AP or PA VIEW?CRITERIA             PA VIEW            AP VIEWSpinous process      Prominent          Straightlamina ...
CHECKLIST• Penetration – the spine should be ‗just seen‘  through the mediastinum• Well-centeredness – the medial ends of ...
DISTORTIONS ON A PORTABLE AP X-RAY• Rotated positioning of the patient—apparent shift of  trachea and mediastinum• Poor in...
A WELL-CENTERED X-RAY FILM
AROTATEDFILMThe patientis rotated towhich side?
THREE ZONES LEVEL OF THE LUNG FIELD         ZONE                   LEVELUpper zone/apices   Apical region to 4th          ...
HILA• The hila is formed by  the pulmonary veins  with the lower lobe  arteries superimposed.• Left hila is higher than  r...
MEDIASTINUM STRUCTURES
PARA-TRACHEALSTRIPE• The right paratracheal stripe  is a thin layer of connective  tissue that lies along the  right trach...
HEMIDIAPHRAGM• The highest point of the right diaphragm is usually  1–1.5 cm higher than that of the left. Each  costophre...
ASSESSING FOR FLATTENING OFHEMIDIAPHRAGM• The highest point of a hemidiaphragm should be at  least 1.5 cm above a line dra...
Remember: Tension pneumothorax is a clinical  diagnosis, NOT a radiological diagnosis
Deep sulcus sign:                                           abnormal deepening                                           a...
QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OFPNEUMOTHORAX SIZE             Rhea (1981): Ptx % = 5 + 9* AID (after             Choi 1998)    ...
QUALITTATIVE CLASSIFICATION• More recent guidelines have proposed using single  measurements to determine patient care.• O...
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACCP VS BTSGUIDELINES• The American College of Chest Physicians  (ACCP) proposed using an apex to cupo...
RADIOLOGIC FEATURES DUE TOMEDIASTINAL HEMATOMA• Wide mediastinum• Indistinct or distorted aortic knob or proximal  descend...
RADIOLOGIC FEATURES DUE TOMEDIASTINAL HEMATOMA• Left apical pleural cap• Right paraspinal line displaced• Mass effect due ...
AORTIC DISSECTION
AORTIC DISSECTION
MECHANISMS OF AORTIC INJURY
MECHANISMS OF AORTIC INJURY
PELVIC X-RAY
2 – 4 mm      < 5 mm in adults         < 10 mm in        adolescents
CHECKLIST FOR PELVIC X-RAY• Look for symmetry of the hemipelvis• Scrutinize the three ‗rings‘ for fractures   – Main pelvi...
CHECKLIST FOR PELVIC X-RAY•   Look for special radiographic landmarks•   Iliopubic line•   Ilioischial line•   ‗U‘ curve a...
RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAY
RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAY
RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAYRadiographic “U” is theinferior lip of the anteriorarticular surface ofacetabulum.Rad...
THE SHENTON LINE• It is an imaginary  line drawn along  the inferior border  of the superior  pubic rami  (superior border...
MAXILLO-FACIAL X-RAY
THE WATERS VIEW• Also known as  Occipito-mental view  (O-M view)• The Waters view is the  most important view  and by itse...
DOLAN‟S LINES
WATERS VIEW (OM VIEW)
LE FORTFRACTURESMcGrigors Lines
WRIST AND HAND X-RAY
WRIST ARCS (PA VIEW)                       Three arcuate lines can be                       drawn along the carpal        ...
THE TERRY THOMAS SIGNScapholunate dissociation
SCAPHOID FRACTURE• Most common carpal fracture (more than 60% of all  carpal fractures)  – Highest incidence of avascular ...
COLLES‟ FRACTURE                   A - showing Posteroanterior                   view shows fracture and                  ...
SMITH‟S FRACTURE                   Open reduction usually                   necessary.                   Closed reduction ...
BARTON FRACTURE                                  Volar Barton‘s FractureBarton‘s fracture is an oblique intraarticularfrac...
COLLES‟ VS BARTON‟S                                       Colles or Smith – Extra-                                       a...
ROLANDO VS BENNETT‟S FRACTURERolando fracture (comminuted;worse prognosis)                Bennett fracture
RADIUS AND ULNA SHAFT FRACTURES• Because of protection by surrounding  muscles, most radial shaft fractures require  signi...
MONTEGGIA‟SFRACTUREIs a fracture at the junctionof the proximal and middlethirds of the ulnaassociated with anteriordisloc...
Involves theGALEAZZIS FRACTURE                      junction of the                      middle and distal                ...
ELBOW X-RAY
ANATOMY OF THE ELBOW             Secondary growth centers of the elbow                     Mnemonic: “CRITOE”
OSSIFICATION CENTERSOssification Center       Age appearing                           radiologicallyC = Capitellum        ...
ANTERIOR HUMERAL LINE                        This line passes                        through the                        mi...
RADIOCAPITELLAR LINE                       If radiocapitellar                       line does not                       pa...
ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR FAT PADS              Anterior fat pad with              sail sign appearance              (due to ...
ANTERIOR ANDPOSTERIOR FAT PADSAnterior fat pad displacement in thelateral view suggests effusion, but if theposterior fat ...
Discuss the abnormalities seen Lateral view               AP View
Diagnosis?
SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES• Most frequent elbow fracture in children, accounting  for 50-60% of cases   – Most occur in child...
Relative ligamentouslaxity in childhoodallows the elbow tohyperextend, and withhyperextension, theolecranon transmitsthe l...
10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 1. Examine the anterior fat pad• The presence of an anterior fat pad is nor...
10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 2. Look for the presence of a posterior fat pad.• A posterior fat pad is al...
10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 4. Examine the radial head• The shape of the radial head should show a  smo...
10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 6. Count the number of ossification centers• CRITOE sequence• 7. Check for ...
10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 8. Look carefully at the distal humerus• Any lucencies indicating a supraco...
10 THINGS TO LOOK FOR IN ELBOW X-RAY1. Anterior fat pad2. Posterior fat pad3. Anterior humeral line.4. Radial head contour...
Checklist:1. Anterior fat pad.2. Posterior fat pad.3. Anterior humeralline.4. Radial headcontour.5. Radiocapitellar line.6...
ANKLE AND FOOT X-RAY
ANKLE MORTISE VIEW              Check joint space around talus              for symmetry/disruption              Search fo...
MALLEOLAR FRACTURES• The stability of an isolated lateral malleolar  fracture depends on the location of the fracture in  ...
MAISONNEUVE FRACTURE
LISFRANC‟S JOINT                   Lisfranc‘s Joint - Bases                   of the first three                   metatar...
CALCANEAL INJURIESAn angle of less than 20 degrees suggests acompression fracture of calcaneum                            ...
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma
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Tips for interpreting x ray in trauma

  1. 1. TIPS FORINTERPRETING X-RAYS IN TRAUMAKENG SHENG CHEW, MD, MMED (Emerg Med) Senior Lecturer/Emergency Medicine Physician,School Of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  2. 2. CERVICAL SPINE• In patients with major trauma – 5% have an unstable cervical spine – 2/3rd of this 5 percent present without initial neurologic deficit. • Chiles III BW, Cooper PR. Acute Spinal Injury. New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 334 (8):514-20.• Site of Injuries: Cervical spine (60%), Thoracolumbar junction (20%), Thoracic (15%), Lumbosacral Spine (5%) • Savitsky E, Votey S. Emergency Department Approach To Acute Thoracolumbar Spine Injury. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 1997; 15 (1):49-60.
  3. 3. CERVICAL SPINE• Ensure visualization of ALL cervical vertebrae as well as the atlanto-occipital and C7-T1 articulations• Cervical region – most commonly injured part due to – its flexibility (most mobile) and – its exposure • Savitsky E, Votey S. Emergency Department Approach To Acute Thoracolumbar Spine Injury. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 1997; 15 (1):49-60.
  4. 4. INTERPRETING CERVICAL X-RAY• Look at: Mnemonic:• A = Alignment „ABCs‟• B = Bones• C = Cartilaginous and• S = soft-tissues• A = smooth, unbroken alignment of three lines
  5. 5. ALIGNMENT
  6. 6. CASE STUDY A 41-year-old man was brought to the ED following a motor vehicle collision in which he was an unrestrained driver whose vehicle hit a roadway median divider. The automobile driver‘s air bag deployed.
  7. 7. HANGMAN FRACTURE The usual site of fracture is because it is the weakest part of the C2 neural arch.
  8. 8. THE „TRUE‟ HANGMAN FRACTURE VSASPHYXIATION DUE TO HANGING
  9. 9. HANGMAN FRACTURE
  10. 10. HANGMAN FRACTUREThe typical mechanism of injury causing hangman‘s fractures.Hyperextension and axial compression occur when the head impactson the windshield. This fractures the posterior skeletal elements ofthe cervical spine.
  11. 11. PSEUDOSUBLUXATION • Malalignment of the posterior vertebral bodies is more significant than that anteriorly • Two most common causes of C2-C3 malalignment are pseudosubluxation and hangmans fracture.
  12. 12. PSEUDOSUBLUXATION • To distinguish these * two, draw a Swischuk * line from the base of spinous process of C1 * to the base of the spinous process of C3. • The base of C2 should normally not be more than 2 mm from the Swischuk line
  13. 13. HANGMAN FRACTURE DISTANCE >3 CM
  14. 14. BONES• Vertebral bodies below C2 have a uniform, square (cuboidal) shape.• An increase in density may indicate a compression fracture.
  15. 15. CARTILAGINOUS STRUCTURES• The intervertebral spaces should be uniform.• Widening of these or the interspinous distance may indicate an unstable dislocation.• An increase in interspinous distance of 50% suggests ligamentous disruption.
  16. 16. SOFT TISSUES• Prevertebral soft tissue• C1 – C4: 50% of the AP width of a vertebral body• C5 – C7:  the AP width of one vertebral body ‗2 – 6‘ Rule C2 = 6 mm C6 = up to 2 cm
  17. 17. PRE-DENTAL SPACE • Predental Space < 3 PRE-DENTAL SPACE mm in adult • < 5 mm in children • Widening of predental space – suspect Jefferson‘s fracture of C1
  18. 18. JEFFERSON FRACTURE A 37-year-old man lost his balance while standing on a subway platform and fell five feet, head first onto the tracks. He had consumed an alcoholic beverage prior to his fall. Fortunately, train was not entering the station at the time. He was extricated from the tracks, immobilized, and brought to the ED.
  19. 19. JEFFERSON FRACTURE
  20. 20. JEFFERSON FRACTURE Increased Predental space Normal Predental space
  21. 21. THE OPEN MOUTH VIEW
  22. 22. OPEN MOUTH VIEW• The distance between the odontoid and the lateral masses of C1 should be equal.• Inequality may be due to head rotation. It A + B >7 mm, this suggests a disruption of the transverse ligament
  23. 23. PREDENTAL SPACE ABNORMALITIES Predental space Significance distance3 – 6 mm Partial disruption of the transverse ligament6–10 mm Disruption of the transverse ligament, but intact alar and Accessory ligaments> 10 mm Complete ligamentous instability
  24. 24. CHEST X-RAY
  25. 25. CHECKLIST FOR A CXR• Name, ID particulars, etc• Check for the ‗L‘ or ‗R‘ marker.• To prevent missing dextrocardia• Quality of the film• Is the film well-centered?• Is the patient‘s position rotated?• Is the exposure and X-ray penetration adequate?
  26. 26. IS IT AP or PA VIEW?CRITERIA PA VIEW AP VIEWSpinous process Prominent Straightlamina inverted ‗V‘ shapeScapula Out of the chest Inside wallClavicle direction Medial end is Straight lowerHeart size Not enlarged Appears enlarged
  27. 27. CHECKLIST• Penetration – the spine should be ‗just seen‘ through the mediastinum• Well-centeredness – the medial ends of the clavicicle should be equa-distant from midline• Exposure - scapular end should be outside of the lung fields• In full inspiration, 6th anterior or 10th posterior rib should touch the hemidiaphgram
  28. 28. DISTORTIONS ON A PORTABLE AP X-RAY• Rotated positioning of the patient—apparent shift of trachea and mediastinum• Poor inspiration—crowded lung markings at the bases• Suboptimal exposure—over or under-penetrated• Cardiac enlargement• Widened and indistinct mediastinum• Superimposed extrathoracic objects—spine immobilization boards, tubes, monitoring wires, and clips
  29. 29. A WELL-CENTERED X-RAY FILM
  30. 30. AROTATEDFILMThe patientis rotated towhich side?
  31. 31. THREE ZONES LEVEL OF THE LUNG FIELD ZONE LEVELUpper zone/apices Apical region to 4th posterior ribMid-zone 4th to 8th posterior ribLower zone From 8th posterior rib downward
  32. 32. HILA• The hila is formed by the pulmonary veins with the lower lobe arteries superimposed.• Left hila is higher than right hila by 1 cm• Left hila has a ‗square‘ shape, right a V-shape
  33. 33. MEDIASTINUM STRUCTURES
  34. 34. PARA-TRACHEALSTRIPE• The right paratracheal stripe is a thin layer of connective tissue that lies along the right tracheal wall adjacent to the right lung.• It is normally no more than 5 mm thick.• Widening >1 cm is a sign of pulmonary venous hypertension (e.g., CCF)
  35. 35. HEMIDIAPHRAGM• The highest point of the right diaphragm is usually 1–1.5 cm higher than that of the left. Each costophrenic angle should be sharply outlined.
  36. 36. ASSESSING FOR FLATTENING OFHEMIDIAPHRAGM• The highest point of a hemidiaphragm should be at least 1.5 cm above a line drawn from the cardiophrenic to the costophrenic angle.
  37. 37. Remember: Tension pneumothorax is a clinical diagnosis, NOT a radiological diagnosis
  38. 38. Deep sulcus sign: abnormal deepening and lucency of the left lateral costophrenic angleWhen the patient is supine, a pneumothorax collects anteriorly andmay be impossible to detect. A large pneumothorax may widen thecostophrenic sulcus—the ―deep sulcus‖ sign
  39. 39. QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OFPNEUMOTHORAX SIZE Rhea (1981): Ptx % = 5 + 9* AID (after Choi 1998) Collins (1995): Ptx % = 4 + 14 * AID Light formula: Ptx % = (1 - x3/y3)*100 ACCP (2001): ―small‖ a < 3 cm; ―large‖ a 3 cm BTS (2003): ―small‖ m < 2 cm; ―large‖ m 2 cm where Average interpleural distance (AID) = (a+b+c)/3
  40. 40. QUALITTATIVE CLASSIFICATION• More recent guidelines have proposed using single measurements to determine patient care.• Only two sizes of pneumothorax are distinguished: small and large.• Small pneumothoraces can be managed by observation, as long as the patient is stable, has only mild symptoms, and has no underlying lung disease.• Large pneumothoraces need chest tube or catheter aspiration to reexpand the lung.
  41. 41. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ACCP VS BTSGUIDELINES• The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) proposed using an apex to cupola distance of 3 cm to distinguish small from large pneumothoraces• The British Thoracic Society (BTS) uses an average pneumothorax width of 2 cm to distinguish large from small pneumothoraces, although the exact method of measurement is not specified.
  42. 42. RADIOLOGIC FEATURES DUE TOMEDIASTINAL HEMATOMA• Wide mediastinum• Indistinct or distorted aortic knob or proximal descending aorta• Opacification of the aorticopulmonary window• Wide right paratracheal stripe• Left paraspinal line displaced and extending superior to aortic knob
  43. 43. RADIOLOGIC FEATURES DUE TOMEDIASTINAL HEMATOMA• Left apical pleural cap• Right paraspinal line displaced• Mass effect due to periaortic blood at the aortic arch• Trachea or nasogastric tube displaced to the right• Depressed left mainstem bronchus
  44. 44. AORTIC DISSECTION
  45. 45. AORTIC DISSECTION
  46. 46. MECHANISMS OF AORTIC INJURY
  47. 47. MECHANISMS OF AORTIC INJURY
  48. 48. PELVIC X-RAY
  49. 49. 2 – 4 mm < 5 mm in adults < 10 mm in adolescents
  50. 50. CHECKLIST FOR PELVIC X-RAY• Look for symmetry of the hemipelvis• Scrutinize the three ‗rings‘ for fractures – Main pelvic inlet – Obturator foramen• Sacroiliac joints – Normal width 2 – 4 mm• Symphysis pubis – < 5 mm in adults – Up to 10 mm in children – Superior surfaces should align or offset < 2 mm
  51. 51. CHECKLIST FOR PELVIC X-RAY• Look for special radiographic landmarks• Iliopubic line• Ilioischial line• ‗U‘ curve and teardrop sign• Shenton line
  52. 52. RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAY
  53. 53. RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAY
  54. 54. RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS OF PELVICX-RAYRadiographic “U” is theinferior lip of the anteriorarticular surface ofacetabulum.Radiographic teardropis composed of theilioischial line, theacetabular articularsurface, and theradiographic ―U.‖
  55. 55. THE SHENTON LINE• It is an imaginary line drawn along the inferior border of the superior pubic rami (superior border of obturator foramen) and along the inferiomedial border of the neck of femur. The line should be smooth and continuous
  56. 56. MAXILLO-FACIAL X-RAY
  57. 57. THE WATERS VIEW• Also known as Occipito-mental view (O-M view)• The Waters view is the most important view and by itself is probably a sufficient screening radiograph for patients with facial injuries. Occipito-frontal view To visualize frontal sinuses, superior orbital rim, and ethmoid air cells
  58. 58. DOLAN‟S LINES
  59. 59. WATERS VIEW (OM VIEW)
  60. 60. LE FORTFRACTURESMcGrigors Lines
  61. 61. WRIST AND HAND X-RAY
  62. 62. WRIST ARCS (PA VIEW) Three arcuate lines can be drawn along the carpal articular surfaces Approximately equal distance (usually 1 to 2 mm) between each of the carpal bones 1. Disruption of these curves or 2. Widening of the carpal spaces implies carpal ligament disruption and carpal instability
  63. 63. THE TERRY THOMAS SIGNScapholunate dissociation
  64. 64. SCAPHOID FRACTURE• Most common carpal fracture (more than 60% of all carpal fractures) – Highest incidence of avascular necrosis of carpal bone – Lunate Fracture (Keinbock‘s disease) – (Note: Most common wrist fracture - Distal radius)• Commonly seen in young adults age 15 to 30 and occurs after a fall on the outstretched hand• Rare in skeletally immatured individuals because of the relative weakness of distal radius compared to scaphoid
  65. 65. COLLES‟ FRACTURE A - showing Posteroanterior view shows fracture and shortening of radius B - Lateral view shows typical dorsal displacement and angulation of radial fracture. (From Propp DA, Chin H: Forearm and wrist radiology
  66. 66. SMITH‟S FRACTURE Open reduction usually necessary. Closed reduction often unsuccessful due to flexor muscle pull.
  67. 67. BARTON FRACTURE Volar Barton‘s FractureBarton‘s fracture is an oblique intraarticularfracture of the rim of the distal radius, withdisplacement of the carpus along with thefracture fragment.
  68. 68. COLLES‟ VS BARTON‟S Colles or Smith – Extra- articular Barton‘s – Intra-articular In Barton‘s Fracture, surgical fixation is usually necessary when over 50% articular surface is involved or fragment not adequatelyBarton’s Fracture reduced Colles’ Fracture
  69. 69. ROLANDO VS BENNETT‟S FRACTURERolando fracture (comminuted;worse prognosis) Bennett fracture
  70. 70. RADIUS AND ULNA SHAFT FRACTURES• Because of protection by surrounding muscles, most radial shaft fractures require significant force and most have concurrent ulna fractures• Also, non-displaced fractures are rare• In ulna shaft fractures, solitary fracture of ulna may occur, often called nightstick fracture since it can be caused when stuck with a blunt object while self-defencing.
  71. 71. MONTEGGIA‟SFRACTUREIs a fracture at the junctionof the proximal and middlethirds of the ulnaassociated with anteriordislocation of the proximalradial head
  72. 72. Involves theGALEAZZIS FRACTURE junction of the middle and distal thirds of the radius, with an associated dislocation or subluxation of the DRUJ. Mnemonics: MU-GR Monteggia = ULNA Galeazzi = RADIUS
  73. 73. ELBOW X-RAY
  74. 74. ANATOMY OF THE ELBOW Secondary growth centers of the elbow Mnemonic: “CRITOE”
  75. 75. OSSIFICATION CENTERSOssification Center Age appearing radiologicallyC = Capitellum 1 year oldR = Radial Head 3 years oldI = Internal epicondyle 5 – 7 years oldT = Trochlear 9 – 10 years oldO = Olecranon 9 – 10 years oldE = External epicondyle 9 – 10 years old Scaletta & Schaider, 2001
  76. 76. ANTERIOR HUMERAL LINE This line passes through the middle one third of the capitellum in bones that are not injured
  77. 77. RADIOCAPITELLAR LINE If radiocapitellar line does not pass through capitellum, a dislocated radial head is suspected
  78. 78. ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR FAT PADS Anterior fat pad with sail sign appearance (due to joint effusion) Normally anterior fat pad is seen only as an anterior narrow strip of lucency but the posterior fat pad is not seen as it is hidden in the olecranon fossa. Posterior fat pad
  79. 79. ANTERIOR ANDPOSTERIOR FAT PADSAnterior fat pad displacement in thelateral view suggests effusion, but if theposterior fat pad is visible at all, an elbowfracture is likely.In the absence of trauma, the presenceof a fat pad suggests other causes ofeffusion (e.g., gout, infection, bursitis)Search hard for occult fractures, which are:1. Radial head fracture (in adults)2. Supracondylar fracture (in children)
  80. 80. Discuss the abnormalities seen Lateral view AP View
  81. 81. Diagnosis?
  82. 82. SUPRACONDYLAR FRACTURES• Most frequent elbow fracture in children, accounting for 50-60% of cases – Most occur in children aged 3-10 years, with a peak incidence in those aged 5-8 years• 10% have radial pulse loss temporarily, most often as a result of swelling and not direct brachial artery injury.• Reducing the fracture, avoiding flexing the elbow more than 90 degrees, and elevating the arm help prevent secondary obstruction to arterial flow.
  83. 83. Relative ligamentouslaxity in childhoodallows the elbow tohyperextend, and withhyperextension, theolecranon transmitsthe load into abending force on thedistal humerus in thesupracondylar region.
  84. 84. 10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 1. Examine the anterior fat pad• The presence of an anterior fat pad is normal. It should be small and appear to be flat against the anterior surface of the humerus.• If it is large or it appears to be triangular in shape (sail shape) as if its lower tip is being displaced upwards, this indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion
  85. 85. 10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 2. Look for the presence of a posterior fat pad.• A posterior fat pad is always an abnormal sign and indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion• 3. Examine the anterior humeral line.• If this line fails to bisect the capitellum, this indicates the presence of a fracture in the supracondylar region displacing the capitellum (usually posteriorly) or a Salter-Harris Type I fracture between the capitellum and the distal humerus.
  86. 86. 10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 4. Examine the radial head• The shape of the radial head should show a smooth metaphysis. Any angles in the metaphysis may indicate a radial head fracture.• 5. Examine the radiocapitellar line• The radius should point directly at the capitellum in all views. If the radius does not point directly at the capitellum, this indicates a dislocation of the radial head.
  87. 87. 10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 6. Count the number of ossification centers• CRITOE sequence• 7. Check for the Hourglass sign OR Figure-of-8 shape at the distal humerus to indicate that the X- ray is a true lateral view• An oblique view of the elbow may obscure some radiographic findings
  88. 88. 10-POINT CHECKLIST IN INTERPRETINGELBOW X-RAY• 8. Look carefully at the distal humerus• Any lucencies indicating a supracondylar fracture• 9. Examine the olecranon and the remainder of the ulna for irregularities in the cortex.• An ossification center over the olecranon may resemble a fracture. The presence or absence of tenderness over the olecranon may help to establish a diagnosis• 10. Correlate X-ray with clinical picture
  89. 89. 10 THINGS TO LOOK FOR IN ELBOW X-RAY1. Anterior fat pad2. Posterior fat pad3. Anterior humeral line.4. Radial head contour.5. Radiocapitellar line6. Ossification centers - CRITOE7. Hourglass sign8. Distal humerus9. Ulna/Olecranon10. Clinical correlation
  90. 90. Checklist:1. Anterior fat pad.2. Posterior fat pad.3. Anterior humeralline.4. Radial headcontour.5. Radiocapitellar line.6. Ossificationcenters. CRITOE7. Hourglass sign.8. Distal humerus.9. Ulna/Olecranon.10. Clinicalcorrelation.
  91. 91. ANKLE AND FOOT X-RAY
  92. 92. ANKLE MORTISE VIEW Check joint space around talus for symmetry/disruption Search for fractures of distal tibia and fibula The lines formed between the articular surfaces should be parallel throughout the tibiotalar and talofibular components of the joint
  93. 93. MALLEOLAR FRACTURES• The stability of an isolated lateral malleolar fracture depends on the location of the fracture in relation to the level of the tibiotalar joint.• Medial malleolar fractures are commonly associated other fractures/disruption• Therefore, the identification of a medial malleolar fracture demands a careful examination of the entire length of the fibula for tenderness (Maisonneuve fracture)
  94. 94. MAISONNEUVE FRACTURE
  95. 95. LISFRANC‟S JOINT Lisfranc‘s Joint - Bases of the first three metatarsals with their respective cuneiforms and the fourth and fifth metatarsals with the cuboid
  96. 96. CALCANEAL INJURIESAn angle of less than 20 degrees suggests acompression fracture of calcaneum Boehler‘s angle of 20 to 40 degrees gives the best balance of sensitivity and specificity for fracture detection
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