Creation vs Evolution


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Apologetics on Creation and Evolution

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Creation vs Evolution

  1. 1. Creation vs. evolution
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>There are 4 questions that every religion in the world tries to answer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who am I (and what am I worth)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did I come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why am I here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I going when I die? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 ways to view the world: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanist world view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creationist world view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These 2 views are completely opposite and at war with each other. Somebody is wrong! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>If evolution is true: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who am I (and what am I worth)? No one & nothing . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did I come from? A big cosmic burp about 4.6 billion years ago . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why am I here (purpose)? No purpose, no rules . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I going when I die? Recycled back to dirt . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If creation is true: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who am I (and what am I worth)? Apple of God’s eye . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did I come from? God’s preordained will & desire . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why am I here (purpose)? Intimacy with creator God . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where am I going when I die? Heaven, paradise. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><ul><li>Another interesting question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If evolution is true, how do you decide right from wrong? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By majority opinion? Changes with every new generation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By what government decides? Changes with every new government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an absolute standard?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God says, “ Thou shall not … ” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Evolution? <ul><li>The whole world is being lied to about the origin of the universe and of where everything came from . </li></ul><ul><li>The evidence does not lead us to evolution, but rather to creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists never talk about any evidence that clearly cannot be explained by evolution; but rather rattle off “facts” without any evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Science is “ Systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and testing .” Webster’s </li></ul><ul><li>Basically there are 6 different types of evolution and it’s important to distinguish which one is being addressed; because only one of them is scientific . </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Cosmic evolution – The origin of time, space and matter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen 1 “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ In the beginning”: Time – 3 dimensions (Past, present, and future) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ God created the heavens”: Space – 3 dimensions (Length, width, and height) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ and the earth”: Matter – 3 dimensions (Solid, liquid, and gas) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trinity of trinities (Perfection). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All have to come into existence at the same time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Big Bang has to answer this, but it can’t.  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Chemical evolution – The origin of higher elements from Hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution says that the Big Bang produced Hydrogen and maybe some Helium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get all the other elements in the periodic table of elements </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Chemical evolution – The origin of higher elements from Hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution says that the Big Bang produced Hydrogen and maybe some Helium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get the other 105 elements in the periodic table of elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t get past iron with fusion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution has no scientific answer for this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is that God created all the elements as they are.  </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Stellar evolution – The origin of the stars and planets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has ever observed a star forming; EVER. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stars explode in what are called Novas or Supernovas. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Stellar evolution – The origin of the stars and planets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has ever observed a star forming; EVER. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stars explode in what are called Novas or Supernovas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although no stars have ever been seen forming, it’s estimated that there’s enough stars out there that everyone on earth could own 2 000 000 000 000 (trillion) of them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those are only the one’s we know about; there could be many more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did they get there? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Organic evolution – The origin of life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life has to begin somehow, from non-living material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassingly evolutionists still talk about spontaneous generation (Abiogenesis), even though it was proven wrong 200 years ago by Louis Pasteur. (There was a claim that bees came from flowers, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution has never proven how life got going. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every evolutionary theory that has caused major excitement has ended up being proven false. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Macro evolution – Changing from one kind into another kind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One kind of animal changing into another kind of animal (eg. Apes to humans). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Are you descended from a monkey or an ape?
  14. 18. Evolutionary tree of life. Nice picture, BUT no evidence at all. All that work for nothing!
  15. 19. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Macro evolution – Changing from one kind into another kind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One kind of animal changing into another kind of animal (ex. Apes to humans). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has ever seen a dog produce a non dog. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Dog Family Tree
  17. 21. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Macro evolution – Changing from one kind into another kind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One kind of animal changing into another kind of animal (ex. Apes to humans). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has ever seen a dog produce a non dog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dog, wolf, and coyote probably have a common ancestor but they’re the same kind of animal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cat, tiger, lion, puma, leopard, cheetah, and panther probably all have a common ancestor, but they’re the same kind of animal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bible says they would bring forth after their KIND, not species. Kinds can bring forth. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Micro evolution – Variations within the kind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one that has been observed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one that is scientific . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We see many variations of dogs, cats, people, fish, birds, horses, etc. basically every kind has many variations; but they’re still the same kind. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Only the last one is scientific and the others have come out of pure imagination . </li></ul><ul><li>There is NO scientific evidence AT ALL to prove that any of the other 5 happened, as much as the evolutionists wish that there was. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the supposed evidence to support evolution has been proven wrong and often contradicts other proven scientific laws (thermodynamics, circular momentum, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionist say that creationists are not real scientists? </li></ul>
  20. 24. What is Evolution? <ul><li>“ People who believe creation and reject evolution are “gullible,” “ignorant,” of “low intelligence” and tell “lies.” ” </li></ul>
  21. 25. What is Evolution? <ul><li>Creationist Scientists: </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton: Gravity, dynamics, calculus, reflecting telescope, etc. ( Newton wrote more about he bible than about science.) </li></ul><ul><li>Mendel: Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Blaise Pascal: Hydrostatics, Barometer </li></ul><ul><li>James Joule: Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Louie Pasteur: Bacteriology, Biochemistry; Sterilization; Immunization </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Boyle: Fathered modern chemistry, Boyles law. </li></ul><ul><li>James Maxwell: Electromagnetic radiation (lasers, etc.), Einstein acknowledged debt to Maxwell for some of his own work. </li></ul><ul><li>Wright brothers: airplane based on bird design. </li></ul><ul><li>Antoine Lavoisier: Oxidation, was beheaded by a French anti-Christian regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Raymond Damadian: MRI technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Kelvin: Energetics, Absolute temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. etc. etc. hundreds of people. </li></ul>
  22. 26. The age of the earth Evolution Creation
  23. 28. The Big Bang <ul><li>“ Most astronomers believe that about 18 to 20 billion years ago all the matter in the universe was concentrated into one very dense, very hot region that may have been smaller than a period (full-stop) . For some unknown reason , this region exploded. This explosion is called the big bang . ” Prentice Hall General Science, 1992, pg 61. </li></ul>Interesting: “ Humanists regard the Universe as self existing and not created.” Humanist Manifesto 1 (1933) <ul><li>Universe: </li></ul><ul><li>Uni = single </li></ul><ul><li>verse = spoken sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Universe = single spoken sentence </li></ul><ul><li>We live in a single spoken sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>“ God said, ‘Let there be …’” </li></ul>
  24. 29. The Big Bang <ul><li>“ All the matter and energy will once again be packed into a small area no bigger than the period at the end of this sentence. Then another big bang will occur… a big bang may occur every 80 to 100 billion years. ” Prentice Hall Earth Science, 1991, pg 36-37. </li></ul>“ In the realm of the universe, nothing really means nothing (no matter, energy, space or time). From this state of nothingness, the universe began in a gigantic explosion. This is called the big bang theory. ” HBJ General Science, 1989, pg 362. One day nothing exploded and now, here we are. “ The universe burst into something from absolutely nothing - zero, nada. And as it got bigger, it became filled with even more stuff that came from absolutely nowhere . How is that possible? Ask Alan Guth . His theory of inflation helps explain everything . ” Discover Magazine, 2002.
  25. 30. The Big Bang <ul><li>“ … the observable universe could have evolved from an infinitesimal region (dot). It’s then tempting to go one step further and speculate that the entire universe evolved from literally nothing. ” Alan Guth, Scientific America. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that no evidence is given and, there is no evidence for this theory, but it’s taught as a fact of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Honestly it sounds more like the books I used to read as a child </li></ul>“ Once upon a time, far, far away…” (a fairytale)
  26. 31. The Big Bang <ul><li>“ The dot spun faster and faster. Gradually the spinning nebula flattened into a huge disk almost 10 billion kilometres across. At the centre of the disk a growing proto-sun, or new sun, began to take shape. As the gas cloud continued to collapse toward its centre, the proto-sun grew more and more massive. It became denser as well…” </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity caused the hydrogen in the proto-sun to fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>This gave off energy and a star – our sun – was born. </li></ul><ul><li>Then everything else slowly evolved over billions of years and here we are . </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the beginning (time), God created the heavens (space) and the earth (matter).” Gen 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Time: Past, Present, Future. </li></ul><ul><li>Space: Length, width, Height. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth: Solid, Liquid, Gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Trinity of trinities. </li></ul>
  27. 32. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul>
  28. 33. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing Origin </li></ul><ul><li>The big bang theory assumes an original concentration of energy and matter . Where did this energy and matter come from ? Astronomers sometimes speak of an origin from a &quot; quantum mechanical fluctuation within a vacuum .&quot; However, in the big bang theory, no vacuum existed before the explosion (Big bang created time, space, and matter). Actually there is no consistent secular origin theory , since every idea is based on pre-existing matter or energy. </li></ul>
  29. 34. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul>
  30. 35. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing Fuse </li></ul><ul><li>What ignited the big bang? The mass concentration proposed in this theory would remain forever bound as a universal black hole. Gravity would prevent it from ever expanding outward . </li></ul>
  31. 36. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul>
  32. 37. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing star formation </li></ul><ul><li>No natural way has been found to explain the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies. An explosion should produce , at best, an outward spray of gas and radiation . This gas should continue expanding, not form intricate planets, stars, and entire galaxies. </li></ul>
  33. 39. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing star formation </li></ul><ul><li>The big bang model by itself can account for the existence of only the three lightest elements (hydrogen, helium, and trace amounts of lithium). This leaves nearly 90 of the other naturally occurring elements to be explained. Since the conditions in the supposed big bang are not right to form these heavier elements (as big bang supporters readily concede), secular astronomers believe that stars have produced the remaining elements by nuclear fusion in their cores. This is thought to occur in the final stages of massive stars, as the stars explode (supernovae). These explosions then distribute the heavier elements into space. Second- and third-generation stars are thus “contaminated” with small amounts of these heavier elements . </li></ul><ul><li>If this story were true, then the first stars would be comprised of only the three lightest elements (since these would have been the only elements in existence initially). Some such stars should still be around today since their life spans are computed to exceed the time that has elapsed since the big bang. Such stars would be called “population III” stars. Amazingly (to those who believe in the big bang), population III stars have not been found anywhere. All known stars have at least trace amounts of heavy elements in them. It is amazing to think that our galaxy alone is estimated to have over 100 billion stars in it. Yet not one star has been discovered that is comprised of only the three lightest elements . </li></ul>
  34. 40. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing star formation </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE ARE THE POPULATION 3 STARS THAT CONTAIN ONLY HYDROGEN AND HELIUM (MAYBE LITHIUM)???????    </li></ul><ul><li>GOD CREATED THE STARS THE WAY THEY ARE NOW. THAT’S WHY SCIENCE CAN’T FIGURE IT OUT!!  </li></ul>
  35. 41. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing antimatter. </li></ul>
  36. 42. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing antimatter </li></ul><ul><li>Some versions of the big bang theory require the equal production of matter and antimatter. However, only small traces of antimatter-positrons and antiprotons, for example-are found in space. Antimatter is the same as matter, except that each particle has the opposite charge, magnetic moment, etc. Scientifically, antimatter is supposed to be an exact counterpart to matter , down to the same mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Ting states “ At the beginning, equal amounts of matter and antimatter were created [in the “big bang”]. Now there seems to be only matter. There have been theoretical speculations about the disappearance of antimatter, but no experimental support. ” </li></ul>
  37. 43. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing antimatter </li></ul><ul><li>One speculation is that during the supposed inflation very early in the ‘big bang,’ matter and antimatter became segregated into ‘non-overlapping domains . </li></ul><ul><li>This means that there would be some domains of space totally composed of matter and others totally of antimatter . One expected signal is a burst of gamma rays much higher than the gamma-ray background. Searching the universe, they failed to detect any gamma-ray bursts. The astronomers conclude: “ On general grounds, we conclude that a matter-antimatter symmetric universe is empirically excluded. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Salamon , a physicist said “ The work is extremely compelling and gives me fresh pessimism. It is a big blow to the whole concept. ” </li></ul><ul><li>In conclusion , physical laws indicate that equal amounts of matter and antimatter would have been created in the proposed ‘big bang.’ Therefore missing antimatter in the universe should challenge the ‘big bang’ theory, an implication none of the evolution authors apparently is willing to entertain. </li></ul>
  38. 44. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing time. </li></ul>
  39. 45. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing time </li></ul><ul><li>Some experiments indicate that the universe may be young, on the order of 10,000 years old . If true, then there is not sufficient time for the consequences of the big bang theory to unfold. A short time span will not allow for the gradual evolution of the stars or life on Earth. </li></ul>
  40. 46. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing time </li></ul><ul><li>Bible says the universe is about 6000 years old if you add up all the dates (genealogies). </li></ul><ul><li>The bible teaches that the whole universe was created in 6 days and God rested on the 7 th day. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting that there is no law in science that contradicts a 6 day creation; in fact, most of the laws support it. </li></ul><ul><li>There are lot’s of scientific laws that cause serious problems for the evolutionists, which they either attempt to explain away or shrug off. Some honest evolution scientists admit there are major problems. </li></ul>
  41. 51. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing time. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing mass. </li></ul>
  42. 52. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing mass </li></ul><ul><li>Many scientists assume that the universe will eventually stop expanding and begin to collapse inward. Then it will again explode and repeat its oscillating type of perpetual motion. This idea is an effort to avoid an origin and destiny for the universe. For oscillation to occur, however, the universe must have a certain density or distribution of mass. So far, measurements of the mass density are 100 times smaller than expected. In fact there are indications that the universe is accelerating outward instead of slowing down. The universe does not appear to be oscillating. The necessary mass or &quot;dark matter&quot; is &quot;missing.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly , adding up all the stars, planets, and black holes in the universe only accounts for about 4 percent of all the mass created when time began as proposed by the big bang. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a SERIOUS problem for evolution!    </li></ul>
  43. 53. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing time. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing life. </li></ul>
  44. 54. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing life </li></ul><ul><li>In an evolving universe, life should have developed everywhere . Space should be filled with radio signals from intelligent life forms. Where is everybody? </li></ul>
  45. 56. The Big Bang <ul><li>Happened by random chance. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an inadequate theory for many reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Fuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing star formation. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing antimatter. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing time. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing life. </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Neutrons. </li></ul>
  46. 57. The Big Bang <ul><li>Missing Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>These small particles should flood the earth from the sun's fusion process. The small number detected raises questions about the sun's energy source and man's overall understanding of the universe. How then can science speak about &quot;origins&quot; with any authority? </li></ul>
  47. 59. The Big Bang <ul><li>All these things are actually fatal to the evolution theory from a scientific perspective; but the guys still hold onto it because there is no other option (other than creation). </li></ul><ul><li>Some scientists will not accept any other explanation other than a naturalistic explanation for how the universe got here; therefore creation, being supernatural (and not just natural), is immediately excluded and never considered by the humanists. </li></ul><ul><li>There is so much evidence (we’ll look at that shortly) to support a young earth that it seems impossible to think that people could believe in billions of years; but a young earth means a supernatural beginning which, to the evolutionists, is unacceptable. There are still many “proved wrong” evidences used by evolutionists and text books today simply because there isn’t any real evidence and not enough possible evidence . </li></ul><ul><li>The big bang isn’t just bad theology , but also bad science . There simply isn’t any good reason to believe in the big bang. Reality science supports the bible, not the big bang. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at some of the young earth evidence that you never hear about on national geographic, or read in modern text books. </li></ul>
  48. 60. In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth . Gen 1:1
  49. 61. 2 Now the earth was formless and empty , darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.   3 And God said, &quot; Let there be light ,&quot; and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light &quot; day ,&quot; and the darkness he called &quot; night .&quot; And there was evening, and there was morning — the first day .   6 And God said, &quot; Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water .&quot; 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse &quot; sky .&quot; And there was evening, and there was morning — the second day .   9 And God said, &quot; Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear .&quot; And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground &quot; land ,&quot; and the gathered waters he called &quot; seas .&quot; And God saw that it was good . Gen 1:2-10
  50. 62. 11 Then God said, &quot; Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds. &quot; And it was so. 12 The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning — the third day .   14 And God said, &quot; Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.&quot; And it was so. 16 God made two great lights —the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars . 17 God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning — the fourth day . Gen 1:11-19
  51. 63. 20 And God said, &quot; Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky .&quot; 21 So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds , and every winged bird according to its kind . And God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them and said, &quot;Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.&quot; 23 And there was evening, and there was morning — the fifth day .   24 And God said, &quot; Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds : livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.&quot; And it was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds , the livestock according to their kinds , and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds . And God saw that it was good. Gen 1:20-25
  52. 64. 26 Then God said, &quot; Let us make man in our image , in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, [ b ] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.“ 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them .   28 God blessed them and said to them, &quot;Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground.&quot;   29 Then God said, &quot;I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.&quot; And it was so.   31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good . And there was evening, and there was morning — the sixth day . Gen 1:26-31
  53. 65. 1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array .   2 By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done. Gen 2:1-3
  54. 66. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>If the days of creation are really ‘geologic ages’ of millions of years, then the Gospel message is undermined at its foundation because it puts death, disease, thorns and suffering before the Fall.  This idea also shows an erroneous approach to Scripture—that the Word of God can be interpreted on the basis of the fallible theories of sinful people. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a good exercise to read Genesis chapter one and try to put aside outside influences that may cause you to have a pre-determined idea of what the word ‘day’ may mean.  Just let the words of the passage speak to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking Genesis 1 in this way, at face value, without doubt it seems to say that God created the universe, the earth, the sun, moon and stars, plants and animals, and the first two people, within six ordinary (approximately 24 hour) days.  Being really honest, one would have to admit that you could never get the idea of millions of years from reading this passage. </li></ul>
  55. 67. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>How does God communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>God communicates through language.  When he made the first man Adam, he had already ‘programmed’ him with a language, so there could be communication.  Human language consists of words used in a specific context that relates to the entire reality around us. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, God can reveal things to man, and man can communicate with God, as these words have meaning and convey an understandable message.  If this were not so, how could any of us communicate with each other, or with God, or God with us? </li></ul>
  56. 68. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>Why long days? </li></ul><ul><li>Romans 3:4a: ‘ … let God be true, and every man a liar.’ </li></ul><ul><li>In every instance where someone has not accepted the ‘days’ of creation to be ordinary days, it is because they have not allowed the words of Scripture to speak to them in context, as the language requires for communication.  They have been influenced by ideas from outside of Scripture.  Thus they have set a precedent that could allow any word to be reinterpreted by the preconceived ideas of the person reading the words.  Ultimately, this will lead to a communication breakdown, as the same words in the same context could mean different things to different people. </li></ul><ul><li>Most ‘church fathers’ accepted the days as ordinary days. </li></ul><ul><li>Berkhof said “ ... Since the entrance of sin into the world, man can gather true knowledge about God from His general revelation only if he studies it in the light of Scripture, in which the elements of God’s original self-revelation, which were obscured and perverted by the blight of sin, are republished, corrected, and interpreted. … Some are inclined to speak of God’s general revelation as a second source; but this is hardly correct in view of the fact that nature can come into consideration here only as interpreted in the light of Scripture.” </li></ul>
  57. 71. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>Why long days? </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Spurgen “ We are invited, brethren, most earnestly to go away from the old-fashioned belief of our forefathers because of the supposed discoveries of science. What is science? The method by which man tries to conceal his ignorance. It should not be so, but so it is. You are not to be dogmatical in theology, my brethren, it is wicked; but for scientific men it is the correct thing. You are never to assert anything very strongly; but scientists may boldly assert what they cannot prove, and may demand a faith far more credulous than any we possess. Forsooth, you and I are to take our Bibles and shape and mould our belief according to the ever-shifting teachings of so-called scientific men.  What folly is this! Why, the march of science, falsely so called, through the world may be traced by exploded fallacies and abandoned theories. Former explorers once adored are now ridiculed; the continual wreckings of false hypotheses is a matter of universal notoriety.  You may tell where the learned have encamped by the debris left behind of suppositions and theories as plentiful as broken bottles . ’ ” </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, Christians should build their thinking on the Bible , not on ‘ science .’ </li></ul>
  58. 76. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>The days in Genesis 1? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Bible tell us about the meaning of ‘day’ in Genesis 1?  A word can have more than one meaning , depending on the context .  For instance, the English word ‘day’ can have perhaps 14 different meanings.  For example, consider the following sentence: ‘Back in my father’s day, it took ten days to drive across the Australian Outback during the day.’  Here the first occurrence of ‘day’ means ‘time’ in a general sense.  The second ‘day,’ where a number is used, refers to an ordinary day, and the third refers to the daylight period of the 24-hour period.  The point is that words can have more than one meaning, depending on the context. </li></ul>
  59. 77. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>The days in Genesis 1? </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the meaning of ‘day’ in Genesis 1, we need to determine how the Hebrew word for ‘day,’ yom, is used in the context of Scripture.  Consider the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A typical concordance will illustrate that yom can have a range of meanings : a period of light as contrasted to night, a 24-hour period, time, a specific point of time, or a year. </li></ul><ul><li>A classical, well-respected Hebrew-English lexicon (a one-way dictionary) has seven headings and many subheadings for the meaning of yom —but defines the creation days of Genesis 1 as ordinary days under the heading ‘day as defined by evening and morning.’ </li></ul><ul><li>A number, and the phrase ‘evening and morning,’ are used for each of the six days of creation ( Genesis 1:5,8,13,19,23,31 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Genesis 1, yom is used with a number 410 times , and each time it means an ordinary day — why would Genesis 1 be the exception? </li></ul>
  60. 78. A Young Earth <ul><li>Outside Genesis 1, yom is used with the word ‘evening’ or ‘morning’ 23 times.  ‘Evening’ and ‘morning’ appear in association, but without yom , 38 times.  All 61 times the text refers to an ordinary day — why would Genesis 1 be the exception? </li></ul><ul><li>In Genesis 1:5, yom occurs in context with the word ‘night.’  Outside of Genesis 1, ‘night’ is used with yom 53 times—and each time it means an ordinary day .  Why would Genesis 1 be the exception?  Even the usage of the word ‘light’ with yom in this passage determines the meaning as ordinary day. </li></ul><ul><li>The plural of yom , which does not appear in Genesis 1, can be used to communicate a longer time period, e.g. ‘in those days .’  Adding a number here would be nonsensical.   Clearly, in Exodus 20:11 where a number is used with days , it unambiguously refers to six Earth-rotation days . </li></ul><ul><li>There are words in biblical Hebrew (such as olam or qedem ) that are very suitable for communicating long periods of time, or indefinite time, but none of these words are used in Genesis 1.  Alternatively, the days or years could have been compared with grains of sand if long periods were meant. </li></ul>
  61. 79. A Young Earth <ul><li>Dr James Barr (Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford University), who himself does not believe Genesis is true history, nonetheless admitted as far as the language of Genesis 1 is concerned that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ … so far as I know, there is no professor of Hebrew or Old Testament at any world-class university who does not believe that the writer(s) of Gen. 1–11 intended to convey to their readers the ideas that (a) creation took place in a series of six days which were the same as the days of 24 hours we now experience (b) the figures contained in the Genesis genealogies provided by simple addition a chronology from the beginning of the world up to later stages in the biblical story (c) Noah’s Flood was understood to be world-wide and extinguish all human and animal life except for those in the ark. ” </li></ul><ul><li>In like manner, nineteenth century liberal Professor Marcus Dods, New College, Edinburgh, said: </li></ul><ul><li>“ … if, for example, the word “day” in these chapters does not mean a period of twenty-four hours, the interpretation of Scripture is hopeless. ” </li></ul>
  62. 80. A Young Earth <ul><li>In Martin Luther’s day, some of the church fathers were saying that God created everything in only one day, or in an instant. Martin Luther wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>“ When Moses writes that God created Heaven and Earth and whatever is in them in six days, then let this period continue to have been six days, and do not venture to devise any comment according to which six days were one day.  But, if you cannot understand how this could have been done in six days, then grant the Holy Spirit the honor of being more learned than you are.  For you are to deal with Scripture in such a way that you bear in mind that God Himself says what is written.  But since God is speaking, it is not fitting for you wantonly to turn His Word in the direction you wish to go. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, John Calvin stated: “ … albeit the duration of the world, now declining to its ultimate end, has not yet attained six thousand years … God’s work was completed not in a moment but in six days. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Luther and Calvin were the backbone of the Protestant Reformation that called the Church back to Scripture— Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone).  Both of these men were adamant that Genesis 1 taught six ordinary days of creation—only thousands of years ago. </li></ul>
  63. 81. Six days may work be done, but on the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord. Whoever does any work in the Sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death. 16 Therefore the sons of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for an everlasting covenant. 17 It is a sign between Me and the sons of Israel forever. For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth , and on the seventh day He rested, and was refreshed. Ex 31:15-17
  64. 82. Then God gave Moses two tablets of stone upon which were written the commandments of God, written by the finger of God . Ex 31:18
  65. 83. A Young Earth <ul><li>Quickly: </li></ul><ul><li>“ One day with the Lord is as a thousand years.” 2 Peter 3:8 </li></ul><ul><li>No creation context. Context is the second coming and Peter is saying that God is outside time and is not waiting. What may seem long to us is nothing to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Second part says “and a thousand years as one day.” This cancels out the first part. </li></ul><ul><li>This verse uses a comparative article (‘as’ or ‘like’). It’s not saying that a day IS a thousand years. </li></ul><ul><li>If one uses this claim then, Jonah was in the belly of the fish for 3000 years and Jesus has not yet risen from the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Must read scripture in context otherwise you can make anything mean what you want it to mean (Eisegesis). </li></ul>
  66. 84. A Young Earth <ul><li>Creation Days: </li></ul><ul><li>If the plants made on day three were separated by millions of years from the birds and nectar bats (created day 5), and insects (created day six) necessary for their pollination, then such plants could not have survived.  This problem would be especially acute for species with complex symbiotic relationships (each depending on the other; e.g. Yucca plant and moth). Same for sun made on day four for photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Adam was created on day six, lived through day seven, and then died when he was 930 years old (Gen. 5:5).  If each day were a thousand years, or millions of years, this would make no sense of Adam’s age at death! </li></ul><ul><li>Some have claimed that the word for ‘made’ ( asah ) in Exodus 20:11 actually means ‘show.’  They propose that God showed or revealed the information about creation to Moses during a six-day period.  This allows for the creation itself to have occurred over millions of years.  However, ‘showed’ is not a valid translation for asah .  Its meaning covers ‘to make, manufacture, produce, do’ etc., but not ‘to show’ in the sense of reveal. 46   Where asah is translated as ‘show’—for example, ‘show kindness’ (Gen. 24:12), it is in the sense of ‘to do’ or ‘make’ kindness. </li></ul>
  67. 85. A Young Earth <ul><li>Some have claimed that because the word asah is used for the creation of the sun, moon and stars on day 4, and not the word bara which is used in Genesis 1:1 for create, that this means God only revealed the sun, moon and stars at this stage.  They insist the word asah has the meaning of ‘revealed.’  In other words, the luminaries were supposedly already in existence, and were only revealed at this stage.  However, bara and asah are used in Scripture to describe the same event.  For example, asah is used in Exodus 20:11 to refer to the creation of the heavens and the earth, but bara is used to refer to the creation of the heavens and the earth in Genesis 1:1.  The word asah is used concerning the creation of the first people in Genesis 1:26—they did not previously exist.  And then they are said to have been created (bara) in Genesis 1:27.  There are many other similar examples.  Asah has a broad range of meanings involving ‘to do’ or ‘to make,’ which includes bara creation (Will cover more on this during the ‘Gap Theory’? section). </li></ul><ul><li>Some accept that the days of creation are ordinary days as far as the language of Genesis is concerned, but not as literal days of history as far as man is concerned.  This is basically the view called the ‘Framework Hypothesis.’ This is a very complex view which has been thoroughly refuted by scholars. </li></ul>
  68. 86. Contradictions between the order of Creation in the Bible and Evolution/Day-ages BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF CREATION EVOLUTIONARY/LONG-AGE SPECULATION Earth before the sun and stars Stars and sun before earth Earth covered in water initially Earth a molten blob initially Oceans first, then dry land Dry land then the oceans Life first created on the land Life started in the oceans Plants created before the sun Plants came long after the sun Land animals created after birds Land animals existed before birds Whales before land animals Land animals before whales
  69. 87. A Young Earth <ul><li>WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE? </li></ul>
  70. 88. Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts , And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as [they were] from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished: But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. 2 Peter 3:3-7
  72. 90. Or asteroids / Meteors??
  73. 91. A Young Earth <ul><li>Why are there still comets? </li></ul><ul><li>According to evolutionary theory, comets are supposed to be the same age as the solar system , about five billion years. Yet each time a comet orbits close to the sun, it loses so much of its material that it could not survive much longer than about 100,000 years . Many comets have typical maximum ages (on this basis) of 10,000 years . </li></ul><ul><li>So how is it possible that we still have comets? </li></ul>Holmes and Dyer Comet taken as it came near to earth.
  74. 92. A Young Earth <ul><li>How is it possible that we still have comets? </li></ul><ul><li>For the Christian, this is a simple answer; the universe is not billions of years old like the evolutionists like to believe. This again is proof for the bible account. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists explain this discrepancy by assuming that (a) comets come from an unobserved spherical 'Oort cloud' well beyond the orbit of Pluto (50000 astronomical units away [1 astronomical unit is distance from the sun to the earth]), (b) improbable gravitational interactions with infrequently passing stars often knock comets into the solar system, and (c) other improbable interactions with planets slow down the incoming comets often enough to account for the hundreds of comets observed. So far, none of these assumptions has been substantiated either by observations or realistic calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists argue that “ The onus is on the creationist to prove that the Oort Cloud doesn’t exist? ” </li></ul><ul><li>That’s like saying “ An orange is purple inside until you cut the skin; prove me wrong. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Called shifting the burden of proof . You can’t prove the non existence of anything. They must prove it does exist!   Is not science. Science requires evidence before acceptance; but this is one of many things evolution accepts without evidence. </li></ul>
  76. 94. A Young Earth <ul><li>Law of the conservation of angular momentum. </li></ul><ul><li>If a bunch of kids are spinning on the merry go round and it’s going really fast. The outside will be spinning faster than the inside because it has to go a further distance to cover the circle around. </li></ul><ul><li>If the kids fly off the merry go round, the kids will be spinning in the same direction as the merry go round because of this difference in speed of the inside and outside. This is an observed law in physics called the conservation of angular momentum that goes for everything that spins and then breaks apart in a frictionless environment. </li></ul><ul><li>So the big bang is an example of all the matter in the universe spinning very fast in a frictionless environment and then bursting apart. So according to this scientific law, all the particles should be spinning in the same direction. </li></ul><ul><li>What we observe is 2, maybe 3 of the planets are spinning backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>8 of the 91 moons are spinning backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Some entire galaxies are spinning backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution has NO explanation for this and avoids </li></ul><ul><li>this topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, more proof for the bible account of creation </li></ul><ul><li>and a young earth. </li></ul>
  77. 95. Jupiter’s moons spin In different directions causing a fatal scientific reality to the evolutionist. 
  79. 97. A Young Earth <ul><li>1 st law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Matter and energy cannot be </li></ul><ul><li>created or destroyed” </li></ul><ul><li>Important to note that this is a scientific LAW, not a theory, like evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The evolutionist has a very BIG problem here because the entire evolutionary foundation breaks this law.  </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution teaches that at some point matter and energy would have had to come into existence in a naturalistic way. But they have NO IDEA how. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally scientists build theories around already proven facts ; they should get a new theory. </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one explanation for </li></ul><ul><li>where matter came from, and it’s NOT </li></ul><ul><li>a naturalistic origin, but a supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>origin; “ In the beginning, God created </li></ul><ul><li>the heavens and the earth. ” </li></ul>
  80. 98. 4. 2 nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.
  81. 99. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Everything tends towards </li></ul><ul><li>entropy (disorder/destruction)” </li></ul><ul><li>Important to note that this is a scientific LAW, not a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>The evolutionist has a very BIG problem here because the entire evolutionary theory breaks this law.  </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution teaches that everything is getting bigger, better, stronger, and smarter. </li></ul><ul><li>From the big bang, hydrogen and helium somehow got together and somehow formed all the other chemicals, which got together and somehow formed all the stars and planets, and, for some unknown reason, on our planet alone , amino acids somehow came into being and formed atoms and DNA and so on, and here we are today, billions of highly complex life forms evolving on our highly designed and complex planet, in our incredibly intricate galaxy, in our vast and complex universe. And it all came from a huge explosion 20 billion years ago. </li></ul>
  82. 100. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>One DNA strand contains more information than the entire encyclopaedia Britannica . </li></ul><ul><li>If you found an encyclopaedia, would you think, “amazing, look what evolution produced over billions of years!”?? </li></ul><ul><li>One atom of a cell, is more complex than an entire city . We find ancient cities all the time. Do we go “Wonderful, look what evolution did over billions of years!” We consider finding a city proof of intelligent design , that it was made by something other than naturalistic means. Interesting!! </li></ul><ul><li>If you leave something for long enough it will either rot, rust, break, or fall apart. Nothing improves by itself . </li></ul><ul><li>Look at your hair, skin, car, house, garden, swimming pool, food, etc, everything gets old, withers and dies. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution teaches that we’re getting better and more ordered over time. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Human beings probably evolved from bacteria, which evolved from rocks. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Homo sapiens (wise ones) are now homo sapiens sapiens (wise wise ones). ” </li></ul>
  83. 101. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists will say that the 2 nd law of thermodynamics can be overcome by adding energy in an open system. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is a closed system by definition (1 st law of thermodynamics). It’s not receiving or losing any energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding energy is destructive without a complex mechanism to harness and use the energy. </li></ul>
  84. 103. Adding energy won’t organise anything, but will destroy. The sun will destroy your car, house, skin, food, and anything else in it’s path.
  85. 104. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists will say that the 2 nd law of thermodynamics can be overcome by adding energy in an open system. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is a closed system (1 st law of thermodynamics). It’s not receiving or losing any energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding energy is destructive with a complex mechanism to harness and use the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>USA added energy to Hiroshima and that didn’t organise anything. </li></ul>
  86. 106. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists will say that the 2 nd law of thermodynamics can be overcome by adding energy in an open system. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is a closed system (1 st law of thermodynamics). It’s not receiving or losing any energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding energy is destructive with a complex mechanism to harness and use the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>USA added energy to Hiroshima and that didn’t organise anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan added some energy to Pearl Harbour which also didn’t do any organising. </li></ul>
  87. 108. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionists will say that the 2 nd law of thermodynamics can be overcome by adding energy in an open system. </li></ul><ul><li>The universe is a closed system (1 st law of thermodynamics). It’s not receiving or losing any energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding energy is destructive with a complex mechanism to harness and use the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>USA added energy to Hiroshima and that didn’t organise anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan added some energy to Pearl Harbour which also didn’t do any organising. </li></ul><ul><li>We’re all getting older and will die one day, </li></ul><ul><li>There’s only one thing that can use the sun’s </li></ul><ul><li>energy and that’s chlorophyll . </li></ul>
  88. 111. A Young Earth <ul><li>2 nd law of thermodynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll is a highly designed, complex molecule that harnesses the sun’s energy. </li></ul><ul><li>One leaf cell is more complex than a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible for this to have developed by itself, way to complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding energy certainly does not overcome the 2 nd law of thermodynamics at all!  </li></ul>Grandpa ??
  90. 113. A Young Earth <ul><li>Not enough mud on the sea floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, water and winds erode about 25 billion tons of dirt and rock from the continents and deposit it in the ocean . This material accumulates as loose sediment (i.e. mud) on the hard basaltic (lava-formed) rock of the ocean floor. The average depth of all the mud in the whole ocean, including the continental shelves, is less than 400 metres . The main way currently known to remove the mud from the ocean floor is by plate tectonic subduction . That is, sea floor slides slowly (a few cm/year) beneath the continents, taking some sediment with it. According to secular scientific literature, that process presently removes only 1 billion tons per year . As far as anyone knows, the other 24 billion tons per year simply accumulate. At that rate, erosion would deposit the present amount of sediment in less than 12 million years . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet according to evolutionary theory, erosion and plate subduction have been going on as long as the oceans have existed, an alleged three billion years . If that were so, the rates above imply that the oceans would be massively choked with mud dozens of kilometres deep . An alternative (creationist) explanation is that erosion from the waters of the Genesis Flood running off the continents deposited the present amount of mud within a short time about 5000 years ago. </li></ul>
  92. 116. A Young Earth <ul><li>Not enough sodium in the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year, rivers and other sources dump over 450 million tons of sodium into the oceans. Only 27% of this sodium manages to get back out of the sea each year. As far as anyone knows, the remainder simply accumulates in the oceans . If the sea had no sodium to start with, it would have accumulated its present amount in less than 42 million years at today's input and output rates. This is much less than the evolutionary age of the ocean, three billion years . </li></ul><ul><li>The usual reply to this discrepancy is that past sodium inputs must have been less and outputs greater. However, calculations which are as generous as possible to evolutionary scenarios still give a maximum age of only 62 million years . Calculations for many other sea water elements give much younger ages for the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>The flood would have deposited most of the current salt in the oceans as the waters receded off the land as the mountains arose, causing massive run-off of sodium into the oceans. </li></ul>
  94. 118. A Young Earth <ul><li>The earth’s magnetic field is decaying to fast. </li></ul><ul><li>The total energy stored in the Earth's magnetic field has steadily decreased by a factor of 2.7 over the past 1,000 years. Evolutionary theories explaining this rapid decrease, as well as how the Earth could have maintained its magnetic field for billions of years, are very complex and inadequate. A much better creationist theory exists. It is straightforward, based on sound physics, and explains many features of the field: its creation, rapid reversals during the Genesis Flood, surface intensity decreases and increases until the time of Christ, and a steady decay since then. </li></ul><ul><li>This creation theory matches paleomagnetic, historic, and present data . The main result is that the field's total energy (not surface intensity) has always decayed at least as fast as now. At that rate the field could not be more than 10,000 years old . </li></ul><ul><li>This is a major problem for the evolutionist which is clear by there feeble attempts to try and explain it away.  </li></ul>
  95. 119. 8. How can rock layers bend without breaking?
  96. 120. A Young Earth <ul><li>Many strata are to tightly bent. </li></ul><ul><li>In many mountainous areas, strata thousands of feet thick are bent and folded into hairpin shapes. The conventional geologic time-scale says these formations were deeply buried and solidified for hundreds of millions of years before they were bent. Yet the folding occurred without cracking , with radii so small that the entire formation had to be still wet and un-solidified when the bending occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>This implies that the folding occurred less than thousands of years after deposition. </li></ul><ul><li>The flood would have been the perfect environment for rocks to bend and shape while still wet soon after, and dry in those shapes after the water had subsided. </li></ul>
  98. 122. A Young Earth <ul><li>Why do we still have spiral galaxies? </li></ul><ul><li>The stars of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, rotate about the galactic center with different speeds, the inner ones rotating faster than the outer ones. The observed rotation speeds are so fast that if our galaxy were more than a few hundred million years old, it would be a featureless disc of stars instead of its present spiral shape . Yet our galaxy is supposed to be at least 10 billion years old. Evolutionists call this “ the winding-up dilemma ,” which they have known about for fifty years . </li></ul><ul><li>They have devised many theories to try to explain it, each one failing after a brief period of popularity. The same “winding-up” dilemma also applies to other galaxies. For the last few decades the favoured attempt to resolve the puzzle has been a complex theory called “ density waves .” The theory has conceptual problems, has to be arbitrarily and very finely tuned, and has been called into serious question by the Hubble Space Telescope’s discovery of very detailed spiral structure in the central hub of the “Whirlpool” galaxy, </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian has an easy answer to this; the galaxies are not billions of years old. They’re only 6000 years old and that’s why they’re still spiral shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  99. 123. Millions of spiral shaped galaxies are evidence that the universe can not be more than 10 000 years old.
  101. 125. A Young Earth <ul><li>Where are all the supernova remnants? </li></ul><ul><li>According to astronomical observations, galaxies like our own experience about one supernova (a violently-exploding star) every 25 years . The gas and dust remnants from such explosions (like the Crab Nebula) expand outward rapidly and should remain visible for over a million years . Yet the nearby parts of our galaxy in which we could observe such gas and dust shells contain only about 200 supernova remnants. </li></ul><ul><li>That would mean that there should be about 40 000 supernova remnants out there; but they only find about 280. That number is consistent with only about 7,000 years worth of supernovas. </li></ul><ul><li>In 20 billion years there would have been about 800 000 000 stars blow up already at 1 every 25 years. </li></ul>
  103. 128. A Young Earth <ul><li>Biological material decays to fast? </li></ul><ul><li>Natural radioactivity, mutations, and decay degrade DNA and other biological material rapidly. Measurements of the mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA recently forced researchers to revise the age of “mitochondrial Eve” from a theorized 200,000 years down to possibly as low as 6,000 years . </li></ul><ul><li>DNA experts insist that DNA cannot exist in natural environments longer than 10,000 years , yet intact strands of DNA appear to have been recovered from fossils allegedly much older: Neanderthal bones , insects in amber , and even from dinosaur fossils . Bacteria allegedly 250 million years old apparently have been revived with no DNA damage. Soft tissue and blood cells from a dinosaur have astonished experts . </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian, again, has no problem with this observation in biological </li></ul><ul><li>science. DNA is not billions of years old, but only 6000 years old </li></ul><ul><li>like the bible says. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA contains information like a blueprint on how to create cells </li></ul><ul><li>properly. Imagine a leg where your ear should be. The information </li></ul><ul><li>containers are called genes within DNA. </li></ul>
  104. 129. A Young Earth <ul><li>Biological material decays to fast? </li></ul><ul><li>DNA contains genetic information like a blueprint or recipe with instructions on how to construct the other components of cells, such as proteins or RNA. Imagine a leg where your ear should be. The information containers within DNA are called genes. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other DNA components which have structural purposes around regulating the use of the genetic information. In other words, what must grow when, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Within cells , DNA is organised into structures called chromosomes which duplicates before the cell splits so that the DNA information is passed on from cell to cell as they multiply. </li></ul><ul><li>“ DNA contains the genetic information that allows all modern living things to function, grow and reproduce . However, it is unclear how long in the 4-billion-year history of life DNA has performed this function. ” RT Dame (evolutionist) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unfortunately, there is no direct evidence of ancient genetic systems , as recovery of DNA from most fossils is impossible. This is because DNA will survive in the environment for less than one million years and slowly degrades into short fragments in solution. ” RT Dame (evolutionist) </li></ul><ul><li>For interest sake; if all the DNA in 1 cell was unwound and laid end to end, would be about 1 meter; and there are about 100 trillion cells in an average adult human (estimate). </li></ul><ul><li>That’s about 100 000 000 000 000 m or 100 000 000 000 km . And it all just evolved by itself from nothing, 20 billion years ago.  </li></ul>
  105. 130. 12. WHAT ABOUT RADIO HALO’S?
  106. 131. A Young Earth <ul><li>Radio-halos? </li></ul><ul><li>Etched within Earth's foundation rocks — the granites — are beautiful microspheres of coloration, halos, produced by the radioactive decay of primordial polonium , which is known to have only a fleeting existence . </li></ul><ul><li>These halos contradict the evolutionary belief that granites formed as hot magma slowly cooling over millions of years. To the contrary, these halos provide unambiguous evidence of both an almost instantaneous creation of granites and the young age of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>A speck of polonium in molten rock can be compared to a CalciVita dropped into a glass of water. The beginning of effervescence is equated to the moment that polonium atoms began to emit radioactive particles. In molten rock the traces of those radioactive particles would disappear as quickly as the CalciVita bubbles in water. But if the water were instantly frozen, the bubbles would be preserved. Likewise, polonium halos could have formed only if the rapidly &quot;effervescing&quot; specks of polonium had been instantly encased in solid rock. </li></ul><ul><li>An exceedingly large number of polonium halos are embedded in </li></ul><ul><li>granites around the world, proving that granite was formed very </li></ul><ul><li>quickly, not over millions of years like the evolutionist says. </li></ul>
  108. 133. A Young Earth <ul><li>There’s too much helium in minerals? </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium and thorium generate helium atoms as they decay to lead. A study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research showed that such helium produced in zircon crystals in deep, hot Precambrian granitic rock has not had time to escape. Though the rocks contain 1.5 billion years worth of nuclear decay products, newly-measured rates of helium loss from zircon show that the helium has been leaking for only 6,000 (± 2000) years . </li></ul><ul><li>This is not only evidence for the youth of the earth, but also for episodes of greatly accelerated decay rates of long half-life nuclei within thousands of years ago, compressing radioisotope timescales enormously . </li></ul>Zircon Crystal Helium in Rocks
  110. 135. A Young Earth <ul><li>There’s too much carbon 14 in deep geologic strata? </li></ul><ul><li>With their short 5,700-year half-life, no carbon 14 atoms should exist in any carbon older than 250,000 years . Yet it has proven impossible to find any natural source of carbon below Pleistocene (Ice Age) strata that does not contain significant amounts of carbon 14, even though such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional carbon 14 laboratories have been aware of this anomaly since the early 1980s, have striven to eliminate it, and are unable to account for it . Lately the world’s best such laboratory which has learned during two decades of low-C14 measurements how not to contaminate specimens externally, under contract to creationists, confirmed such observations for coal samples and even for a dozen diamonds, which cannot be contaminated in situ with recent carbon. These constitute very strong evidence that the earth is only thousands , not billions , of years old. </li></ul>
  112. 137. A Young Earth <ul><li>Where are all the stone age skeletons / fossils? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary anthropologists now say that Homo sapiens existed for at least 185,000 years before agriculture began, during which time the world population of humans was roughly constant, between one and ten million. All that time they were burying their dead, often with artefacts. By that scenario, they would have buried at least eight billion bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>If the evolutionary time scale is correct, buried bones should be able to last for much longer than 200,000 years, so many of the supposed eight billion stone age skeletons should still be around (and certainly the buried artefacts). Yet only a few thousand have been found. </li></ul><ul><li>This implies that the Stone Age was much shorter than evolutionists think, perhaps only a few hundred years in many areas. </li></ul>
  114. 139. A Young Earth <ul><li>Agriculture is too recent? </li></ul><ul><li>The usual evolutionary picture has men existing as hunters and gatherers for 185,000 years during the Stone Age before discovering agriculture less than 10,000 years ago. Yet the archaeological evidence shows that Stone Age men were as intelligent as we are. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very improbable that none of the eight billion people mentioned in item 15 should discover that plants grow from seeds. It is more likely that men were without agriculture for a very short time after the Flood, if at all. </li></ul>
  116. 141. A Young Earth <ul><li>Where are all the historical records? </li></ul><ul><li>According to evolutionists, Stone Age Homo sapiens existed for 190,000 years before beginning to make written records about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Prehistoric man built megalithic monuments, made beautiful cave paintings, and kept records of lunar phases. Why would he wait two thousand centuries before using the same skills to record history? The Biblical time scale is much more likely.  </li></ul>
  118. 143. A Young Earth <ul><li>The moon is receding too fast? </li></ul><ul><li>Every year the moon moves away from the earth by about 4cm . Calculated backwards, the moon would have been touching the earth about 1.4 billion years ago . The evolutionist says the system is 4.6 billion years old . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a law in physics called the inverse square law that states with regards to gravity: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The gravitation attraction force between two point masses is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance . The force is always attractive and acts along the line joining them. ” </li></ul><ul><li>So basically, the gravitational strength between </li></ul><ul><li>the earth and the moon doesn’t just double </li></ul><ul><li>as it comes closer, it is squared. Because </li></ul><ul><li>the moons gravity effects our tides, it’s </li></ul><ul><li>impossible that the earth-moon system is </li></ul><ul><li>billion of years old. </li></ul>
  119. 144. Some Questions <ul><li>WHAT ARE THE ANSWERS? </li></ul>
  120. 148. Where do dinosaurs fit into the picture?
  121. 149. 15 &quot;Look at the behemoth , which I made along with you   and which feeds on grass like an ox.   16 What strength he has in his loins, what power in the muscles of his belly!   17 His tail sways like a cedar ; the sinews of his thighs are close-knit.   18 His bones are tubes of bronze, his limbs like rods of iron.   19 He ranks first among the works of God, yet his Maker can approach him with his sword.   20 The hills bring him their produce, and all the wild animals play nearby.   21 Under the lotus plants he lies, hidden among the reeds in the marsh.   22 The lotuses conceal him in their shadow; the poplars by the stream surround him.   23 When the river rages, he is not alarmed; he is secure, though the Jordan should surge against his mouth.   24 Can anyone capture him by the eyes, or trap him and pierce his nose? Job 40:15-24
  122. 150. Dinosaurs <ul><li>Behemoth: </li></ul><ul><li>Some bible commentaries say this might have been an elephant or a hippopotamus, neither of those 2 animals have a tail like a cedar. </li></ul><ul><li>Was more than likely a Brachiosaurus . </li></ul>Tail like a cedar!
  123. 151. 1 &quot;Can you pull in the leviathan with a fishhook or tie down his tongue with a rope?   2 Can you put a cord through his nose or pierce his jaw with a hook?   3 Will he keep begging you for mercy? Will he speak to you with gentle words?   4 Will he make an agreement with you for you to take him as your slave for life?   5 Can you make a pet of him like a bird or put him on a leash for your girls?   6 Will traders barter for him? Will they divide him up among the merchants?   7 Can you fill his hide with harpoons or his head with fishing spears? 8 If you lay a hand on him, you will remember the struggle and never do it again!   9 Any hope of subduing him is false; the mere sight of him is overpowering. 10 No one is fierce enough to rouse him. Who then is able to stand against me? 11 Who has a claim against me that I must pay? Everything under heaven belongs to me.   12 &quot;I will not fail to speak of his limbs, his strength and his graceful form.   13 Who can strip off his outer coat? Who would approach him with a bridle?   14 Who dares open the doors of his mouth, ringed about with his fearsome teeth?   15 His back has rows of shields tightly sealed together; Job 41:1-15
  124. 152. 16 each is so close to the next that no air can pass between.   17 They are joined fast to one another; they cling together and cannot be parted.   18 His snorting throws out flashes of light; his eyes are like the rays of dawn.   19 Firebrands stream from his mouth; sparks of fire shoot out.   20 Smoke pours from his nostrils as from a boiling pot over a fire of reeds.   21 His breath sets coals ablaze, and flames dart from his mouth.   22 Strength resides in his neck; dismay goes before him.   23 The folds of his flesh are tightly joined; they are firm and immovable.   24 His chest is hard as rock, hard as a lower millstone.   25 When he rises up, the mighty are terrified; they retreat before his thrashing.   26 The sword that reaches him has no effect, nor does the spear or the dart or the javelin.   27 Iron he treats like straw and bronze like rotten wood.   28 Arrows do not make him flee; sling stones are like chaff to him.   29 A club seems to him but a piece of straw; he laughs at the rattling of the lance.   30 His undersides are jagged potsherds, leaving a trail in the mud like a threshing sledge. Job 41:16-30
  125. 153. 31 He makes the depths churn like a boiling caldron and stirs up the sea like a pot of ointment.   32 Behind him he leaves a glistening wake;        one would think the deep had white hair. Job 41:31-32
  126. 154. Dinosaurs <ul><li>Leviathan : (Job 3; Psalm 24,104; Isaiah 27 also mention Leviathan) </li></ul><ul><li>Some bible commentaries say this might have been a crocodile, but there are many problems with that. </li></ul><ul><li>Was more than likely a mosasaur or a thalattosuchian . It also breathed fire which is well known in the dragon legends. </li></ul><ul><li>The word dinosaur was only invented in the 1800’s; before that they were called dragons. Many other secular writings from other ancient cultures that record these types of creatures. </li></ul>
  127. 155. Dinosaurs <ul><li>So dinosaurs were created with the other land animals on day six of creation. </li></ul><ul><li>All animals were herbivores before the fall; no one ate meat, only plants as God instructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs have always lived with man, which is why human and dinosaur footprints are often found together. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the flood everything lived longer and grew way bigger. Interestingly lizards never stop growing. Dinosaur means “Terrible lizard” </li></ul><ul><li>On the right is fossilized rock with a </li></ul><ul><li>dinosaur footprint next to a human </li></ul><ul><li>footprint. These are found all over </li></ul><ul><li>the world. The thought that </li></ul><ul><li>dinosaurs lived millions of years </li></ul><ul><li>ago is pure imagination. There is </li></ul><ul><li>NO evidence to support this. </li></ul>
  128. 162. Dating methods
  129. 163. Dating methods <ul><li>One evolutionist Robert E. Lee in his article in 1981 said, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why do geologists and archaeologists still spend their scarce money on costly radiocarbon determinations? They do so because occasional dates appear to be useful. While the method cannot be counted on to give good, unequivocal results, the numbers do impress people, and save them the trouble of thinking excessively. Expressed in what looks like precise calendar years, figures seem somehow better ... 'Absolute' dates determined by a laboratory carry a lot of weight, and are extremely helpful in bolstering weak arguments ” (Lee). </li></ul><ul><li>Then Mr. Lee continues later in his article and says, </li></ul><ul><li>“ No matter how 'useful' it is, though, the radiocarbon method is still not capable of yielding accurate and reliable results. There are gross discrepancies, the chronology is uneven and relative, and the accepted dates are actually selected dates. This whole bless thing is nothing but 13th-century alchemy, and it all depends upon which funny paper you read” (Lee). </li></ul><ul><li>Okay, so how do the dating methods work? </li></ul>
  130. 164. Dating methods <ul><li>Carbon Dating: </li></ul>
  131. 165. Dating methods <ul><li>Carbon Dating: </li></ul><ul><li>Sun shines down on the earth’s atmosphere (mostly Nitrogen [N14]). </li></ul><ul><li>The N14 atom becomes unstable and changes to Carbon 14 (C14). </li></ul><ul><li>The C14 then combines with our Carbon Dioxide (CO2). </li></ul><ul><li>Organic objects such as people, animals, plants, and trees are either taking or breathing the CO2 in every day. </li></ul><ul><li>When an organism dies, it no longer takes in any CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>So the C14 isotope continues to decay with no more coming in. </li></ul><ul><li>This decay time is measured by a unit called half- life. The half life of C14 is 5730 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The organism is dated by the amount of half lives that have passed according to the amount currently in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  132. 166. Dating methods <ul><li>Problems and assumptions made by Carbon Dating: </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of carbon 14 has always been the same in the earth’s atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The canopy theory of creation would mean there was definitely less carbon 14 in the atmosphere before the flood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The earth’s atmosphere has reached equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is more carbon coming in from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>than is being consumed on the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candle illustration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you find a candle burning in a room; when was it lit? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the candle (currently 10cm long) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the rate of consumption (3cm per hour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When was it lit?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll never know unless you make some assumptions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How long was the candle? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has it always burned at the same rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  133. 167. Dating methods <ul><li>Uranium to Lead / Potassium to Argon dating: Rock Dating </li></ul><ul><li>When a rock is newly formed the parent element should be 100% full. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent element slowly decays to the daughter element (natural decay). </li></ul><ul><li>The thinking is that if you can measure the amount of natural decay, you can work out when the rock was first formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of the daughter element is known in the rock being dated. </li></ul><ul><li>The daughter element is due to radio active decay. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock hasn’t been contaminated by other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>The decay rate has always been constant. </li></ul>
  134. 168. Dating methods <ul><li>Dating errors: </li></ul><ul><li>Live snails were carbon dated at 27 000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Living mollusc shells were dated to be 2,300 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones 30 000 years old were found on wood dated 16 000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks formed recently (1975) from lava flows in NZ dated 3.5 million years. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be no detectable carbon after 100 000 years; but a group of scientists measured carbon levels in coal (supposed to be millions of years old, and 12 diamond samples supposed to be millions to billions of years old. They all had detectable traces of carbon 14 in them. </li></ul><ul><li>3 different layers of the geologic column supposed to be hundreds of millions of years apart all had trace elements of carbon 14 showing they can’t be more than 100 000 years old max! </li></ul><ul><li>Kilauea Iki basalt, Hawaii which erupted in 1959 should get a date of about 40 years old right? Well Kilauea Iki dated to be 8.5 million years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Etna basalt, Sicily which erupted in May 1964 should get a young date but the rocks dated to be 700 000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Lassen plagioclase, California erupted in 1915 and it dated to be 110 000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion is that the earth can only be a max of 100 000 years old. </li></ul>
  135. 171. The Flood <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENED? </li></ul>
  136. 172. The Flood <ul><li>The account of Noah and the Ark is one of the most widely known events in the history of mankind. Unfortunately, like other Bible accounts, it is often taken as a mere fairy tale. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible, though, is the true history book of the universe, and in that light, the most-asked questions about the Ark and Flood of Noah can be answered with authority and confidence. </li></ul>
  137. 173. The Flood <ul><li>How big was the ark? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits ” Genesis 6:15 </li></ul><ul><li>The ark was not like we see in many drawings with a cute little boat and animals sticking out all over the place. </li></ul>
  138. 175. The Flood <ul><li>How big was the ark? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, its width fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits ” Genesis 6:15 </li></ul><ul><li>The ark was not like we see in many drawings with a cute little boat and animals sticking out all over the place. </li></ul><ul><li>The ark was a HUGE vessel, probably like a barge. Not until the late 1800’s was a ship built that exceeded the ark’s capacity. ( 140m long, 25m wide, 15m high; AT LEAST ) </li></ul>
  139. 176. The Flood <ul><li>How big was the ark? </li></ul><ul><li>The ark is one of the largest wooden ships of all time – a mid sized cargo ship by today’s standards. </li></ul><ul><li>God gave Noah the complete plans for the ark, and interestingly enough, modern ship builders say the blue print, as recorded in the bible, is an incredible design for a ship and is better than some of the modern day ship designs. </li></ul>
  140. 179. The Flood <ul><li>How could Noah build the ark? </li></ul><ul><li>The evolutionist will say that it takes 2 years to build modern day ships with all the technology and manpower, how could Noah and his sons do it just 2 years? </li></ul><ul><li>The bible doesn’t say Noah didn’t get any help from skilled labourers or relatives. Also there’s good evidence that Noah was about 13 foot tall and his sons must have been huge too. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical strength and mental processes of men in Noah’s day was at least as great (quite likely, even superior) to our own. When God created Adam, he was perfect. Today, the individual human intellect has suffered from 6,000 years of sin and decay. </li></ul>
  141. 180. The Flood <ul><li>How could Noah round up so many animals? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Of the birds after their kind , of animals after their kind , and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind , two of every kind will come to you, to keep them alive ” Genesis 6:20 </li></ul><ul><li>Noah didn’t do any rounding up, God brought them to the Ark. </li></ul><ul><li>It was only 2 of every kind, not species. Dog kind, cat kind, horse kind, elephant kind, giraffe kind, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought babies, not full grown adults. Smaller and have there full breeding life ahead of them. Also less space, less food, and less waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs were on the ark; of all the hundreds of species, most would agree that there are only about 50 different kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>Of around 16 000 basic kinds, only air-breathing, land-dwelling animals, creeping things and winged creatures boarded the ark; fish were fine outside, and insects were also fine outside. That[‘s about 2000 biblical kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>At these estimates, only half the ark’s space would have been taken up by animals. Space for food, fresh water, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the animals probably hibernated during the time as well. </li></ul>
  142. 182. The Flood <ul><li>How could a flood destroy every living thing? </li></ul><ul><li>“ And all flesh died that moved on the earth: birds and cattle and beasts and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, and every man. All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, all that was on the dry land, died ” Genesis 7:20-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Noah’s Flood was much more destructive than any 40-day rainstorm ever could be. Scripture says that the “fountains of the great deep” broke open. In other words, earthquakes, volcanoes, and geysers of molten lava and scalding water were squeezed out of the earth’s crust in a violent, explosive upheaval. These fountains were not stopped until 150 days into the Flood—so the earth was literally churning underneath the waters for about five months! The duration of the Flood was extensive, and Noah and his family were aboard the Ark for over a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively recent local floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes—though clearly devastating to life and land—are tiny in comparison to the worldwide catastrophe that destroyed “the world that then existed” ( 2 Peter 3:6 ). All land animals and people not on board the Ark were destroyed in the floodwaters—billions of animals were preserved in the great fossil record we see today. </li></ul><ul><li>Will watch video just now… </li></ul>
  143. 185. The Flood <ul><li>How could the ark survive the flood? </li></ul><ul><li>The arks measurements and design were studied in a 1992 Korean study and were found to be optimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably had anchor stones hanging over the side to keep the ship steady and to keep the ship vertical to the waves so it wouldn’t overturn. </li></ul>
  144. 187. The Flood <ul><li>How could the ark survive the flood? </li></ul><ul><li>The arks measurements and design were studied in a 1992 Korean study and were found to be optimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably had anchor stones hanging over the side to keep the ship steady and to keep the ship vertical to the waves so it wouldn’t overturn. </li></ul><ul><li>A moon pool would help relieve the pressure to the hull while going over waves. Would also pump fresh air into the boat and be a great way to get rid of rubbish and waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Also to remember that God was with them in the ark and protected them the whole time. Remember it was God who sealed them in.  </li></ul>
  145. 188. The Flood <ul><li>Where did all the water come from? </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights ” Genesis 7:11-12 </li></ul><ul><li>The Bible tells us that water came from two sources: below the earth and above the earth. Evidently, the source for water below the ground was in great subterranean pools, or “fountains” of fresh water, which were broken open by volcanic and seismic (earthquake) activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The canopy of ice or water vapour over the earth broke and poured rain down on the earth. </li></ul>
  146. 189. The Flood <ul><li>Where did all the water go? </li></ul><ul><li>“ And the waters receded continually from the earth. At the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters decreased ” Genesis 8:3 </li></ul><ul><li>Simply put, the water from the flood is in the oceans, seas, and lakes we see today. 3 quarters of the planet is covered by water. </li></ul><ul><li>When the mountains arose and the valleys sank down, all the water would have rushed off the higher ground into the lower ground. </li></ul>
  147. 190. The Flood <ul><li>Was Noah’s flood global? </li></ul><ul><li>“ And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth, and all the high hills under the whole heaven were covered. The waters prevailed fifteen cubits upward, and the mountains were covered ” Genesis 7:19-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Was not “universal”, it was global. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive erosion marks all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Bible says global. </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t Noah just move? Why build an ark? </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of Noah’s Flood can be seen all over the earth, from sea beds to mountaintops. Whether you travel by car, train, or plane, the physical features of the earth’s terrain clearly indicate a catastrophic past, from canyons and craters to coal beds and caverns. Some layers of strata extend across continents, revealing the effects of a huge catastrophe. </li></ul><ul><li>The earth’s crust has massive amounts of layered sedimentary rock, sometimes miles (kilometres) deep! These layers of sand, soil, and material—mostly laid down by water—were once soft like mud, but they are now hard stone. Encased in these sedimentary layers are billions of dead things (fossils of plants and animals) buried very quickly. The evidence all over the earth is staring everyone in the face. </li></ul>
  148. 196. The Flood <ul><li>To the video!! </li></ul>