I chose to do Breast Cancer because it was always the one thing that I always wanted to learn more about. Throughout my life all I was hearing on the news or through family members that people are being diagnosis with Breast Cancer. Since that I’ve wanted to dedicate my time for my project to learn more about Breast cancer and what it can do to people and see what their families are put through.
Many students probably know someone who has battled breast cancer. Evenif they don't, breast cancer can affect anyone, and it'simportant to learn how to reduce your risks and catch it early.
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. It is considered a unlike disease—differing by individual, age group, and even the kinds of cells within the tumors themselves. Obviously no woman wants to receive this diagnosis, but hearing the words “breast cancer” doesn’t always mean an end. It can be the beginning of learning how to fight, getting the facts, and finding hope.
The primary tumor begins in the breast itself but once it becomes invasive, it may spread to the regional lymph nodes or travel to other organ systems in the body through the lymphatic system. Lymph, the clear, protein-rich fluid that bathes the cells throughout the body, works its way back to the bloodstream via the channels known as lymphatic’s. along the way, the lymph is filtered through cellular stations known as nodes, which are called lymph node. in the breast, the primary lymph nodes are usually under the armpit. The primary tumor begins in the breast and the first place to which it is likely to spread is the regional lymph nodes. Cancer, as it invades in its place of origin, may also work its way into blood vessels. If cancers get into the blood vessels, the blood vessels provide yet another route for the cancer to spread to other organs in the body.
As you can see, most women with breast cancer are diagnosed between the ages of 40 and 69. There may be some connection with the changes in hormones related to menopause.- Throughout all of my interviews, almost everyone I interviewed was first diagnosed with breast cancer between those ages.- Being older you first had your menstrual period may also play a role in developing breast cancer.
It more likely to occur when you are in your late 30’s and you wait to have your 1st child.
Birth control pills contain hormones like estrogen and progestin
Drinking regular, moderate amounts of alcohol has been shown to increase estrogen levels in women, especially those who have gone through menopause.This is thought to be a contributing factor to breast cancer.
If you don’t exercise you have a 40% chance of developing breast caner. Also if your overweight and you lose weight you have a better chance of fighting breast cancer and winning because when you exercise your decreasing the exposure of breast tissue to circulating estrogen (a hormone that has been implicated in breast cancer.) So even just getting up and walking as a teen or even being active in gym class and if you stay active you have a low chance of getting breast cancer.
Such as family members having it in their genes it can be past down to you.
People with family history of breast cancer should start annual mammograms ten years younger then the youngest relative that was diagnosis with breast cancer.
Nipple discharge is often caused by benign disease.
After looking at all of the risk factors, there are five key things that women can do to limit their risk of breast cancer.Screening – because of greater awareness of breast cancer and people doing self examinations help them catch cancer early. The number of people that have breast cancer increased but the disease is being catch at an earlier stage.Monthly self-breast examinationYearly breast exams by your physicians Mammograms -- baseline at 35 years old, and every 1-2 years between the ages of 40 and 49, depending on the risk factors. After 50, a mammogram should be done every year. Mammograms may be recommended in certain high-risk younger
Breast Self-Exam (BSE) is a diagnostic technique regularly performed by a woman, independent from a physician, both by feeling for anything suspicious in her breasts and by observing any changes through the use of the mirror.Purpose – BSE should be performed monthly in order to discover changes in breast tissue, discharge from the nipple, or the onset of pain in the breast are. While 80% of lumps are not cancerous, such discoveries can ultimately lead to the detection of breast cancer.Pre-cautions – BSE is an affective self-diagnostic procedure, but it must not take the place of having a mammogram and having a health care provider check the breasts for abnormal changes. Make sure to schedule an annual clinical breast examination with a licensed medical care provider to supplement the BSE.Description – it is important that BSE’s are performed routinely so that a woman knows what her breasts normally feel and look like, resulting in quicker identification of anything abnormal. Self exams take less than 5 minutes to perform and should be done a few days after the end of menstruation . first you need to disrobe and stand in front of the mirror, observing the breast area in four different positions. The first position is with your arms down to the sides, look at the color, shape, outline, and direction of the breast and nipples. Take any notes of anything atypical (abnormal)
Clinical exams take place in the doctors office. They are usually performed during yearly gynecological exams. The doctor has the patient put her arm above her head and then probes the breast using the same motions as in a self-exam.
Mammogram – is an x-ray of the breast. Mammograms are the best methods to detect breast cancer early when it is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Having regular mammograms can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer . If you are age 40 years or older, be sure to have screening mammogram every one to two years but teens don’t have to worry about getting a mammogram but if you have a family history of a breast cancer jean then you may want to be test the jean itself. Anything lower then the age of 25 you have to have a clinical breast exam but if you are 25 you can have your first mammogram and after that you need one every year. Clinical breast- a clinical breast exam is an examination by a doctor or nurse, who uses his or her hands to feel for lumps or other changes.Breast self-exam- a breast self-exam is when you check your own breasts for lumps, changes in size or shape of the breast, or any other changes in the breast or underarm (armpit).
Breast ultrasound – a machine uses sound waves to make detailed pictures, called sonograms, of areas inside the breast.Diagnostic mammogram – if you have a problem in your breast, such as lumps, or if an area of the breast looks abnormal on a screening mammogram, doctors may have you get a diagnostic mammogram, this is a more detailed x-ray of the breast.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a kind of body scan that uses a magnet linked to a computer. The MRI scan will make detailed pictures of areas inside the breast if you have a very high risk you should also get an MRI because it is a more affective way to detect breast cancer. studies show that combining an MRI together with a mammogram you have a 95 percent chance of finding breast cancer compared a 36 percent chance by a mammogram alone. The benefits of an MRI screening it don’t seem so dramatic but if your not above the age of 40 a mammogram is recommended Biopsy – this is a test that removes tissue or fluid from the breast to be looked at under a microscope and do more testing. There are different kinds of biopsies (for example, fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, or open biopsy.)
Stage 0 – breast cancer includes ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget’s disease with no evidence of tumor. An in situ cancer does not involve the lymph nodes.
classified (a, b, or c) according to whether the tumor is 0.5 centimeters or less, between 0.5 and 1 centimeter, or 1 to 2 centimeters lymph nodes are not involved, and there is no spread of the cancer at this early stage
Breast cancer includes a tumor no larger than 2 centimeters, which has spread to the movable lymph nodes in the armpit on the same side as the involved breast; a 2 to 5 centimeter tumor without lymph node involvement or metastasis; the presence of cancer cells in the lymph nodes under the arm, without evidence of a primary breast tumor.
Carcinoma includes a tumor from 2 to 5 centimeters at the largest dimension, spread to the movable lymph nodes under the arm on the same side as the involved breast, and no distant metastasis; or a tumor more than 5 centimeters, without lymph node involvement or spread to other sites
Includes five groupings of tumors measuring 2 to 5 centimeters, and with various stages of spread to the lymph nodes on the same side as the affected breasts. There may not be evidence of a primary tumor but cancer is detected in lymph nodes under an arm that are fixed to a structure or to each other; a tumor no greater than 2 centimeters combined with spread to fixed lymph nodes.
Breast cancer includes tumors of any size that have extended directly to the chest wall or the skin, and any level of lymph node involvement; or of any size tumor with spread to the internal mammary (under the sternum or breast bone) lymph nodes of the same side as the affected side.
Breast cancer includes any size tumor, any lymph node involvement, and spread to distant sites, including the lymph nodes along the collar bone.
Five – year survival for stage 0 (in situ) breast cancer is more then 95%Five – year survival for stage 1 breast cancer is 85%Five – year survival stage 11 breast cancer is 66%Five – year survival at stage 111 breast cancer is 41%five – year survival at stage 1V breast cancer is 10%
Surgery: in the past surgery often immediately followed a positive biopsy, in what is called a one-step procedure. Now there is NO danger in waiting a week or two weeks between the time a biopsy confirms that a tumor is malignant and its removal. Separating the diagnostic test from surgery is called a two-step procedure. Although it requires another visit to the hospital and a second procedure, which some women consider a major disadvantage, there are several advantages. A two-step procedure allows a woman and her doctor to discuss and contemplate her opinions.
In this video it has a breast cancer doctor that is talking about the major facts of the surgery that is getting performed. It demonstrates how they remove the cancer and where they insert the needle.
Chemotherapy – when a tumor is large, identified as aggressive, and/or involves lymph nodes, some form of systemic adjuvant treatment is often recommended after surgery to destroy cancer cells that have escaped into the lymph and blood vessels and diminish the likelihood of recurrence.
-Hormonal Therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their actions and stops cancer cells from growing, hormone therapy tamoxifen is often given to patients with the early stages of breast cancer and those metastatic breast cancer (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.)
Biological therapy for breast cancer takes advantage of the body's own immune or hormonal system to act on cancer cells - while leaving healthy cells relatively intact. This approach is designed to minimize the side effects associated with traditional treatments like chemotherapy. Herceptin is believed to act in three ways to stop cancer cells from growing quickly and out of control:It sticks to special receptors on the cancer cells, stopping them from growing.It signals the body's own natural killer cells to attack the cancer cells.It can work with chemotherapy medications, stopping cancer cells damaged by chemo from repairing themselves.
Radiation – radiation therapy to the breast and sometimes the underarm five days a week for four to six weeks is typical. A concentrated “boost” dose of radiation may be delivered by special implants containing radioactive beads or external beam to end the therapy. (radiation therapy is also used to treat advanced breast cancer that has spread to the chest wall). Such intense exposure to radiation does have side affects, mainly swelling, and skin changes, which gradually disappear over the following year in most women. More serious side affects include heart and lung damage and a risk of second malignancies.
Breast cancer is rare in men, but can be serious and fatal. Many people believe that only women can get breast cancer, but men have breast tissue that also can develop cancer. when men and women are born, they have a small amount of breast tissue with a few tubular passages called ducts located under the nipple and the area around the nipple. By the time girls go through puberty, the female sex hormones cause the breast ducts to grow and milk glands to form at the end of the ducts. Now the male hormones eventually prevent further breast tissue growth. Even though the male breast tissue still contains some ducts, it will only have few or no lobe (round projection). If you don’t believe that men cant get breast cancer well your wrong because if you read the newspaper or look at philly.com it has an article of the ex-drummer Peter Criss was diagnosis with breast cancer. One day when peter was laying in his bed he was rubbing his chest when he came across something strange that felt like a small lump on his left chest. Peter said himself that he didn’t think that men could get breast cancer. as he kept playing with the lump it seemed to get bigger and bigger. He got really scared. The next day the former kiss drummer went to the doctors and underwent some tests and a surgical procedures to remove the lump. After a week of doctors did some examining on the lump that was removed it was breast cancer. after peter heard the news that it was breast cancer he said “my heart hit my stomach and my knees buckled.” the good news was that Criss caught the disease at its early stage. After the second and last surgery to remove the breast cancer, Criss wouldn’t need chemotherapy, radiation or medication.- Men account for only 1% of all breast cancer cases, but about 2,000 men develop it each year and 440 die from the disease.
Away of showing your support is by volunteering at a hospital or clinic that treats people with breast cancer. You can also show your support by advertising . People with breast cancer feel alone so if they know that other people care about them and wish they would get better, that might give them the hope they need to make through this. Also you can donate money to help find a cure, or you can participate in activities such as walks and buying t-shirts or ribbons which would also help you get involved with finding a cure for breast cancer or even just putting a smile on someone's face. If you know someone who has died from breast cancer a good way to get people to learn about it and to make people more aware is by creating a memorial site. It’s a good way to get support if your are hurting bad from this loss and its also a good way to connect with people that might be in the same situation.
Most people in the united states are just getting by with what they are making as an income. Plus most people don’t even have health insurance because maybe their job doesn’t offer it. Or you can be in the situation where you make to much money to get a state health insurance but not enough to pay for a private one. And when you have to add up the expenses of hospital care and treatments for someone with breast cancer can become very expensive. But luckily there are lots of groups and organizations that can help you. So in the end there is no need to go without help. And also if your are an infant, children or teen every state ha a special program called insure kids now.
Emotions are a great way to help cope (a way of dealing with a problem) with having breast cancer and dealing with a love one that has breast cancer/ going through the process. When dealing with a loved one that has breast cancer its natural to feel upset, anger, frustrated, stressed, worried, and you can feel guilty. Sometimes you need help to deal with your emotion even if it’s a friend or a conseculor, because it doesn’t just affect the person that has breast cancer it affects the people they love too. Your also going to feel like you have to keep in touch with this person 24/7. the emotions of having breast cancer are having so many fears and feeling uncomfortable that you cant even talk to your own family members or friends for support. That’s why there are support groups that can make you feel less alone and deal better with the challenges. In case of looking for a support group you can go to a hospital, a national cancer institute, internet, and doctors should give you information about local support groups.-
When I heard that our Superintendent was diagnosed with breast cancer, I just had to email her about her experience with breast cancer. I asked Dr. Jamula questions that could help me understand not only what she had to go through but what her family had to go through. Going to normal routine mammograms Dr. Jamula found out one day that she had breast cancer. I asked what was going through her mind at the time when she got notified that she was diagnosis with breast cancer. she answered “ you get thoughts like “OK, I’m going to treat this like any other malady, and do what I need to do to beat it” to “What if I don’t beat it? Do I have things ‘in order’?” Almost immediately I decided that I was going to follow the advice that I had given to other people with other illnesses throughout the years---which was “go to the best” --- and so I sought out to find what doctor/hospital was considered the best in the country in the treatment of breast cancer.”…she said that her family was right by her side everyday going to the doctors to help get rid of this cancer. when Dr. Jamula found out she was diagnosis with breast cancer was when she was 54 years of age. According to charts of the diagnosis of breast cancer Dr. Jamula falls right in the age group where people get diagnosis with breast cancer.
1. Breast CancerBy:Christopher Kline <br />
2. Thesis Statement<br />Breast Cancer can be a life threatening disease but with awareness and knowledge the chances for survival can greatly increase.<br />
9. Risk Factors - Childbirth<br />Being older at the birth of your first child<br />Never giving birth<br />Not breast feeding<br />LaRusso<br />http://spokanepublishing.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/pregnant-woman1.jpg<br />
10. Risk Factors – Birth Control<br />Using birth control pills , also called oral contraceptives.<br />LaRusso<br />http://www.arhp.org/hormonalcontraception/<br />
11. Risk Factors – Alcohol Use<br />Drinking alcohol (more than one drink a day).<br />LaRusso<br />http://www.cancer.org/docroot/SPC/content/SPC_1_Scientific_Explanation_of_Alcohol_Breast_Cancer_Connection.asp<br />
12. Risk Factors – Diet & Exercise<br />Not getting exercise on a regular basis<br />Being overweight.<br />LaRusso<br />
13. Diet & Exercise<br />http://topics.healthvideo.com/m/30271438/breast-cancer-prevention.htm#q=breast+cancer<br />
14. Risk Factors – Personal History<br />Personal history of breast cancer<br />Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast/chest<br />Long term use of hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progesterone)<br />LaRusso<br />
15. Risk Factors – Family History<br />Family history of breast cancer (mother, sister, daughter)<br />Breast cancer gene<br />LaRusso<br />
16. Symptoms<br />New lump in breast or underarm (armpit)<br />Thickening or swelling of breast<br />Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.<br />Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast<br />Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area<br />McKinnell<br />
17. Symptoms Continued<br />Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.<br />Any change in the size or the shape of the breast<br />Pain in any area of the breast<br />McKinnell<br />
18. Prevention<br />Screening<br />Weight control<br />Know your family history of breast cancer.<br />Find out the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy.<br />Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.<br />Nardo<br />
19. Self-examinations<br />Nardo<br />
20. Clinical Exam<br />Takes place in doctor’s office<br />Nardo<br />http://www.mountnittany.org/assets/images/krames/52313.jpg<br />
21. Mammograms<br />X-ray of the breast<br />Should get one every year after age 40<br />http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_jjqU97cZutk/SstLPGAWTkI/AAAAAAAAHUA/c9LrSmSSUoc/s320/mammogram.jpg<br />Murphy<br />
24. Stage 0 Cancer<br />No evidence of tumor<br />Does not include lymph nodes<br />Fredericks<br />http://www.arimidex.com/images/early-breast-cancer-stage-0_lg.jpg<br />
25. Stage 1 Cancer<br />Tumors up to 2 centimeters<br />Not spread to lymph nodes<br />http://www.arimidex.com/images/early-breast-cancer-stage-1_lg.jpg<br />Fredericks<br />
26. Stage 2A Cancer<br />Tumor less than 2cm with cancer in lymph nodes<br />Tumor 2-5cm with no cancer in lymph nodes<br />Fredericks<br />http://patientresource.net/userfiles/image/Breast_Stage_IIA_2010.jpg<br />
27. Stage 2B Cancer<br />Tumor 2 – 5 cm at the largest dimension spreads to the lymph nodes <br />Fredericks<br />http://www.faslodex.com/images/advanced-breast-cancer-stage-3B-3C-l.jpg<br />
28. Stage 3A Cancer<br />Five groupings of tumors 2 – 5cm <br />Various stages that spread to the lymph nodes<br />Fredericks<br />http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/E74D74FF-9D8E-4FF1-8B39-92E61EFE5310/18064/ductal_carcinoma_range1.jpg<br />
29. Stage 3B Cancer<br />Tumors of any size that extend directly to the chest wall or skin<br />Fredericks<br />http://www.faslodex.com/images/advanced-breast-cancer-stage-3B-3C-l.jpg<br />
30. Stage 4 Cancer<br />Tumor with any lymph nodes involved<br />Spreads to distant sites<br />Fredericks<br />http://www.faslodex.com/images/advanced-breast-cancer-stage-4-l.jpg<br />
39. Questions to ask doctor if you have breast cancer<br />Has my breast cancer spread? <br />What is the stage of my cancer and what does that mean?<br />What treatment choices do I have?<br />What treatment do you recommend?<br />Murphy<br />
46. My Application<br />Questions<br />Interviews<br />Website<br />
47. Questions asked to breast cancer patients<br />How did you find out that you had breast cancer?<br />What was going through your mind when you were notified that you were diagnosis with breast cancer?<br />How did you tell your family that you had breast cancer?<br />How old were your when you were diagnosis with breast cancer?<br />
48. Questions Continued<br />How did your family react when you told them about you being diagnosis with Breast Cancer?<br />How did this change your relationship with your family?<br />Was your family there for you the entire time you were going through the Breast Cancer Procedures? <br />
49. Dr. Jamula<br />
50. My Website<br />http://cancerbreast.webs.com/<br />
51. Works Cited<br />Dreyer, Zoann. Living with Cancer. New York: Infobase Publishing Inc., 2008. Print.<br />Fredericks, Carrie. Breast Cancer. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2007. Print. Perspectives on Diseases and Disorders.<br />LaRusso, Laurie. “Breast Cancer.” Conditions and Procedures InBrief (Sept. 2009). Rpt. in Breast Cancer. Consumer Health Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2009.<br />McKinnell, Robert G. Prevention of Cancer. Ed. Donna M. Bozzone. New York: Infobase Publishing Inc., 2008. Print. The Biology of Cancer.<br />Murphy, Gerald P., Lois B. Morris, and Dianne Lange. Informed Decisions: The Complete Book of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment, and Recovery. New York: Penguin Books U.S.A Inc., 1997. Print.<br />Nardo, Don. Diseases and Disorders: Breast Cancer. San Diego, CA. 2002. Print.<br />Thackery, Ellen, et al., Eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer: A Guide To Cancer and Its Treatments. Vol. 1. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2002. Print.<br />