Is History Really History? Oppression of Blacks in America Today
Overview Early Education Higher Education Racial Profiling Oppression of Black Women
Education: Brief History Jim Crow Legislation 1870’s Plessyv. Ferguson 1896 Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Ernest Green Video Clip
Education Today Test Score Trends Mathematics 4th Grade: Point gap 26 points in 2007 and 2009 from 31 in 1990 8th grade: Point gap 33 points in 1990 to 31 points in 2007, and 32 in 2009 Reading 4th grade: Point gap was 27 points in 2007, lower than any other year 8th grade: Point gap was 26 – not much of a difference from any other year (NAEP, 2009)
Education Continued… Attendance Rates In 2000 there were no differences in the absenteeism from school between Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics Retention Rates Blacks have a higher retention rate than Whites and Hispanics Drop Out Rates In 2007 the drop out rates for Blacks was higher than Whites but less than Hispanics College Rates Black college enrollment rates have increased
Possible Causes for Trends Family Breakdown Poverty Rates 31% Black children lived in poverty in 2000 # of parents in the home Less than ½ Black children lived with 2 parents in 2000 Risk factors for kindergartners Black kindergartners with 2 or more risk factors was 4 times greater than their white peers Being Read to Black 3-5 year olds were less likely to be read to or told a story in the past week than their peers
Possible Causes Continued… Health 1/8 children under age 18 had no public or private health insurance A little over ¼ children 19-35 months had not received immunizations Parental Education 81% had mothers with a high school level education
Higher Education In 1980, Blacks represented 9% of all students enrolled in college. Now Blacks comprise 11% of the total enrollment in school 12% enrolled in 2 year institutions 11 % enrolled in 4 year institution In comparison to other racial groups: Whites comprise 68% Hispanic 4% Asian/Pacific Islanders 6% American Indians/Alaska Natives 1%
Majors their studying According to the 2001 NCES report, Blacks are enrolled in Business Management 19.5% Computer & Information Science 3.9% Education Health Science 5.4% Engineering 3.6% Law 1.8% Medicine 0.3%
Why these trends? Although Blacks are entering college only 18% are graduating. Factors that are hindering blacks from entering college are: ACT testing Financial barriers Parental Education Many Blacks choose to attend HBCU’s instead of traditional white institutions.
Historical Black Colleges & Universities (HBCU’s) Brief history of the school Many attend these universities because Smaller intimate setting Admit higher % of disadvantaged students Accept lower SAT & ACT scores “Legacy effect” Belief that there is an absence of racism on campus
Discrimination in the Hiring Process In 2001, the Fair Employment Council found that over 20% of employers still treats black applicants less favorably than whites. How do companies do this… Journal: The Hidden Prejudice in Selection: A Research Investigation on Skin Color Bias
Definition of Racial Profiling Any police initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity.
Racial Profiling Cont… June 10,1999 Political figures gather together at a forum called “Strengthening Police-Community Relationships Clinton says racism is morally indefensible KS, MO, WA, and CT pass state legislation for state police End Racial Profiling Act of 2007
Anecdotal and Empirical Research Dr. Elmo Randolph’s experience with law enforcement Wilkins vs. Maryland State Police Personal Scenarios Social Theory
How Racial Profiling affects African Americans Low self-esteem, weak academics, behavior problems, etc Distrust in the law Youth being prosecuted as adults -Juvenile arrests per 1,000 persons in population All 56.2% ; Whites 49.1; Blacks 101 -Cases referred per 100 juvenile arrests All 88.8%; Whites 88.4%, Blacks 98.5% Controlling Images
Precarious Behaviors Alcohol consumption and drug use -Lifetime alcohol use (had at least one drink of alcohol during their life) 69 Blacks; 76 Whites Episodic heavy drinking (had five or more drinks of alcohol within a couple of hours before or at least one occasion during the last 30 days) 13 Blacks; 30 Whites
Precarious Behaviors Cont.. Drug selling (ever sold or helped sell marijuana, hashish, or other hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD) -Blacks 13; Whites 17 Theft of less than $50 - Blacks 38; Whites 44
Oppression in Black Women Ways oppressed today Stepping stones in history Great influences today
Oppression Today African American Women experience double oppression. They receive oppression for being black and for being a woman. Ron Daniels, The Struggle for Women’s Equality in Black America that black women are put on as a ‘pedestal’ to black men. An example of this: While more likely to be employed than African-American men, African-American women earn lower wages than African-American men and White women do according to Dr. Julianne Malveaux study completed in 2007. According to the same study African American women made 284 less a week than white men.
Even though we have over come laws oppression black women, oppression still exist in our culture. Black women face social and economical segregation. The belief is that if blacks women fail in society it is because of their color and sex.
Black females have the ‘strong black female’ role placed in their heads at young ages. They will not be expected to be taken care of and they will not ask for help. Black Women are raised to believe that their experiences define them. A black woman reaches adulthood through her experiences.
Media today portrays black women as large and obvious.
According to the Journal of Black Studies, In 1993 Black women make up 6.5% of Enrollment to undergraduate programs. According to the same study when speaking with black females they perceived their school environment as hostile and the school officials as not supportive.
Born in rural Mississippi to a poor unwed teenage mother, Winfrey got her start in television news before taking over a morning talk show in Chicago in 1984
Michelle Obama Received a sociology and African American Studies degree from Princeton Received a Law Degree from Harford Law school
Beckham, A. (Ed.). (2007). The State of Black America: Portrait of the Black Male. NeYork, NY: Beckham Publications Group. Gourdine, R. (2009). ‘Worldview and strength based perspectives: Defining normative development for africanamerican female adolescents-implications for black south african female adolescents’, Social Work in Public Health, 24:1 124-130 Harrison, M. S., & Thomas, K. M. (2009). The hidden prejudice in selection: A research investigation on skin color bias. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(1), 134-168. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00433.x Jansson, B. S. (2009). The reluctant welfare state. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Malveux, J. (2008) ‘Perspectives: The status of africanamerican women’ retrieved from: http://diverseeducation.com/artman/publish/article_10797.shtml Mastro, D.E. “Media Social Identity Approach to Understanding the Impact of Television Messages” Journal of Black Studies 32.3 (2003): 98-113. Matthews-Armstead E. (2002) ‘And still they rise: College enrollment of africanamerican women from poor communities’ Journal of Black Studies, 33;44 National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2009). Achievement gaps: How black and white students in public schools perform inmathematics and reading on the national assessment of educational progress (NCES Publication No. 2009-455). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009455
National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2003). Status and trends in the education of blacks (NCES Publication No. 2003-034). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003034 National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2009). The nations report card: National assessment of educational progress at grades 4 and 8 (NCES Publication No. 2010-451). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main2009/2010451.asp Neelum, Arya and Ian Augarten. Criticial condition African American youth in the Justice system. www.campaignforyouthjustice.org. Ramirez, Deborah. McDevitt, Jack. Farrell, Amy. (2000) A resource guide on racial profiling data collections systems: Promising practices and lessonslearned. Northeastern University. Stewart, Eric A. Baumer, Eric P. (2009) Neighborbood racial context andperceptions of police- based racial discrimination among black youth. College of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Florida State University.