African Americans

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  • 1. Is History Really History?
    Oppression of Blacks in America Today
  • 2. Overview
    Early Education
    Higher Education
    Racial Profiling
    Oppression of Black Women
  • 3. Education: Brief History
    Jim Crow Legislation 1870’s
    Plessyv. Ferguson 1896
    Brown v. Board of Education 1954
    Ernest Green Video Clip
  • 4. Education Today
    Test Score Trends
    Mathematics
    4th Grade: Point gap 26 points in 2007 and 2009 from 31 in 1990
    8th grade: Point gap 33 points in 1990 to 31 points in 2007, and 32 in 2009
    Reading
    4th grade: Point gap was 27 points in 2007, lower than any other year
    8th grade: Point gap was 26 – not much of a difference from any other year
    (NAEP, 2009)
  • 5. Education Continued…
    Attendance Rates
    In 2000 there were no differences in the absenteeism from school between Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics
    Retention Rates
    Blacks have a higher retention rate than Whites and Hispanics
    Drop Out Rates
    In 2007 the drop out rates for Blacks was higher than Whites but less than Hispanics
    College Rates
    Black college enrollment rates have increased
  • 6. Possible Causes for Trends
    Family Breakdown
    Poverty Rates
    31% Black children lived in poverty in 2000
    # of parents in the home
    Less than ½ Black children lived with 2 parents in 2000
    Risk factors for kindergartners
    Black kindergartners with 2 or more risk factors was 4 times greater than their white peers
    Being Read to
    Black 3-5 year olds were less likely to be read to or told a story in the past week than their peers
  • 7. Possible Causes Continued…
    Health
    1/8 children under age 18 had no public or private health insurance
    A little over ¼ children 19-35 months had not received immunizations
    Parental Education
    81% had mothers with a high school level education
  • 8. Higher Education
    In 1980, Blacks represented 9% of all students enrolled in college. Now Blacks comprise 11% of the total enrollment in school
    12% enrolled in 2 year institutions
    11 % enrolled in 4 year institution
    In comparison to other racial groups:
    Whites comprise 68%
    Hispanic 4%
    Asian/Pacific Islanders 6%
    American Indians/Alaska Natives 1%
  • 9. Majors their studying
    According to the 2001 NCES report, Blacks are enrolled in
    Business Management 19.5%
    Computer & Information Science 3.9%
    Education
    Health Science 5.4%
    Engineering 3.6%
    Law 1.8%
    Medicine 0.3%
  • 10. Why these trends?
    Although Blacks are entering college only 18% are graduating.
    Factors that are hindering blacks from entering college are:
    ACT testing
    Financial barriers
    Parental Education
    Many Blacks choose to attend HBCU’s instead of traditional white institutions.
  • 11. Historical Black Colleges & Universities (HBCU’s)
    Brief history of the school
    Many attend these universities because
    Smaller intimate setting
    Admit higher % of disadvantaged students
    Accept lower SAT & ACT scores
    “Legacy effect”
    Belief that there is an absence of racism on campus
  • 12. Discrimination in the Hiring Process
    In 2001, the Fair Employment Council found that over 20% of employers still treats black applicants less favorably than whites.
    How do companies do this…
    Journal: The Hidden Prejudice in Selection: A Research Investigation on Skin Color Bias
  • 13. Definition of Racial Profiling
    Any police initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity.
  • 14. Racial Profiling Cont…
    June 10,1999 Political figures gather together at a forum called “Strengthening Police-Community Relationships
    Clinton says racism is morally indefensible
    KS, MO, WA, and CT pass state legislation for state police
    End Racial Profiling Act of 2007
  • 15. Anecdotal and Empirical Research
    Dr. Elmo Randolph’s experience with law enforcement
    Wilkins vs. Maryland State Police
    Personal Scenarios
    Social Theory
  • 16. How Racial Profiling affects African Americans
    Low self-esteem, weak academics, behavior problems, etc
    Distrust in the law
    Youth being prosecuted as adults
    -Juvenile arrests per 1,000 persons in population
    All 56.2% ; Whites 49.1; Blacks 101
    -Cases referred per 100 juvenile arrests
    All 88.8%; Whites 88.4%, Blacks 98.5%
    Controlling Images
  • 17. Precarious Behaviors
    Alcohol consumption and drug use
    -Lifetime alcohol use (had at least one drink of
    alcohol during their life)
    69 Blacks; 76 Whites
    Episodic heavy drinking (had five or more drinks of alcohol within a couple of hours before or at least one occasion during the last 30 days)
    13 Blacks; 30 Whites
  • 18. Precarious Behaviors Cont..
    Drug selling (ever sold or helped sell
    marijuana, hashish, or other hard drugs
    such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD)
    -Blacks 13; Whites 17
    Theft of less than $50
    - Blacks 38; Whites 44
  • 19. Oppression in Black Women
    Ways oppressed today
    Stepping stones in history
    Great influences today
  • 20. Oppression Today
    African American Women experience double oppression. They receive oppression for being black and for being a woman.
    Ron Daniels, The Struggle for Women’s Equality in Black America that black women are put on as a ‘pedestal’ to black men.
    An example of this: While more likely to be employed than African-American men, African-American women earn lower wages than African-American men and White women do according to Dr. Julianne Malveaux study completed in 2007.
    According to the same study African American women made 284 less a week than white men.
  • 21. Even though we have over come laws oppression black women, oppression still exist in our culture.
    Black women face social and economical segregation.
    The belief is that if blacks women fail in society it is because of their color and sex.
  • 22. Black females have the ‘strong black female’ role placed in their heads at young ages. They will not be expected to be taken care of and they will not ask for help.
    Black Women are raised to believe that their experiences define them.
    A black woman reaches adulthood through her experiences.
  • 23. Media today portrays black
    women as large and
    obvious.
  • 24. According to the Journal of
    Black Studies, In 1993
    Black women make up
    6.5% of Enrollment to
    undergraduate programs.
    According to the same
    study when speaking with black
    females they perceived their
    school environment as hostile
    and the school officials as
    not supportive.
  • 25. Born in rural Mississippi to a poor unwed teenage mother, Winfrey got her start in television news before taking over a morning talk show in Chicago in 1984
  • 26. Michelle Obama
    Received a sociology and
    African American Studies
    degree from Princeton
    Received a Law Degree
    from Harford Law school
  • 27. References
     
    Beckham, A. (Ed.). (2007). The State of Black America: Portrait of the Black Male. NeYork, NY: Beckham Publications Group.
    Gourdine, R. (2009). ‘Worldview and strength based perspectives: Defining normative development for africanamerican female adolescents-implications for black south african female adolescents’, Social Work in Public Health, 24:1 124-130
    Harrison, M. S., & Thomas, K. M. (2009). The hidden prejudice in selection: A research
    investigation on skin color bias. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(1), 134-168.
    doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00433.x
    Jansson, B. S. (2009). The reluctant welfare state. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Malveux, J. (2008) ‘Perspectives: The status of africanamerican women’ retrieved from: http://diverseeducation.com/artman/publish/article_10797.shtml
    Mastro, D.E. “Media Social Identity Approach to Understanding the Impact of Television
    Messages” Journal of Black Studies 32.3 (2003): 98-113.
    Matthews-Armstead E. (2002) ‘And still they rise: College enrollment of africanamerican women from poor communities’ Journal of Black Studies, 33;44
    National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2009). Achievement gaps: How black and white students in public schools perform inmathematics and reading on the national assessment of educational progress (NCES Publication No. 2009-455). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009455
  • 28. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2003). Status
    and trends in the education of blacks (NCES Publication No. 2003-034).
    Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003034
    National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. (2009). The nations report card: National assessment of educational progress at grades 4 and 8 (NCES Publication No. 2010-451). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main2009/2010451.asp
    Neelum, Arya and Ian Augarten.  Criticial condition African American youth in the
                Justice system.  www.campaignforyouthjustice.org.  
    Ramirez, Deborah. McDevitt, Jack. Farrell, Amy. (2000) A resource guide on racial profiling
    data collections systems: Promising practices and lessonslearned. Northeastern University.
    Stewart, Eric A.  Baumer, Eric P. (2009)  Neighborbood racial context andperceptions of
    police- based racial discrimination among black youth. College of Criminology and
    Criminal   Justice. Florida State University.