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Information Architecture & Usability for the Systems Librarian
 

Information Architecture & Usability for the Systems Librarian

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This is an introductory presentation on Information Architecture and usability concepts for the systems librarian. It designed as an overview as well as a justification for the application of these ...

This is an introductory presentation on Information Architecture and usability concepts for the systems librarian. It designed as an overview as well as a justification for the application of these concepts in the library science field - specifically in ILS evaluation and selection.

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    Information Architecture & Usability for the Systems Librarian Information Architecture & Usability for the Systems Librarian Presentation Transcript

    • Information Architecture, Usability & Findability
      A Perspective for the Systems Librarian & ILS Selection
    • What’s All the Hub-Bub?
      New tools require new paradigms
      Just as a librarian must understand how resources are cataloged and stored in the physical library, they must understand how e-content is organized
      This requires:
      Technical knowledge of org. systems
      Understanding user behavior
      Understanding principles of design
    • Why is it Important to the Systems Librarian?
      How do they get to your system in the first place?
      System is more than the ILS today
      Quality content can be organized in environments not as friendly as an ILS
      Systems are not always organizing books or traditional content any longer
      The new tools we give end-users to find materials can actually create a digital divide
    • What Elements Do We Look for in a Web Interface?
    • Interface Elements
      Design
      Does it appeal to the eye?
      Does it “feel” good?
      Usability
      Is it functional, intuitive, require little effort, etc.
      Findability
      Can I find it to use it?
      Can I find what I want when I get there?
      Interfaces should be balanced and contain all 3 elements!
    • Exceptions to the Rules
      One element of the interface can trump all others
      Craigslist
      Flash sites
      Minimalist Design
      Twitter
      Facebook
    • Information Architecture
      The First Half of the Development Process
    • What is Information Architecture (IA)?
      Information Design & Presentation
      Human Information Behavior (HIB) plays a role
      Structuring, Organizing and Labeling
      Taxonomies
      Metadata
      Controlled Vocabularies
      SEO & Search Log Analysis
      Findability
      Ethnography & Usability Engineering
      Human Computer Interaction (HCI) borders and sometimes encompasses IA
      Information architecture for the World Wide Web" by Peter Morville & Louis Rosenfeld. O’Reilly, 2006.
    • IA-related Fields
      Usability Engineering/HCI
      Interaction/Experience Design
      Software Development
      Web Development
      Web Programming
      Enterprise Search/KM
      Content Management
    • What Does IA Involve?
      Creating site structure
      Site maps, wire diagrams, prototypes
      Site Navigation
      Labels, icons, categories
      Organization of Content
      Taxonomies, Controlled Vocab, Metadata
      Testing
      Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
      Building is usually done by developer
    • Site Map
    • Wire Diagram
    • Mock-up
    • PrototypingTools
      Visio
      Photoshop, Fireworks
      Axure
      Serena
      Omnigraffle
      Mindmapping Tools
    • Taxonomies, Controlled Vocabularies & Metadata
      Primary tools used in organization of site content
      Important in new ILS as you often have more control over the organization of content
      CMS and ILS are beginning to merge providing new opportunities (See, VTLS Chamos)
      Vocabulary tools facilitate search and enable findability
    • Taxonomy & Content Tools
      Excel
      MultiTes
      Factiva Synaptica
      Lexico
      Web Choir
      Term Tree
      Data Harmony
    • Findability*
      What About this Idea?
      *This is a term I credit to Peter Morville not myself.
    • Class Exercise
      Was it Churchill who said, democracy is the worst political system, except for all the others?
      Need reputable cite-able source (NOT wikipedia)
      IUPUI UL
      The top joint of the last two fingers of my right hand have turned red and swollen. What does it mean?
      WebMD
    • Findability Involves
      SEO
      Search Engine Ranking
      Site Optimization
      Metatags
      Pathways – Where they Arrive From
      Search Log Analysis
      Site Analytics
      This only gets them toyour site!
    • Findability Within the Site
      Search Engine
      Sound Structure and Navigation
      Auto-complete functions
      Enhanced Web Programming
      Spellcheck
      Advanced Algorithms
      Suggestions
      “If you like this, you might try…”
      Social Networking
    • Usability & Testing
      The Second Half the Development Process
    • Site & Design Testing
      Emerging as a field distinct from IA
      HCI – Human Computer Interaction
      Often overlaps with IA
      HCI Involves
      Usability Evaluation
      Design and development efforts
      Prototyping
      Psychology
    • User Behavior
      How People View the Web:
      Scan
      Muddle through
      Quick click through links
      The free nature of the web encourages this while discouraging planning or structuring searches
      Dialog Classic as an example
    • How Users View Pages
    • Usability Guidelines
      Navigation
      Current location within the site is shown clearly
      Link to the site's main page is clearly identified
      Major/important parts of the site are directly
      accessible from the main page
      Site map is provided for a large, complex site
      Easy to use Search function is provided, as needed
      Functionality
      Functions are clearly labeled
      Essential functions are available without leaving the site
      Plug-ins are used only if they add value
      MIT Usability Guidelines. http://ist.mit.edu/services/consulting/usability/guidelines
    • Usability Guidelines Cont.
      User Controls
      User can cancel any operation (Forgiveness)
      Clear exit point is provided on every page
      Small page size
      All appropriate browsers are supported
      http://browsershots.org/
      Online Help & User Guides
      Site is designed to require minimal help and instructions
      Help and instructions, if needed, are easily accessible
      MIT Usability Guidelines. http://ist.mit.edu/services/consulting/usability/guidelines
    • Usability Guidelines Cont.
      Language & Content
      Related information or tasks are grouped:
      - on the same page or menu
      - in the same area within a page
      Language is simple, without jargon
      Paragraphs are brief
      Links are concise, expressive, and visible--not buried in text
      MIT Usability Guidelines. http://ist.mit.edu/services/consulting/usability/guidelines
    • Usability Guidelines Cont.
      Consistency
      The same word or phrase is used consistently to describe an item
      Link reflects the title of the page to which it refers
      Aesthetics & Design
      MIT Usability Guidelines. http://ist.mit.edu/services/consulting/usability/guidelines
    • Why Usability Studies are Important to the Systems Librarian
      Debunk your assumptions projected on end-user
      Study results are beneficial to other libraries selecting ILS
      Studies in library science are often poorly designed (or non-existent)
      Improve web page or sites designed to bring users to ILS
      Improve systems beyond ILS (digital libraries, repositories, etc.)
      Usability studies = publishing
    • Usability Testing Methods
      Generally use both qualitative and quantitative methods in testing
      Small sample sizes
      Sample sizes can often lack representative integrity
      Example: A Number of LIS studies use LIS Grad Students. What is the problem with this?
    • Usability Testing Methods Cont.
      Normally testing is not meant to have the rigidity we might see in fields such as medical science
      Jacob Nielsen – Heuristic Evaluation & “5 users is enough”
      • Sample size might not be representative
      • Level of expertise in users can play a role as illustrated via Novice to Expert Ratio
    • Quantitative Usability Testing*
      Task Analysis (can be timed)
      GOMS (Goals, Operator, Methods, Selection)
      Keystroke Modeling
      Software Tracking (eye tracking, Morae)
      Remote Usability Testing
      Site Usage Logs
      Questionnaire
      Can be quantitative or qualitative depending on study design.
    • Qualitative Testing
      Card Sort
      Cognitive Walkthrough
      Field Study/ethnography
      Focus Groups
      Interview (structured, semi-structured, unstructured)
      Prototypes
    • Informal Testing
      Steve Krug “Do they get it?”
      Key Task Assignment
      One-on-one interviews
      Paper Prototypes
    • Usability Testing VA 2010
      Prior ethnography – 5 site visits
      Small sample – 25 physicians or less
      Questionnaire – use analysis
      Semi-structured interviews
      Prototype Mock for walkthrough
      Task/time analysis
    • Summary Points
      Bringing it all Together
    • Back to the ILS
      Definition of ILS is broad today and involves a number of interfaces you may have control over
      The principles of usability are applicable to ILS Evaluation and Selection
      User studies and testing can provide a means for solid feedback from end-users
      User studies and testing can provide you with a set of heuristics for evaluation and selection of new ILS or development of ILS and/or web interface
      There are employment opportunities in these fields