“The power to coordinate otherwisedispersed groups will continue toimprove; new social tools are stillbeing invented, and however minorthey may seem, any tool thatimproves shared awareness or groupcoordination can be pressed intoservice for political means, becausethe freedom to act in a group isinherently political.”- Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody (2008)
What are some of thetrends you are seeing inthe world of „digital‟politics today?
Online Fundraising• 2004 Presidential election – Kerry collected $82 million between March and the end of July; Bush raised $17 million (Vaccari 2008)• 2008 Presidential election – Obama raises an estimated $500 million online (Huffington Post, 2011)• 2012 ...to be determined – Will the SuperPACs derail grassroots campaigns?
“Friendraising”• Votizen is a new social network for voters• The idea is to get “friend s to persuade friends” to vote versus “buying votes”• Over 540K voters registered on Votizen• Members can: – Connect with “voting” friends – Endorse candidates and causes – View voting records – Express their political viewsSource: Gannes, L. (2012) Votizen Gets a Celebrity Round of Funding to Connect Social Media and Politics. AllthingsD.com. Retrievedfrom http://allthingsd.com/20120223/votizen-gets-a-celebrity-round-of-funding-to-connect-social-media-and-politics/
Votizen Founder: David Benetti
Online AdvertisingIncreased online spendingby candidates:2012 election estimates --somewhere between $1 and$1.5 billion,up from $177 million in 2008.
Political Parody• “Emerging genre of political Twitter fakes”* Aka. “Fake politicians” • Generally follow the events/activities of the real politician in order to „tweet in character‟ • Have followers who are politically engaged • Most are in it for the humor – believing the political impact is low • Sometimes end up having real-life „interactions with their targets‟ • Some targets get backlash for trying to „shut down‟ the fakes*Wilson, J. (2011) Playing with Politics. London, England: Sage Publishing.
Online Political Satire• Mark Fiore• 2010 Pultizer Prize Winner• Online only – political cartoon satirist
Mark Fiore “Old vs. New”
Flash Mobs• Synchronized meet-ups in the real world• Invented by Bill Wasik (Harper‟s Magazine) as „street performance‟• At first, mostly harmless fun • Zombie walk in San Francisco • Silent dance party @ London‟s Victoria Station• Then, entered the political sphere • Cartoonist Gary Trudeau (Doonesbury) - Howard Dean flash mob in Seattle (2003)• And, rallied people to protest – Vladimir Putin reelection “Vova go home!” (2004) – Balurus election protest (2006) • Protesters stood silently eating ice cream – still several were arrested Photo courtesy of SmartMobs blog.
Political Bloggers• Political bloggers use blogging as a means for political expression and social change• Why they do it:* } – An alternative perspective to mainstream media – Help society Extrinsic motivations – Inform people } – Formulate new ideas – Keep track of thoughts Intrinsic motivations – Let off steam• Impact? – 94% readers focus on views they already agree with *Ekdale, B., Namkoong, K. , Fung, T. (2010) Why Blog? London, England: Sage Publishing.
Sources• Ekdale, B., Namkoong, K. , Fung, T. (2010) Why Blog?: Exploring the motivations for blogging by popular American political bloggers. London, England: Sage Publishing.• Gannes, L. (2012) Votizen Gets a Celebrity Round of Funding to Connect Social Media and Politics. AllthingsD.com. Retrieved from http://allthingsd.com/20120223/votizen-gets-a-celebrity-round-of- funding-to-connect-social-media-and-politics/• Luo, M. (2008) Small Online Contributions Add Up to Huge Fund-Raising Edge for Obama. Nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/20/us/politics/20obama.html/• Shirky, C. (2008) Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Kindle edition.• Thomas, K. (2011) Barack Obama 2012 Campaign To Go Beyond Email, Text . Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/28/barack-obama-2012- campaign_n_886280.html.• Veccari, C. (2008) From the air to the ground: the internet in the 2004 US presidential campaign. London, England: Sage Publishing.• Wilson, J. (2011) Playing with Politics: Political fans and Twitter faking in post-broadcast democracy. London, England: Sage Publishing.• Zepeda, A. (2003) Doonesbury Cartoon Sets Up Political Rally. Komonews.com. Retrieved from http://www.komonews.com/news/archive/4104521.html/
Factoids• 75 million Americans went online for campaign-related activities in 2004• 52 percent went online to get information on candidates and issues• 35 % used email to discuss politics,• 11 %(about 13 million people) participated in online campaign activities such as making donations, signing up as volunteers, or learning about political events and rallies(Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2005).