Immigration 1880-1921
Turn of the Century Immigration to the U.S.              1880                          1910   •49% from NW Europe         ...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Characteristics of the “New Immigrant”  • From Southern and Eastern    Europe  • Many young males  • Many Catholics and Je...
Push and Pull Factors
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Push Factors (Get OUT!)•   Economic Problems in Europe and Asia     1. Poverty     2. Drought and famine     3. Rising pop...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Pull Factors (Come HERE!)•   Economic Advantages in America     1. Available and affordable land to farm     2. Increasing...
Journey Across the Atlantic             • 10-15 day voyage by                steamship             • Steerage Class Ticket...
Journey Across the Atlantic             • 10-15 day voyage by                steamship             • Steerage Class Ticket...
Journey Across the Atlantic             • 10-15 day voyage by                steamship             • Steerage Class Ticket...
Journey Across the Atlantic             • 10-15 day voyage by                steamship             • Steerage Class Ticket...
Steerage Conditions•Crowded, unsanitary, little food, enclosed!
Ellis Island75% of immigrants toAmerica go through EllisIsland (1892-1920)                                 --”Give me your...
Immigrants Assimilate Into           SocietyAssimilate = to fit in.Most immigrants stayed in cities and lived in ethnic ...
Ethnic Neighborhoods
New YorkCity’s LowerEast Side
Americanization• Americanization = helping newcomers learn American  ways (language, customs, dress, and diet)   -In many ...
Hardships• Poor living conditions - tenements• Low paying factory jobs (competition for jobs)• Discrimination from “native...
Americans’ Treatment of Immigrants/Nativism
Motivation For Nativism• Fear, hostility, and suspicion• Prejudices based on race, ethnicity,  religion• Old Immigrants vs...
Restrictions on Immigration• 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act excluded Chinese  immigrants• 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement restricte...
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Immigration 2012 2013

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Immigration 2012 2013

  1. 1. Immigration 1880-1921
  2. 2. Turn of the Century Immigration to the U.S. 1880 1910 •49% from NW Europe •16% from NW Europe •27% from Eastern and •73% from Eastern and Southern Europe Southern Europe •24% from the Rest of the •11% from Rest of the World World 1880 1910 Northwestern Europe Northwestern Europe Southern and Eastern Southern and Eastern Europe Europe Rest of the World Rest of the WorldWhat change is evident?__________________________________________________________________________________________
  3. 3. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  4. 4. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  5. 5. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  6. 6. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  7. 7. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  8. 8. Characteristics of the “New Immigrant” • From Southern and Eastern Europe • Many young males • Many Catholics and Jews • Mostly unskilled agricultural laborers • Little money or education
  9. 9. Push and Pull Factors
  10. 10. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  11. 11. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  12. 12. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  13. 13. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  14. 14. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  15. 15. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  16. 16. Push Factors (Get OUT!)• Economic Problems in Europe and Asia 1. Poverty 2. Drought and famine 3. Rising populations• Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe 1. Religious persecution a. Pogroms=violent mob attacks directed towards Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe 2. Wars and forced military service
  17. 17. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  18. 18. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  19. 19. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  20. 20. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  21. 21. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  22. 22. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  23. 23. Pull Factors (Come HERE!)• Economic Advantages in America 1. Available and affordable land to farm 2. Increasing number of factory jobs 3. Free public education• Political and Religious Freedom in America 1. Religious toleration 2. No forced military service 3. Democratic government
  24. 24. Journey Across the Atlantic • 10-15 day voyage by steamship • Steerage Class Ticket $10-$35 per person• Could enter through any port city, but most ships traveled to New York City• 1st and 2nd class passengers did not have to be processed at an immigration station
  25. 25. Journey Across the Atlantic • 10-15 day voyage by steamship • Steerage Class Ticket $10-$35 per person• Could enter through any port city, but most ships traveled to New York City• 1st and 2nd class passengers did not have to be processed at an immigration station
  26. 26. Journey Across the Atlantic • 10-15 day voyage by steamship • Steerage Class Ticket $10-$35 per person• Could enter through any port city, but most ships traveled to New York City• 1st and 2nd class passengers did not have to be processed at an immigration station
  27. 27. Journey Across the Atlantic • 10-15 day voyage by steamship • Steerage Class Ticket $10-$35 per person• Could enter through any port city, but most ships traveled to New York City• 1st and 2nd class passengers did not have to be processed at an immigration station
  28. 28. Steerage Conditions•Crowded, unsanitary, little food, enclosed!
  29. 29. Ellis Island75% of immigrants toAmerica go through EllisIsland (1892-1920) --”Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore…I lift my lamp beside the golden door.” –Statue of Liberty Emma Lazarus
  30. 30. Immigrants Assimilate Into SocietyAssimilate = to fit in.Most immigrants stayed in cities and lived in ethnic neighborhoods.These neighborhoods would share the same language, religion, food, newspapers, clothing, and culture.By 1890 many cities had a huge immigrant population. 4/5 people in NYC were immigrants.
  31. 31. Ethnic Neighborhoods
  32. 32. New YorkCity’s LowerEast Side
  33. 33. Americanization• Americanization = helping newcomers learn American ways (language, customs, dress, and diet) -In many cities institutions arose to help immigrants fit in (English classes, day care for working mothers, temporary housing) • Settlement houses • YMCA • Salvation Army -Immigrants usually stuck with their native cultures but children of immigrants were more likely to adopt American ways.
  34. 34. Hardships• Poor living conditions - tenements• Low paying factory jobs (competition for jobs)• Discrimination from “native-born” Americans
  35. 35. Americans’ Treatment of Immigrants/Nativism
  36. 36. Motivation For Nativism• Fear, hostility, and suspicion• Prejudices based on race, ethnicity, religion• Old Immigrants vs. New Immigrants “The immigrants are an invasion of venomous reptiles…long- haired, wild-eyed bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches, who never did a day’s work in their lives.” –from a newspaper editorial• Some similarities to today (i.e. jobs)
  37. 37. Restrictions on Immigration• 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act excluded Chinese immigrants• 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement restricted Japanese immigrants• 1917 Literacy tests required immigrants to prove they could read and write in their native language• 1921 Quotas restrict immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe
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