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  • 1. Civil Rights
  • 2. Jim Crow Laws -laws that created separate facilities for African Americans and whites (schools, restaurants, trains, hospitals, theaters, etc.) 31.2
  • 3. Following World War II segregation remains legal in the general public Returning Soldiers Face Segregation 31.2
  • 4. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) -the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for African Americans and whites were equal, which they rarely were -“Separate but Equal” -made Jim Crow legal 31.3
  • 5. 1948 President Truman Ends Segregation in the Armed Forces 31.3
  • 6. -1954 Supreme Court ruled that separate schools could never be equal, thus striking down Plessy v. Ferguson -Linda Brown’s parents sued the Topeka Board of Education which denied her the right to attend a Topeka school -schools are ordered to desegregate 31.3 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
  • 7. -December 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama and she is arrested and jailed - Dr. Martin Luther King , Jr. a Baptist Minister, helps lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott and becomes a national Civil Rights leader. Montgomery Bus Boycott 31.4
  • 8. 31.4 Rosa Parks Being Fingerprinted
  • 9. Peacefully Protesting Segregated Busses 31.4
  • 10. Dr. King is arrested for his role in the bus boycott. 31.4
  • 11. Economic pressure put on business leaders of Montgomery helps convince them to desegregate busses. 31.4
  • 12. Martin Luther King Jr., Celebrating End of Montgomery Bus Boycott 31.4
  • 13. Suggestions from Montgomery Improvement Association how to behave on newly desegregated busses . 31.4
  • 14. 31.4
  • 15. Civil Disobedience: -refusing to obey certain laws in order to change those laws or change government policy -nonviolent techniques such as boycotting, picketing,etc. are used Nonviolent Protest 31.5
  • 16. Marches Sit Ins Nonviolent Protest 31.5
  • 17. Integration = desegregation, ending legal segregation 31.5
  • 18. Arkansas National Guard Used to Enforce School Segregation Crisis in Little Rock Central High School 1957 Little Rock, Arkansas 31.5
  • 19. Police Block Entrance to Central High School School in Little Rock 31.5
  • 20. Nine African American students (Little Rock Nine) were escorted to school each day by the 101 st U.S. Army Airborne Division and the nationalized Arkansas National Guard for the 1957-1958 school year. The board of education of Little Rock cancelled the entire 1958-1959 school year. 31.5
  • 21. 31.5
  • 22. Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit In - 1960 31.5
  • 23. FREEDOM RIDERS 1961 – challenged segregation on interstate bus trips 31.5
  • 24. John Lewis James Zwerg 31.5
  • 25. 31.5
  • 26. 31.5
  • 27. Birmingham, Alabama -one of the most racially divided cities in America -civil rights activists organize nonviolent protests (sit ins, marches), which lead to mass arrests draw media attention and force integration 31.6
  • 28. 31.6
  • 29. Under orders of police, fire fighters turn hoses on protesters. Hoses exert 700 pounds of pressure per square inch and can rip flesh from bone. 31.6
  • 30. Children’s Marches -6,000 children age 6-16 -police used hoses, dogs and clubs -over 900 were arrested -reported in the media all over the world 31.6
  • 31. Four Girls Killed in the Bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church September 1963, Bombing of 16 th Street Baptist Church 31.6
  • 32. Addie Mae Collins Carole Robertson Denise McNair Cynthia Wesley 31.6
  • 33. 31.6
  • 34. MARCH ON WASHINGTON, MARCH 1963 31.7
  • 35. MARCH ON WASHINGTON Protesting: Police Brutality, Unequal Pay, Job Discrimination, Lack of Rights 31.7
  • 36. MARCH ON WASHINGTON, MARCH 1963 31.7
  • 37. -ended segregation in public places Civil Rights Act 1964 -outlawed discrimination in hiring -gave the govt. the authority to enforce desegregation 31.7
  • 38. Michael Schermer James Chaney Andrew Goodman 1964: Civil Rights Workers Murdered in Mississippi 31.7
  • 39. Voting Rights Act 1965 -ended literacy tests -allowed federal officials to register voters in states where local officials refused to 31.7
  • 40. April 4, 1968 31.7
  • 41. -even in death he is one of the most influential figures in civil rights and nonviolent protest -Dr. King was killed by James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee Assassination -April 4, 1968 31.7
  • 42. 31.7
  • 43. James Earl Ray 31.7