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Introduction to RF & Wireless - Part 2
Introduction to RF & Wireless - Part 2
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Introduction to RF & Wireless - Part 2

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Part 2 covers RF system building blocks, RF system components and microwave circuits

Part 2 covers RF system building blocks, RF system components and microwave circuits

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  • 1. Introduction to RF & Wireless Two Day Seminar Module 2
  • 2. Introduction to RF & Wireless Two Day Seminar Module 2
  • 3. Course AgendaDay One • Morning (Module 1) – Introduction to RF • Afternoon (Module 2) – RF hardwareDay Two • Morning (Module 3) – Older systems & mobile telephony • Afternoon (Module 4) – Newer systems & the future
  • 4. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  • 5. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  • 6. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 7. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 8. Transmitters & ReceiversRecall Basics Building Blocks - Transmitter/Receiver P
  • 9. Transmitter Block Diagram
  • 10. Receiver Block Diagram
  • 11. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 12. AntennasBasic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 13. AntennasFunction ♦ Turn current on a wire into airborne waves ♦ Vice versa • Most antennas work in both directions Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 14. AntennasWhat ♦ Act as impedance matching circuits • From conductor (50 ohms) to free space (377 ohms) AntennaFree space Conductor 377 ohms 50 ohms
  • 15. AntennasHow ♦ Conductors that are about ½ wavelength long begin to radiate RF energy as waves ½ Wavelength
  • 16. Wavelength (meters) ApplicationWavelengths 5,000,000 Electrical wall outlet 152,500 The human voice 566 AM radio 5 VHF television 3 FM radio 0.3 Cellular phones 0.1 PCS phones 0.02 DirectTV™
  • 17. AntennasCharacteristics ♦ Active: Requires a power supply ♦ Passive: Does not require a power supply ♦ Directional: Sends RF energy in one direction ♦ Omnidirctional: Sends RF energy in all directions ♦ Size: Depends on the wavelength ♦ Shape: Depends on the direction of the RF energy Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 18. Antenna PatternWhat Is It? ♦ An engineering tool that shows a birds-eye view of the RF energy radiating out of an antenna Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 19. Antenna PatternOmnidirectional Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 20. Antenna PatternDirectional Beamwidth 20° Azimuth Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 21. GainTwo Kinds ♦ Power gain • Comes from an amplifier • Increases the power ♦ Antenna gain • Directional gain • No increase in power Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 22. Isotropic AntennaWhat Is It? ♦ A mythical "point" antenna • Antenna pattern is a sphere • Minimum power density Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 23. Directional AntennaVisual Depiction ♦ Higher power density than isotropic Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 24. Antenna GainDirectional Gain ♦ A gain in power density NOT power • Relative to an isotropic antenna ♦ Measured in dBiDefinition ♦ dBi = "dB greater than isotropic" Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 25. Antenna GainFor Example An directional antenna with 10 dBi of antenna gain produces an RF signal with TEN TIMES the power density compared to an isotropic antenna Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 26. Antenna Gain 10 dBi Output power = 30 dBmInput power = 30 dBm Effective Isotropic Radiated Power = 30 dBm + 10 dBi = 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 27. Output power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB -90 dBm S/N 30 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  • 28. Effective isotropicradiated power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB -90 dBm S/N 30 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  • 29. Effective isotropicradiated power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB Ant gain S/N 40 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  • 30. Antenna Gain30 dBm Antenna FSL Absorb Antenna -80 dBm 10 dBi -120 dB -10 dB 10 dBi S/N 40 dB Noise floor -120 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 31. Antenna GainEven Omnidirectionals Have Gain ♦ 2 - 3 dBi Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 32. Antenna TypesOmnidirectional ♦ Dipole: ½ wavelength long ♦ Monopole: ¼ wavelength longDirectional ♦ Dish ♦ Horn ♦ Patch ♦ Array
  • 33. Array Antenna
  • 34. PolarizationWhat Is It? ♦ The RF (sine) waves which emanate from an antenna have an orientation to them • Horizontal • Vertical
  • 35. PolarizationHorizontal Vertical Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 36. PolarizationSo What ♦ Otherwise identical RF signals can be made distinct by having different polarizations • Better use of scarce bandwidth • Polarization diversity Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 37. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 38. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 39. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 40. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 41. Smart AntennasHow? ♦ Switched beam ♦ Electronically scannedWhy? ♦ More users per area ♦ Spatial division multiple access Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  • 42. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 43. AmplifiersBasic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 44. AmplifiersFunction ♦ Increase the power of RF signals • "Power gain" Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 45. AmplifiersMain Types ♦ Low noise amplifier (LNA) • First one in a receiver ♦ High power amplifier (HPA) • Last one in a transmitter ♦ Other • Many different kinds • "Gain blocks" Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 46. AmplifiersHPA LNA Other
  • 47. Amplifier PropertiesLNA HPA ♦ Gain ♦ Gain ♦ Linearity ♦ Linearity ♦ Noise figure ♦ Output power Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 48. GainPower Gain (Gp) ♦ Measured in dB 30 dB -90 dBm -60 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 49. LinearityTransfer Curve One dB compression point
  • 50. LinearityAnother Measure ♦ Third order intercept (Ip3) ♦ Intercept point • Measured in dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 51. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm HPA 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 52. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 53. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 54. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dB 20 dBm 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 55. Noise FigureDefinition ♦ How much an amplifier decreases the S/N ratio • Measured in dB LNA S/N 40 dB S/N 37 dB NF=3dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 56. A Special AmplifierVariable Gain Amplifier (VGA) ♦ Gain can be made to vary 15 dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 57. A Special AmplifierVariable Gain Amplifier (VGA) ♦ Gain can be made to vary 30 dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 58. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 59. FiltersBasic Building Blocks - Filters
  • 60. FiltersFunction ♦ Eliminate signals at unwanted frequencies Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  • 61. FiltersBlock Diagrams Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  • 62. FiltersFrequency Response ♦ Used to describe a filters behavior ♦ A graph of attenuation vs frequency
  • 63. FiltersTypes ♦ Low pass • Only signals below a certain frequency can pass ♦ High pass • Only signals above a certain frequency can pass ♦ Band pass • Only signals between two frequencies can pass ♦ Band reject ("Notch") • Only signals outside two frequencies can pass
  • 64. Low Pass FilterIdeal Frequency Response Stop band Pass band
  • 65. Low Pass FilterReal Frequency Response Stop band Pass band
  • 66. Low Pass FilterReal Frequency Response Ideal Out of band signals pass band
  • 67. High Pass FilterFrequency Response
  • 68. Band Pass FilterFrequency Response
  • 69. Band Reject FilterFrequency Response
  • 70. Special FiltersDuplexer ("Diplexer") ♦ Two band pass filters in one package
  • 71. Special FiltersDuplexer Frequency Response
  • 72. Special FiltersSAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) ♦ Converts RF signals into sound signals ♦ Used for low frequency applications • Typically less than 3 GHz ♦ Very small and low cost • Ideal for use in cell phones Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  • 73. Special FiltersSuperconducting Filters ♦ Have zero insertion loss in the pass band ♦ Have a near-vertical frequency response ♦ Require cooling units • Used primarily in cellular base station receivers Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  • 74. FiltersInteresting Things To Know ♦ All devices have a 1 dB compression point -even passive ones like filters • A function of input power ♦ IL of a passive device is its noise figure Basics Building Blocks - Filters
  • 75. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 76. MixersBasics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 77. MixersFunction ♦ To change the frequency of the RF signal Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 78. MixersHow ♦ Mixers have two inputs and one output called ports Input 1 Output Input 2 Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 79. MixersHow ♦ One RF signal goes into Input 1 ♦ One RF signal goes into Input 2 ♦ TWO RF signals come out of the Output Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 80. MixersHow ♦ Output signal 1 • Frequency = sum of frequencies of input signals ♦ Output signal 2 • Frequency = difference of frequencies of input signals Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 81. MixersExample One input signal to a mixer has a frequency of 400 MHz while the other has a frequency of 500 MHz. What is the frequency of the two output signals? Frequency (signal 1) = 400 MHz + 500 MHz = 900 MHz Frequency (signal 2) = 500 MHz - 400 MHz = 100 MHz Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 82. MixersExample 100 MHz 500 MHz 900 MHz 400 MHz
  • 83. MixersWhat ♦ Mixers can be used to raise OR lower the frequency of an RF signal • Raise: upconverter and its in a transmitter • Lower: downconverter and its in a receiver ♦ Only one output signal is used ♦ The other is eliminated with a filter Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 84. MixersCharacteristics ♦ Noise figure ♦ Insertion loss called conversion loss (CL) ♦ One dB compression point ♦ Ports have designations Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 85. MixersPort Designations RF IF LO Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 86. MixersPort Designations ♦ LO is always one of the inputs • LO: Local Oscillator ♦ RF/IF can be input or output • IF: Intermediate Frequency • Upconverter (transmitter): RF is output • Downconverter (receiver): RF is input Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 87. MixersHow Theyre Actually Used ♦ Upconverters/Downconverters • Change the frequency ♦ Phase modulators/demodulators • Impart or detect a phase shift Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 88. Mixers Downconverter ♦ SuperheterodyneFrom Antenna To Demod RF Signal Baseband Signal 900 MHz IF Signal 64 KHz 70 MHz Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  • 89. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 90. SourcesBasics Building Blocks - Sources
  • 91. SourcesFunction ♦ To generate a perfect sine wave at a specified frequency • It is the "source" of the RF • It is also called an oscillator • It feeds the LO port of a mixer
  • 92. SourcesHow ♦ Many materials produce a sine wave when excited with electrical energyWhat ♦ The objective is to produce the most perfect sine wave possible Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  • 93. SourcesExamples Acronym Oscillator DRO Dielectric resonator XO Crystal YIG Yttrium Iron Garnet Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  • 94. Special SourcesVoltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) ♦ The frequency of the sine wave can be made to vary by means of an external control Sine wave outControl voltage in Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  • 95. Special SourcesSynthesizer ♦ "Sophisticated" oscillatorFrequency selector
  • 96. RecapAntenna Airborne waves to currentAmplifer Makes signals bigger Filter Elliminates unwanted frequencies Mixer Changes a signal’s frequencySource Produces a perfect sine wave
  • 97. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  • 98. Transmitter Block Diagram
  • 99. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 Kbps
  • 100. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 KHz
  • 101. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 KHz
  • 102. Transmitter Block Diagram 70 MHz900 MHz
  • 103. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  • 104. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  • 105. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  • 106. Receiver Block Diagram
  • 107. Receiver Block DiagramSignals
  • 108. Receiver Block Diagram Signals
  • 109. Receiver Block Diagram Signals
  • 110. Receiver Block Diagram 900 MHz
  • 111. Receiver Block Diagram 70 MHz 64 KHz
  • 112. Receiver Block Diagram 64 KHz
  • 113. Receiver Block Diagram 64 KHz
  • 114. Receiver Block Diagram 64 Kbps
  • 115. Basic Building Blocks The end
  • 116. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  • 117. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 118. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 119. SwitchesFunction ♦ Switch an RF signals path Other Components - Switches
  • 120. SwitchesFunction ♦ Change an RF signals path Other Components - Switches
  • 121. SwitchesWhere Cell phone Other Components - Switches
  • 122. SwitchesWhere Cell phone Other Components - Switches
  • 123. Switch Types Switch Type Characterstics Solid state Fast Small InexpensiveElectromechanical Big Slow Low insertion loss Other Components - Switches
  • 124. Insertion Loss vs IsolationInsertion Loss ♦ Loss in the closed path Insertion loss ≈ 1 dB Other Components - Switches
  • 125. Insertion Loss vs IsolationIsolation ♦ Loss in the open path Isolation ≈ 30 dB Other Components - Switches
  • 126. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 127. AttenuatorsFunction ♦ To make an RF signal smaller Heat Other Components - Attenuators
  • 128. AttenuatorsBlock Diagrams Other Components - Attenuators
  • 129. Attenuator TypesAttenuator Type Characterstics Fixed Insertion loss has a single valueVoltage Variable Insertion loss can take any value over a range Digital Insertion loss can only take certain values over a range Other Components - Attenuators
  • 130. Digital Attenuator Other Components - Attenuators
  • 131. RecallSaturated Power ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  • 132. AttenuatorsWhere ♦ To prevent saturation Other Components - Attenuators
  • 133. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 134. DividersFunction ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals Other Components - Dividers
  • 135. Dividers Function ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals ? dBm 1 dB30 dBm ? dBm Other Components - Dividers
  • 136. Dividers Function ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals 26 dBm 1 dB30 dBm 26 dBm Other Components - Dividers
  • 137. CombinersFunction ♦ Combine 2 or more RF signals into one Other Components - Combiners
  • 138. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 139. Couplers Coupler Types Also Called Directional coupler CouplerBi-directional coupler Dual directional coupler Quad coupler Quadrature coupler Quadrature (Quad) hybrid Hybrid Lange coupler
  • 140. Directional CouplersFunction ♦ To "sample" an RF signal Other Components - Couplers
  • 141. Bi-Directional CouplersFunction ♦ To sample reflected power also
  • 142. Quad CouplersFunction ♦ Splits a signal into 2 with a phase shift 90° Other Components - Couplers
  • 143. Quad CouplersWhere ♦ Balanced amplifier Other Components - Couplers
  • 144. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 145. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  • 146. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  • 147. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  • 148. CirculatorsWhere Cell phone Other Components - Circulators
  • 149. IsolatorsFunction ♦ To protect something from reflected power Load Other Components - Isolators
  • 150. IsolatorsWhere Base station Load Other Components - Isolators
  • 151. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 152. TransformersFunction ♦ Impedance matching, coupling, and others RF in RF out Other Components - Transformers
  • 153. Impedance matching circuit75 ohms 50 ohms Other Components - Transformers
  • 154. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 155. DetectorsFunction ♦ To convert RF power to voltage RF in Voltage out Other Components - Detectors
  • 156. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  • 157. Phase ShiftersFunction ♦ To phase shift the output relative to the input Phase shifted Input signal Φ output signal Other Components - Phase Shifters
  • 158. BPSK Other Components - Phase Shifters
  • 159. Phase ShiftersWhere ♦ In modulators Φ 180° Other Components - Phase Shifters
  • 160. Phase DetectorsFunction ♦ To convert a phase difference to a voltageWhere ♦ In demodulators RF Input 1 Phase Voltage Output RF Input 2 Detector Other Components - Phase Detectors
  • 161. Recap Switch Change an RF signals’ pathAntennuator Makes signals smaller Divider/ Splits a signal evenly Combiner Coupler Samples a signalQuad Coupler Splits a signal with phase shift
  • 162. Recap Circulator/ Reroutes a signal IsolatorTransformer Impedance matching, coupling, etc Detector Converts an RF signal to a voltagePhase Shifter Imparts a phase shift on a signal Φ Phase Converts a phase diff to a voltage Phase Detector Detector
  • 163. Other Components The end
  • 164. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  • 165. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  • 166. Semiconductor Materials Material Comments Silicon Low cost (Si) Low frequency Gallium Aresenide Higher cost (GaAs) Higher frequency Silicon Germanium Low cost (SiGe) High effeciency Indium Phosphide Highest cost (InP) Highest frequency Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 167. Semiconductor Building Blocks Component Usage Diode Switches, Attenuators Mixers, Detectors Transistor Amplifers, Switches Oscillators, Mixers Integrated Circuit Combine multiple components
  • 168. DiodesMain Structures ♦ PIN • Power ♦ Schottky • Speed Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 169. DiodesCircuits - Seminconductors
  • 170. TransistorsMain Structures ♦ Bipolar Junction (BJT) • Low frequency • High power ♦ Field Effect (FET) • High frequency • Low noise Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 171. Bipolar Junction TransistorsMaterials ♦ Silicon • "Bipolar" ♦ Gallium Arsenide • Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 172. Field Effect TransistorsMaterials ♦ Silicon • MOSFET • LDMOS ♦ Gallium Arsenide • MESFET • HEMT • PHEMT Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 173. TransistorsCircuits - Seminconductors
  • 174. Integrated CircuitsMMIC ♦ Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit • Si, SiGe or GaAs • Transistors + other components – Amplifiers – Switches – Digital attenuators – Mixers Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 175. Integrated Circuits Circuits - Seminconductors
  • 176. RecapMaterials ♦ Silicon - Low frequency ♦ Gallium Arsenide - Higher frequency ♦ Silicon Germanium - High efficiency ♦ Indium Phosphide - Highest frequencyBuilding Blocks ♦ Diodes - PIN, Schottky ♦ Transistors - BJT, FET ♦ Integrated circuits - Combination
  • 177. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  • 178. Circuit DesignsTwo Types ♦ Lumped element ♦ DistributedDictated By ♦ Frequency Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 179. Circuit DesignsLumped Element ♦ Uses discrete ("real") passive components • Inductors • Capacitors • Couplers • Transformers Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 180. Circuit DesignsDistributed ♦ Uses metal traces as passive components • Inductors • Capacitors • Couplers • Transformers Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 181. Circuit ConstructionFour Ways ♦ Discrete ♦ Hybrid ♦ MMIC ♦ CavityDictated By ♦ Cost ♦ Size ♦ Performance Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 182. Circuit ConstructionDiscrete ♦ Packaged semiconductors ♦ Lumped passives ♦ Printed circuit board Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 183. Circuit ConstructionHybrid ♦ Packaged or bare chip semiconductors ♦ Lumped or distributed passives ♦ Ceramic substrate Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 184. Circuit ConstructionMMIC ♦ Semiconductors devices ♦ Distributed passives ♦ On a single piece of semiconductor Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 185. Circuit ConstructionCavity ♦ A hollow container ♦ Signals move as waves inside ♦ Used for high power Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 186. RecapCircuit Design ♦ Lumped - Low frequency ♦ Distributed - High frequencyCircuit Construction ♦ Discrete - High power, quick design time ♦ Hybrid - High frequency, best performance ♦ MMIC - Small size, high volume ♦ Cavity - Very high power Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 187. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  • 188. InterconnectionTransmission lines
  • 189. InterconnectionTransmission Lines ♦ Should be 50 ohms (i.e. good match) ♦ Have insertion loss ♦ Effect system performance ♦ Can be made several different ways Circuits - Interconnection
  • 190. Transmission LinesCan Be Made Using 1) Cables - box to box 2) Waveguides - high power box to box 3) Metal traces - low power, inside a box Circuits - Interconnection
  • 191. Cables Coaxial Cables InsulatorInner conductor Outer shield Circuits - Interconnection
  • 192. Cable AssembliesConsist Of ♦ Coaxial cable ♦ Connectors Circuits - Interconnection
  • 193. CablesConnectors ♦ Many families • Price • Performance • Evolution ♦ Many types • Usage dependent Circuits - Interconnection
  • 194. CablesHow To Interconnect Different Families ♦ Adapters Circuits - Interconnection
  • 195. WaveguidesWhat ♦ Rectangular metal tubingHow ♦ Signals travel as wavesWhy ♦ Zero insertion loss Circuits - Interconnection
  • 196. TracesWhere ♦ On printed circuit boards Circuits - Interconnection
  • 197. TracesWhere ♦ In hybrids Circuits - Interconnection
  • 198. TracesWhere ♦ As part of MMICs Circuits - Interconnection
  • 199. TracesConstruction ♦ Stripline ♦ Microstrip ♦ Coplanar waveguide Metal Substrate Circuits - Interconnection
  • 200. RecapTransmission Lines ♦ Coaxial cables ♦ Waveguide ♦ Traces Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  • 201. Circuits The end
  • 202. Module 2 -RF Hardware The end Dinner

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